SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 33
Unit 3 – Short Story
Prepared by
Vaidehi Hariyani
(Research Scholar & Visiting Faculty)
Department of English, MKBU
Bhavnagar (Gujarat)
Back to the roots…
• Oral story-telling traditions
• Oral narratives - the form of rhyming or rhythmic
verse, often including recurring sections.
• The oldest form of the short story is the anecdote
which was popular in the Roman Empire.
• At the time, the anecdotes functioned as a kind of
parables in the Roman Empire.
• Anecdote is a brief realistic narrative that embodies
a point.
• The another form close to the short
story is the fable.
• Fables, concise tales with an explicit
moral were, said by the Greek
historian, Herodotus to have been
invented in the 6th century BCE by a
Greek slave named Aesop, though
other times and nationalities have also
been given for him.
• These ancient fables are today known
as Aesop’s fables.
• Connected to our childhood
What is a short story?
• A classic definition of a short story is that
one should be able to read it in one sitting.
• Longer stories that cannot be called novels
are sometimes considered “novellas”.
• a brief work of prose fiction
• Length: less than a novella
• Subject: Short stories usually focus on a single subject or
theme.
• Subjects or themes may range from something as mundane as
a daily errand or as thrilling as a ghost tale. A single, easily
contained plot is one of the hallmarks of the short story and
helps shape its other characteristics.
• Short stories usually take place in a single setting and begin
into the middle of things.
• In general, short stories tend to begin and end abruptly, with
little to no prior information and no major lapses in time. As
they involve just one plot line and are limited in word length,
there is little room or need for the extended developments we
frequently find in novels.
• Limited number of characters: Due to the limitations of the
genre, short stories typically focus on just one or a couple
characters.
Development of this genre
• In Europe, the oral story-telling tradition began to develop into written stories in
the early 14th century with Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales and Giovanni
Bocaccio’s Decameron.
• Both of these books are composed of individual short stories set within a larger
narrative story.
• At the end of the 16th century, some of the most popular short stories in Europe
were the darkly tragic ‘novella’ of Matteo Bandello(especially in their French
translation).
• The mid-17th century in France saw the development of a refined short novel,
the “nouvelle” by authors like Madam de Lafayette.
• In the 1690s, traditional fairy tales began to be published. One of the most
famous collections was by Charles Perrault.
• The appearance of Antoine Galland’s first modern translation of the Thousand
and One Nights or Arabian Nights would have an enormous influence on the 18th
century European short stories of Voltaire, Diderot and others.
1790 - 1850
• The first short stories in the United Kingdom were gothic tales like
Richard Cumberland’s “remarkable narrative” “The Poisoner of
Montremos” (1791). The Great novelists like Sir Walter Scott and
Charles Dickens also wrote some short stories.
• In France Prosper Mérimée wrote Mateo Falcone in 1829.
• In Russia Alexander Pushkin wrote romantic and mysterious tales,
including “The Blizzard” (1831) and “The Queen of Spades” (1834).
Nikolai Gogol’s “Nevsky Prospekt” (1835), “The Nose” (1836), and
“The Overcoat” (1842) are dark humorous tales about human misery.
• In Germany, the first collection of short stories was by Heinrich von
Kleist in 1810 and’ 11.
• The Brothers Grimm published their first volume of collected fairy
tales is 1812. E. T. A. Hoffmann followed with his own original fantasy
tales, of which “The Nutcracker and the Mouse King” (1816) is the
most famous.
• One of the earliest short stories in the United States of America was
Charles Brockden Brown’s “Somnambulism”. Washington Irving
wrote mysterious tales including “Rip van Winkle” (1819) and “The
Legend of Sleepy Hollow” (1820). Nathaniel Hawthorne published
the first part of his Twice-Told Tales in 1837.
• Edgar Allan Poe wrote his tales of mystery
and imagination between 1832 and 1849.
Classic stories are “The Fall of the House of
Usher”, “The Tell-Tale Heart”, “The Cask of
Amontillado”, “The Pit and the Pendulum”,
and the first detective story, “The Murders
in the Rue Morgue”. In “The Philosophy of
Composition” (1846), Poe argued that a
literary work should be short enough for a
reader to finish in one sitting. He is often
considered as the father of short story.
1850 – 1900
• In the later 19th century, the growth of print magazines and journals
created a strong demand for the short fiction between 3,000 to 15,000
words.
• Towards the end of the 19th century, all branches of literature and the arts
became self-conscious.
• People began to acknowledge that the short story might be shaped
according to its own principles.
• With the rapid industrialization people got less time to read the long pieces
of literature. They expected to read something interesting in a short period
in a single sitting.
• This demand was fulfilled by the short story and soon it became a popular
genre of literature.
• In the United Kingdom, Thomas Hardy wrote dozens of short stories,
including “The Three Strangers” (1883), “A Mere Interlude” (1885)
and “Barbara of the House of Grebe” (1890).
• Rudyard Kipling published the short story collections like Plain Tales
from the Hills (1888) for grown-ups as well as The Jungle Book (1894)
for children.
• In 1892 Arthur Conan Doyle brought the detective story to a new
height with The Adventures of Sherlock Homes.
• H. G. Wells wrote his first science fiction stories in the 1880s. One of
his best known is “The Country of the Blind” (1904).
• In the American Literature, Herman Melville published his story collection
The Piazza Tales in 1856.
• “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras Country” was the title story of
Mark Twain’s first book one year later.
• In 1884, Brander Matthews, the first American professor of dramatic
literature, published The Philosophy of the Short Story.
• At the same year, Matthews was the first one to name the emerging genre
“short story”.
• Another theorist of narrative fiction was Henry James. James wrote alot of
short stories himself, including “The Real Thing” (1892), “Maud-Evelyn”
The Beast in the Jungle (1903).
• In the 1890s Kate Chopin published short stories in several magazines.
• In Russia, Ivan Turgenev gained recognition with his story collection A
Sportsman’s Sketches.
• Nikolai Leskov created his first short stories in the 1860s.
• Late in his life Fyodor Dostoyevski wrote “The Meek One” (1876) and “The
Dream
of a Ridiculous Man” (1877), two stories with great psychological and
philosophical depth.
• Leo Tolstoy handled ethical questions in his short stories, for example, in
“Ivan the Fool” (1885), “How Much Land Does a Man Need?” (1886) and
“Alyosha the Pot” (1905).
• The greatest specialist of the Russian short story however was Anton
Chekhov. Classic examples of his realistic prose are “The Bet” (1889),
“Ward No. 6” (1892), and “The Lady with the Dog” (1899).
• Maxim Gorky’s a best known short story is “Twenty-six Men and a Girl”
(1899).
1900-1945
• In the United Kingdom, periodicals like The Strand Magazine, The Sketch, Harper’s
Magazine and Story-Teller contributed to the popularity of the short story.
• Hector Huge Munro (1870-1916), also known by his pen name of Saki, wrote satirical
short stories about Edwardian England.
• W. Somerset Maugham, who wrote over a hundred short stories, was one of the most
popular authors of his time.
• P. G. Wodehouse published his first collection of comical stories about butler Jeeves in
1917. Lots of detective stories were written by G. K. Chesterton, Agatha Christie and
Dorothy L. Sayers.
• Short stories by Virginia Woolf “Kew Gardens” (1919) and “Solid Objects,” are about a
politician with mental problems.
• Graham Greene wrote his Twenty-One Stories between 1929 and 1954. A specialist of
the short story was V. S. Pritchett, whose first collection appeared in 1932.
• Arthur C. Clarke published his first science fiction story, “Travel by Wire!” in 1937.
• In the first half of the 20th century, a number of high-profile American magazines
such as The Atlantic Monthly, The New Yorker Scribner’s, The Saturday Evening
Post, Esquire, and The Bookman published short stories in each issue.
• The demand for quality short stories was so great and the money paid for it was
so well that F. Scott Fitzgerald repeatedly turned to short-story writing to pay his
numerous debts.
• His first collection Flappers and Philosophers appeared in a book form in 1920.
• William Faulkner wrote over one hundred short stories. Go Down, Moses, a
collection of seven stories, appeared in 1941.
• Ernest Hemingway’s concise writing style was perfectly fit for shorter fiction.
Stories like “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” (1926), “Hills Like White Elephants”
(1927) and Dorothy Parker’s bittersweet story “Big Blonde” saw the light in 1929.
• A popular science fiction story is “Nightfall” by Isaac Asimov.
• Katherine Mansfield from New Zealand wrote many of her short
stories between 1912 and her death in 1923. “The Doll’s House”
(1922) treats the topic of social inequity.
• Two important authors of short stories in the German language were
by Thomas Mann and Franz Kafka. In 1922 the latter wrote “A Hunger
Artist”, about a man who fasts for several days.
• Ryūnosuke Akutagawa (1892-1927) is called the Father of the
Japanese short story.
After 1945: The Post-war Era
• The period following World War II saw a great flowering of literary short fiction in
the United States.
• The New Yorker continued to publish the works of the form’s leading mid-century
practitioners, including Shirley Jackson, whose story, “The Lottery” published in
1948, elicited the strongest response in the magazine’s history to that time.
• Other frequent contributors during the last 1940s included John Cheever, John
Steinbeck, Jean Stafford and Eudora Welty. J. D. Salinger’s “Nine Stories” (1953)
experimented with point of view and voice, while Flannery O’Connor’s “A Good
Man is Hard to Find” (1955) reinvigorated the Southern Gothic style.
• When Life magazine published Ernest Hemingway’s long short story (or novella)
The Old Man and the Sea in 1952, the issue containing this story sold 5,300,000
copies in only two days.
• Philip Roth and Grace Paley cultivated distinctive Jewish American voices.
• Tillie Olsen’s “I Stand Here Ironing” adopted a consciously feminist
perspective.
• James Baldwin’s Going to Meet the Man told stories of African-American
life. Frank O’Connor’s “The Lonely Voice,” a classic exploration of the short
story, appeared in 1963.
• The 1970s saw the rise of the post-modern short story, in the work of
Donald Barthelme and John Barth.
• The same decade witnessed the establishment of the Pushcart Press,
which, under the leadership of Bill Henderson, began publishing the best
of the independent and small presses. Stephen King, one of the best selling
novelists of all time, initiated his career.
• Minimalism gained widespread influence in the 1980s, most notably
in the work of Raymond Carver, Ann Beattie and Bobbi Ann Mason.
• However, traditionalists including John Updike and Joyce Carol Oates
maintained significant influence on the form, as did Canadian author
Alice Munro. John Gardner’s seminal reference text,“The Art of
Fiction”, appeared in 1983.
• Many of the American short stories of the 1990s feature magical
realism. Among the leading practitioners in this style were Steven
Millhauser and Robert Olen Butler.
• Stuart Dybek gained prominence for his depictions of life in Chicago’s
Polish neighborhoods and Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried”
tackled the legacy of the Vietnam War.
• Louise Erdrich wrote poignantly of Native American life. T. C. Boyle
and David Foster Wallace explored the psychology of popular culture.
Indian English Short story
• Indian-English literature has created its own place in the 20thcentury literature.
• Contribution of short story writers is very important to the Indian-English
literature.
• Indian-English short story has only a hundred years history. In India there is a rich
and prosperous tradition of stories.
• Panchatantra, Hitopdesh, Katha Sarit Sagar, Baital Pachisi are some of the famous
ancient story books till now.
• In the great epics viz The Ramayana and The Mahabharata there are various
stories.
• Rabindranath Tagore first short story was 'Bhikharini' or The Beggar Woman,
when he was 16 years old. He invented the Bengali language short story genre.
From 1891 to 1895, known as Tagore's 'Sadhana' period, he wrote the three
volume, Galpaguchchha which contains eighty four stories.
• The credit of the first Indian English short story collection goes to Kamala
Sathianandhan’s Stories from Indian Christian life published in 1898.
• At the beginning of the twentieth century there published four short story
collections of Cornelia Sorabji viz Love and Life Behind the Purdan (1901);
Sunbabies : studies in the child life ofIndia (1904);Between the Twilights :
Being studied of Indian women by one of themselves (1908); and Indian
tails ofthe Great ones among men, womennand Bird people (1916).
• S.S.Bose, S.M.Natisa Sastri, S.B.Banerji, Prabhat Chandra Mukharji,
Shovona Devi, Dwijiendra Nath Neogi, A Madhaviah and Sunity Devee are
some of the other short story writers of this age.
• In the late 1920s and early 1930s short story writers concerned more
with moral and social issues.
• Shankar Ram’s Children of Kaveri and Creature All
• R.K.Narayan, Raja Rao, Mulk Raj Anand are prominent short story
writers of the mid-thirties.
• Mulk Raj Anand deals with the critical and unpleasant situation of
the
lower classes, hypocrisy of the society. Examples- The Liar, The lost
Child, Boots, Lajwanti, The Tractor and The Corn Goddess.
• R.K.Narayan’s short stories seem humorous and satiric. Examples -
Swami and Friends, An Astrologers Day, A Horse and Two Goats, The
Snake Song, Lawley Road.
• Raja Rao is a famous for social and moral realism, political
resurgence,metaphysical overtones and fantastic realism. Examples -
Akkaya, Javni, A Client, Narsiga, The Cow of Barricades.
• T.L.Natesan, A.S.P.Ayyar, K.S.Venkatramani are some prominent
contributors of short story during this age.
• The short story writers of independent India write on issues like
partition, struggle for freedom, political events, questions of women,
change in social values and their effect on the society.
• Khushwant Singh is the best example of this. He is a writer of new
India. The Mark of Vishnu, The Voice of God, Karma, A Bride for the
Sahib are his some famous short stories.
• Changed attitude towards love, breakdown of moral and social values,
man-woman relationship, free discussion of sex, marriage system,
women’s search for self identity were the relevant themes popular in
1950s and 1960s.
• Manohar Malgoankar, Arun Joshi, Ruskin Bond, Bhabani
Bhattacharya, Chaman Nahal, Manoj Das are some notable names
during this era.
• Some notable women short story writers are Ismat Chughtai,
Mahasweta Devi, Kamala Das, Shashi Deshpande, Anita Desai,
Urmila Pawar and Jhumpa Lehri.
• Vijay Tendulkar, Irawati Karve, Purushottam Laxman Deshpande,
Shivaji Sawant are some of the iconic names of Marathi short story
writers.
The Cambridge Introduction to the
Short Story in English – British and Others
• The nineteenth century -
• Charles Dickens
• Thomas Hardy
• Rudyard Kipling
• Joseph Conrad
• The Yellow Book circle and the
1890s avant-garde
• The modernist short story -
• James Joyce
• Virginia Woolf
• Katherine Mansfield
• Samuel Beckett
• Post-modernist stories –
• Frank O’Connor and Sean
O’Faolain
• Elizabeth Bowen and V. S.
Pritchett
• Angela Carter and Ian McEwan
• Postcolonial and other stories –
• Frank Sargeson
• Marjorie Barnard
• James Kelman
• Chinua Achebe
• Alice Munro
The Cambridge Introduction to the American
Short Story
• Washington Irving
• William Austin
• Nathaniel Hawthorne
• Edgar Allan Poe
• Herman Melville
• Bret Harte
• Mark Twain
• Realism, the grotesque and
impressionism: Hamlin Garland,
Ambrose Bierce and Stephen Crane
• Henry James
• Rebecca Harding Davis
• Sarah Orne Jewett
• Mary Wilkins Freeman
• Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Kate
Chopin
• Edith Wharton
• Willa Cather
• O. Henry
• Jack London
• Sherwood Anderson
• Ernest Hemingway
• F. Scott Fitzgerald
• William Faulkner
• Raymond Carver
• Katherine Anne Porter,
• Eudora Welty
• Flannery O’Connor
• Charles Chesnutt
• Richard Wright
• James Baldwin
Important books
Contact me:-
• Email – vaidehi09hariyani@gmail.com
• Instagram - @learnwithvaidehi
• Facebook – Vaidehi Hariyani
Works Cited:-
• Bande Usha, Amta Ram, “Contemporary Indian Short Story”, Women
in Indian Short Stories: Feminist Perspective, Rawat Publication, 2003.
• Hunter, Adrian, The Cambridge Introduction to the American Short
Story. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
• Reid, Ian. The Short Story, Routledge Publication, 1977.
• Scofield, Martin, The Cambridge Introduction to the American Short
Story. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006
"Short Story" for the preparation of UGC NET/SET/JRF

More Related Content

What's hot

Dr.samuel johnson
Dr.samuel johnsonDr.samuel johnson
Dr.samuel johnson
Vaiva120
 
The last ride together by R.Browning Dr. Nusrat J. Arshad
The last ride together by R.Browning  Dr. Nusrat J. ArshadThe last ride together by R.Browning  Dr. Nusrat J. Arshad
The last ride together by R.Browning Dr. Nusrat J. Arshad
jazan university
 
Christopher Marlowe's Contribution to English Drama
Christopher Marlowe's Contribution to English DramaChristopher Marlowe's Contribution to English Drama
Christopher Marlowe's Contribution to English Drama
Dilip Barad
 

What's hot (20)

Thomas hardy
Thomas hardyThomas hardy
Thomas hardy
 
Biography of Wordsworth
Biography of WordsworthBiography of Wordsworth
Biography of Wordsworth
 
Tradition and the individual talent-Jameel Al-Ghaberi
Tradition and the individual talent-Jameel Al-GhaberiTradition and the individual talent-Jameel Al-Ghaberi
Tradition and the individual talent-Jameel Al-Ghaberi
 
Samuel johnson
Samuel johnsonSamuel johnson
Samuel johnson
 
Long Day's Journey Into Night as Tragedy
Long Day's Journey Into Night as Tragedy Long Day's Journey Into Night as Tragedy
Long Day's Journey Into Night as Tragedy
 
Incompleteness in Hayavadana
Incompleteness in HayavadanaIncompleteness in Hayavadana
Incompleteness in Hayavadana
 
Literary Criticism - Essay on Dramatic Poesy
Literary Criticism - Essay on Dramatic PoesyLiterary Criticism - Essay on Dramatic Poesy
Literary Criticism - Essay on Dramatic Poesy
 
Dr.samuel johnson
Dr.samuel johnsonDr.samuel johnson
Dr.samuel johnson
 
Fancy and Imagination in Biographia Literaria
Fancy and Imagination in Biographia LiterariaFancy and Imagination in Biographia Literaria
Fancy and Imagination in Biographia Literaria
 
The last ride together by R.Browning Dr. Nusrat J. Arshad
The last ride together by R.Browning  Dr. Nusrat J. ArshadThe last ride together by R.Browning  Dr. Nusrat J. Arshad
The last ride together by R.Browning Dr. Nusrat J. Arshad
 
The sun rising by John Donne (figures & metaphysical conceits)
The sun rising by John Donne (figures & metaphysical conceits)The sun rising by John Donne (figures & metaphysical conceits)
The sun rising by John Donne (figures & metaphysical conceits)
 
Horace's Ars Poetica Presentation by Kaushal Desai
Horace's Ars Poetica Presentation by Kaushal DesaiHorace's Ars Poetica Presentation by Kaushal Desai
Horace's Ars Poetica Presentation by Kaushal Desai
 
Christopher Marlowe's Contribution to English Drama
Christopher Marlowe's Contribution to English DramaChristopher Marlowe's Contribution to English Drama
Christopher Marlowe's Contribution to English Drama
 
s.t coleridge in romantic criticism
s.t coleridge in romantic criticisms.t coleridge in romantic criticism
s.t coleridge in romantic criticism
 
Literary criticism
Literary criticismLiterary criticism
Literary criticism
 
Plato AND HIS ART & LITERATURE
Plato AND HIS ART & LITERATUREPlato AND HIS ART & LITERATURE
Plato AND HIS ART & LITERATURE
 
The New Criticism
The New CriticismThe New Criticism
The New Criticism
 
Modern peotry
Modern peotryModern peotry
Modern peotry
 
Doctor Faustus
Doctor Faustus Doctor Faustus
Doctor Faustus
 
Seven deadly sin in "Dr Faustus"
Seven deadly sin in "Dr Faustus"Seven deadly sin in "Dr Faustus"
Seven deadly sin in "Dr Faustus"
 

Similar to "Short Story" for the preparation of UGC NET/SET/JRF

History of novels
History of novelsHistory of novels
History of novels
nn555818
 
HISTORY OF NOVEL
HISTORY OF NOVELHISTORY OF NOVEL
HISTORY OF NOVEL
ahsirt
 

Similar to "Short Story" for the preparation of UGC NET/SET/JRF (20)

History of Novel .pptx
History of Novel .pptxHistory of Novel .pptx
History of Novel .pptx
 
Unit 3 of Paper II: Fiction, short story
Unit 3 of Paper II: Fiction, short story Unit 3 of Paper II: Fiction, short story
Unit 3 of Paper II: Fiction, short story
 
Literati - The Literature Quiz @ IIM Kozhikode
Literati - The Literature Quiz @ IIM KozhikodeLiterati - The Literature Quiz @ IIM Kozhikode
Literati - The Literature Quiz @ IIM Kozhikode
 
History of novels
History of novelsHistory of novels
History of novels
 
literature
literatureliterature
literature
 
illuminate 2015 Literature quiz final's
 illuminate 2015 Literature quiz final's illuminate 2015 Literature quiz final's
illuminate 2015 Literature quiz final's
 
Novels society and history
Novels society and historyNovels society and history
Novels society and history
 
Brithish literatu
Brithish literatuBrithish literatu
Brithish literatu
 
Novel
NovelNovel
Novel
 
Regency Literature by Helen Karvouni.pdf
Regency Literature by Helen Karvouni.pdfRegency Literature by Helen Karvouni.pdf
Regency Literature by Helen Karvouni.pdf
 
Lit finals
Lit finalsLit finals
Lit finals
 
HISTORY OF NOVEL
HISTORY OF NOVELHISTORY OF NOVEL
HISTORY OF NOVEL
 
British literature timeline doplněné
British literature timeline doplněnéBritish literature timeline doplněné
British literature timeline doplněné
 
Chronosynclastic Infundibulum VIII
Chronosynclastic Infundibulum VIIIChronosynclastic Infundibulum VIII
Chronosynclastic Infundibulum VIII
 
History of Novels and the Young Women
History of Novels and the Young WomenHistory of Novels and the Young Women
History of Novels and the Young Women
 
ENGLISH AND AMERICAN LITERATURE
ENGLISH AND AMERICAN LITERATUREENGLISH AND AMERICAN LITERATURE
ENGLISH AND AMERICAN LITERATURE
 
Victorian Literature
Victorian LiteratureVictorian Literature
Victorian Literature
 
All bcs question english literature the literature tube [www.onlinebcs.com]
All  bcs question english literature the literature tube  [www.onlinebcs.com]All  bcs question english literature the literature tube  [www.onlinebcs.com]
All bcs question english literature the literature tube [www.onlinebcs.com]
 
English literature
English literatureEnglish literature
English literature
 
Washington Irving Overview
Washington Irving OverviewWashington Irving Overview
Washington Irving Overview
 

More from Department of English MKBU

More from Department of English MKBU (20)

Teaching Aptitude.pptx
Teaching Aptitude.pptxTeaching Aptitude.pptx
Teaching Aptitude.pptx
 
The Final Solutions.pptx
The Final Solutions.pptxThe Final Solutions.pptx
The Final Solutions.pptx
 
The RAPE OF THE lOCK.pptx
The RAPE OF THE lOCK.pptxThe RAPE OF THE lOCK.pptx
The RAPE OF THE lOCK.pptx
 
War Poetry
War PoetryWar Poetry
War Poetry
 
Orlando: A Biography - Virginia Woolf
Orlando: A Biography - Virginia WoolfOrlando: A Biography - Virginia Woolf
Orlando: A Biography - Virginia Woolf
 
Bob Dylan and Robert Frost
Bob Dylan and Robert FrostBob Dylan and Robert Frost
Bob Dylan and Robert Frost
 
MLA Style Citation in detail
MLA Style Citation in detailMLA Style Citation in detail
MLA Style Citation in detail
 
Unit 4 Documentation
Unit 4 DocumentationUnit 4 Documentation
Unit 4 Documentation
 
Unit 3 The Mechanics of Writing
Unit 3 The Mechanics of WritingUnit 3 The Mechanics of Writing
Unit 3 The Mechanics of Writing
 
Cultural Studies - 1
Cultural Studies - 1Cultural Studies - 1
Cultural Studies - 1
 
Unit 3 - The Mechanics of Writing
Unit 3  - The Mechanics of WritingUnit 3  - The Mechanics of Writing
Unit 3 - The Mechanics of Writing
 
Academic Workshop Semester 1 December 2021
Academic Workshop Semester 1  December 2021Academic Workshop Semester 1  December 2021
Academic Workshop Semester 1 December 2021
 
Unit 2 Plagiarism and Academic Integrity
Unit 2 Plagiarism and Academic IntegrityUnit 2 Plagiarism and Academic Integrity
Unit 2 Plagiarism and Academic Integrity
 
Unit 1 Research and Writing
Unit 1 Research and WritingUnit 1 Research and Writing
Unit 1 Research and Writing
 
Pamela or The Virtue Rewarded
Pamela or  The Virtue RewardedPamela or  The Virtue Rewarded
Pamela or The Virtue Rewarded
 
A Tale of a Tub
A Tale of a TubA Tale of a Tub
A Tale of a Tub
 
Academic Writing Workshop October 2021
Academic Writing Workshop October 2021Academic Writing Workshop October 2021
Academic Writing Workshop October 2021
 
The Rape of the Lock - Alexander Pope
The Rape of the Lock - Alexander PopeThe Rape of the Lock - Alexander Pope
The Rape of the Lock - Alexander Pope
 
History: The Neoclassical Era
History: The Neoclassical EraHistory: The Neoclassical Era
History: The Neoclassical Era
 
The Wretched of the Earth – Frantz Fanon
The Wretched of the Earth – Frantz FanonThe Wretched of the Earth – Frantz Fanon
The Wretched of the Earth – Frantz Fanon
 

Recently uploaded

Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tubeNeurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
SaadHumayun7
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyesppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ashishpaul799
 

Recently uploaded (20)

....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
 
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz - Finals.pdf
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz - Finals.pdfPost Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz - Finals.pdf
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz - Finals.pdf
 
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tubeNeurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
 
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptxfactors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
 
The Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdf
The Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdfThe Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdf
The Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdf
 
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdf
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdfPost Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdf
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdf
 
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdfDanh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
 
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. SalemOperations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
 
Telling Your Story_ Simple Steps to Build Your Nonprofit's Brand Webinar.pdf
Telling Your Story_ Simple Steps to Build Your Nonprofit's Brand Webinar.pdfTelling Your Story_ Simple Steps to Build Your Nonprofit's Brand Webinar.pdf
Telling Your Story_ Simple Steps to Build Your Nonprofit's Brand Webinar.pdf
 
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
 
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceuticssize separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
 
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
 
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyesppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
 
MichaelStarkes_UncutGemsProjectSummary.pdf
MichaelStarkes_UncutGemsProjectSummary.pdfMichaelStarkes_UncutGemsProjectSummary.pdf
MichaelStarkes_UncutGemsProjectSummary.pdf
 
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & EngineeringBasic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
 
[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation
[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation
[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation
 
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
 

"Short Story" for the preparation of UGC NET/SET/JRF

  • 1. Unit 3 – Short Story Prepared by Vaidehi Hariyani (Research Scholar & Visiting Faculty) Department of English, MKBU Bhavnagar (Gujarat)
  • 2. Back to the roots… • Oral story-telling traditions • Oral narratives - the form of rhyming or rhythmic verse, often including recurring sections. • The oldest form of the short story is the anecdote which was popular in the Roman Empire. • At the time, the anecdotes functioned as a kind of parables in the Roman Empire. • Anecdote is a brief realistic narrative that embodies a point.
  • 3. • The another form close to the short story is the fable. • Fables, concise tales with an explicit moral were, said by the Greek historian, Herodotus to have been invented in the 6th century BCE by a Greek slave named Aesop, though other times and nationalities have also been given for him. • These ancient fables are today known as Aesop’s fables. • Connected to our childhood
  • 4. What is a short story? • A classic definition of a short story is that one should be able to read it in one sitting. • Longer stories that cannot be called novels are sometimes considered “novellas”. • a brief work of prose fiction
  • 5. • Length: less than a novella • Subject: Short stories usually focus on a single subject or theme. • Subjects or themes may range from something as mundane as a daily errand or as thrilling as a ghost tale. A single, easily contained plot is one of the hallmarks of the short story and helps shape its other characteristics. • Short stories usually take place in a single setting and begin into the middle of things. • In general, short stories tend to begin and end abruptly, with little to no prior information and no major lapses in time. As they involve just one plot line and are limited in word length, there is little room or need for the extended developments we frequently find in novels. • Limited number of characters: Due to the limitations of the genre, short stories typically focus on just one or a couple characters.
  • 6. Development of this genre • In Europe, the oral story-telling tradition began to develop into written stories in the early 14th century with Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales and Giovanni Bocaccio’s Decameron. • Both of these books are composed of individual short stories set within a larger narrative story. • At the end of the 16th century, some of the most popular short stories in Europe were the darkly tragic ‘novella’ of Matteo Bandello(especially in their French translation). • The mid-17th century in France saw the development of a refined short novel, the “nouvelle” by authors like Madam de Lafayette. • In the 1690s, traditional fairy tales began to be published. One of the most famous collections was by Charles Perrault. • The appearance of Antoine Galland’s first modern translation of the Thousand and One Nights or Arabian Nights would have an enormous influence on the 18th century European short stories of Voltaire, Diderot and others.
  • 7. 1790 - 1850 • The first short stories in the United Kingdom were gothic tales like Richard Cumberland’s “remarkable narrative” “The Poisoner of Montremos” (1791). The Great novelists like Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens also wrote some short stories. • In France Prosper Mérimée wrote Mateo Falcone in 1829. • In Russia Alexander Pushkin wrote romantic and mysterious tales, including “The Blizzard” (1831) and “The Queen of Spades” (1834). Nikolai Gogol’s “Nevsky Prospekt” (1835), “The Nose” (1836), and “The Overcoat” (1842) are dark humorous tales about human misery.
  • 8. • In Germany, the first collection of short stories was by Heinrich von Kleist in 1810 and’ 11. • The Brothers Grimm published their first volume of collected fairy tales is 1812. E. T. A. Hoffmann followed with his own original fantasy tales, of which “The Nutcracker and the Mouse King” (1816) is the most famous. • One of the earliest short stories in the United States of America was Charles Brockden Brown’s “Somnambulism”. Washington Irving wrote mysterious tales including “Rip van Winkle” (1819) and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” (1820). Nathaniel Hawthorne published the first part of his Twice-Told Tales in 1837.
  • 9. • Edgar Allan Poe wrote his tales of mystery and imagination between 1832 and 1849. Classic stories are “The Fall of the House of Usher”, “The Tell-Tale Heart”, “The Cask of Amontillado”, “The Pit and the Pendulum”, and the first detective story, “The Murders in the Rue Morgue”. In “The Philosophy of Composition” (1846), Poe argued that a literary work should be short enough for a reader to finish in one sitting. He is often considered as the father of short story.
  • 10. 1850 – 1900 • In the later 19th century, the growth of print magazines and journals created a strong demand for the short fiction between 3,000 to 15,000 words. • Towards the end of the 19th century, all branches of literature and the arts became self-conscious. • People began to acknowledge that the short story might be shaped according to its own principles. • With the rapid industrialization people got less time to read the long pieces of literature. They expected to read something interesting in a short period in a single sitting. • This demand was fulfilled by the short story and soon it became a popular genre of literature.
  • 11. • In the United Kingdom, Thomas Hardy wrote dozens of short stories, including “The Three Strangers” (1883), “A Mere Interlude” (1885) and “Barbara of the House of Grebe” (1890). • Rudyard Kipling published the short story collections like Plain Tales from the Hills (1888) for grown-ups as well as The Jungle Book (1894) for children. • In 1892 Arthur Conan Doyle brought the detective story to a new height with The Adventures of Sherlock Homes. • H. G. Wells wrote his first science fiction stories in the 1880s. One of his best known is “The Country of the Blind” (1904).
  • 12. • In the American Literature, Herman Melville published his story collection The Piazza Tales in 1856. • “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras Country” was the title story of Mark Twain’s first book one year later. • In 1884, Brander Matthews, the first American professor of dramatic literature, published The Philosophy of the Short Story. • At the same year, Matthews was the first one to name the emerging genre “short story”. • Another theorist of narrative fiction was Henry James. James wrote alot of short stories himself, including “The Real Thing” (1892), “Maud-Evelyn” The Beast in the Jungle (1903). • In the 1890s Kate Chopin published short stories in several magazines.
  • 13. • In Russia, Ivan Turgenev gained recognition with his story collection A Sportsman’s Sketches. • Nikolai Leskov created his first short stories in the 1860s. • Late in his life Fyodor Dostoyevski wrote “The Meek One” (1876) and “The Dream of a Ridiculous Man” (1877), two stories with great psychological and philosophical depth. • Leo Tolstoy handled ethical questions in his short stories, for example, in “Ivan the Fool” (1885), “How Much Land Does a Man Need?” (1886) and “Alyosha the Pot” (1905). • The greatest specialist of the Russian short story however was Anton Chekhov. Classic examples of his realistic prose are “The Bet” (1889), “Ward No. 6” (1892), and “The Lady with the Dog” (1899). • Maxim Gorky’s a best known short story is “Twenty-six Men and a Girl” (1899).
  • 14. 1900-1945 • In the United Kingdom, periodicals like The Strand Magazine, The Sketch, Harper’s Magazine and Story-Teller contributed to the popularity of the short story. • Hector Huge Munro (1870-1916), also known by his pen name of Saki, wrote satirical short stories about Edwardian England. • W. Somerset Maugham, who wrote over a hundred short stories, was one of the most popular authors of his time. • P. G. Wodehouse published his first collection of comical stories about butler Jeeves in 1917. Lots of detective stories were written by G. K. Chesterton, Agatha Christie and Dorothy L. Sayers. • Short stories by Virginia Woolf “Kew Gardens” (1919) and “Solid Objects,” are about a politician with mental problems. • Graham Greene wrote his Twenty-One Stories between 1929 and 1954. A specialist of the short story was V. S. Pritchett, whose first collection appeared in 1932. • Arthur C. Clarke published his first science fiction story, “Travel by Wire!” in 1937.
  • 15. • In the first half of the 20th century, a number of high-profile American magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, The New Yorker Scribner’s, The Saturday Evening Post, Esquire, and The Bookman published short stories in each issue. • The demand for quality short stories was so great and the money paid for it was so well that F. Scott Fitzgerald repeatedly turned to short-story writing to pay his numerous debts. • His first collection Flappers and Philosophers appeared in a book form in 1920. • William Faulkner wrote over one hundred short stories. Go Down, Moses, a collection of seven stories, appeared in 1941. • Ernest Hemingway’s concise writing style was perfectly fit for shorter fiction. Stories like “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” (1926), “Hills Like White Elephants” (1927) and Dorothy Parker’s bittersweet story “Big Blonde” saw the light in 1929. • A popular science fiction story is “Nightfall” by Isaac Asimov.
  • 16. • Katherine Mansfield from New Zealand wrote many of her short stories between 1912 and her death in 1923. “The Doll’s House” (1922) treats the topic of social inequity. • Two important authors of short stories in the German language were by Thomas Mann and Franz Kafka. In 1922 the latter wrote “A Hunger Artist”, about a man who fasts for several days. • Ryūnosuke Akutagawa (1892-1927) is called the Father of the Japanese short story.
  • 17. After 1945: The Post-war Era • The period following World War II saw a great flowering of literary short fiction in the United States. • The New Yorker continued to publish the works of the form’s leading mid-century practitioners, including Shirley Jackson, whose story, “The Lottery” published in 1948, elicited the strongest response in the magazine’s history to that time. • Other frequent contributors during the last 1940s included John Cheever, John Steinbeck, Jean Stafford and Eudora Welty. J. D. Salinger’s “Nine Stories” (1953) experimented with point of view and voice, while Flannery O’Connor’s “A Good Man is Hard to Find” (1955) reinvigorated the Southern Gothic style. • When Life magazine published Ernest Hemingway’s long short story (or novella) The Old Man and the Sea in 1952, the issue containing this story sold 5,300,000 copies in only two days.
  • 18. • Philip Roth and Grace Paley cultivated distinctive Jewish American voices. • Tillie Olsen’s “I Stand Here Ironing” adopted a consciously feminist perspective. • James Baldwin’s Going to Meet the Man told stories of African-American life. Frank O’Connor’s “The Lonely Voice,” a classic exploration of the short story, appeared in 1963. • The 1970s saw the rise of the post-modern short story, in the work of Donald Barthelme and John Barth. • The same decade witnessed the establishment of the Pushcart Press, which, under the leadership of Bill Henderson, began publishing the best of the independent and small presses. Stephen King, one of the best selling novelists of all time, initiated his career.
  • 19. • Minimalism gained widespread influence in the 1980s, most notably in the work of Raymond Carver, Ann Beattie and Bobbi Ann Mason. • However, traditionalists including John Updike and Joyce Carol Oates maintained significant influence on the form, as did Canadian author Alice Munro. John Gardner’s seminal reference text,“The Art of Fiction”, appeared in 1983. • Many of the American short stories of the 1990s feature magical realism. Among the leading practitioners in this style were Steven Millhauser and Robert Olen Butler. • Stuart Dybek gained prominence for his depictions of life in Chicago’s Polish neighborhoods and Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried” tackled the legacy of the Vietnam War. • Louise Erdrich wrote poignantly of Native American life. T. C. Boyle and David Foster Wallace explored the psychology of popular culture.
  • 20. Indian English Short story • Indian-English literature has created its own place in the 20thcentury literature. • Contribution of short story writers is very important to the Indian-English literature. • Indian-English short story has only a hundred years history. In India there is a rich and prosperous tradition of stories. • Panchatantra, Hitopdesh, Katha Sarit Sagar, Baital Pachisi are some of the famous ancient story books till now. • In the great epics viz The Ramayana and The Mahabharata there are various stories. • Rabindranath Tagore first short story was 'Bhikharini' or The Beggar Woman, when he was 16 years old. He invented the Bengali language short story genre. From 1891 to 1895, known as Tagore's 'Sadhana' period, he wrote the three volume, Galpaguchchha which contains eighty four stories.
  • 21. • The credit of the first Indian English short story collection goes to Kamala Sathianandhan’s Stories from Indian Christian life published in 1898. • At the beginning of the twentieth century there published four short story collections of Cornelia Sorabji viz Love and Life Behind the Purdan (1901); Sunbabies : studies in the child life ofIndia (1904);Between the Twilights : Being studied of Indian women by one of themselves (1908); and Indian tails ofthe Great ones among men, womennand Bird people (1916). • S.S.Bose, S.M.Natisa Sastri, S.B.Banerji, Prabhat Chandra Mukharji, Shovona Devi, Dwijiendra Nath Neogi, A Madhaviah and Sunity Devee are some of the other short story writers of this age.
  • 22. • In the late 1920s and early 1930s short story writers concerned more with moral and social issues. • Shankar Ram’s Children of Kaveri and Creature All • R.K.Narayan, Raja Rao, Mulk Raj Anand are prominent short story writers of the mid-thirties. • Mulk Raj Anand deals with the critical and unpleasant situation of the lower classes, hypocrisy of the society. Examples- The Liar, The lost Child, Boots, Lajwanti, The Tractor and The Corn Goddess.
  • 23. • R.K.Narayan’s short stories seem humorous and satiric. Examples - Swami and Friends, An Astrologers Day, A Horse and Two Goats, The Snake Song, Lawley Road. • Raja Rao is a famous for social and moral realism, political resurgence,metaphysical overtones and fantastic realism. Examples - Akkaya, Javni, A Client, Narsiga, The Cow of Barricades. • T.L.Natesan, A.S.P.Ayyar, K.S.Venkatramani are some prominent contributors of short story during this age.
  • 24. • The short story writers of independent India write on issues like partition, struggle for freedom, political events, questions of women, change in social values and their effect on the society. • Khushwant Singh is the best example of this. He is a writer of new India. The Mark of Vishnu, The Voice of God, Karma, A Bride for the Sahib are his some famous short stories. • Changed attitude towards love, breakdown of moral and social values, man-woman relationship, free discussion of sex, marriage system, women’s search for self identity were the relevant themes popular in 1950s and 1960s.
  • 25. • Manohar Malgoankar, Arun Joshi, Ruskin Bond, Bhabani Bhattacharya, Chaman Nahal, Manoj Das are some notable names during this era. • Some notable women short story writers are Ismat Chughtai, Mahasweta Devi, Kamala Das, Shashi Deshpande, Anita Desai, Urmila Pawar and Jhumpa Lehri. • Vijay Tendulkar, Irawati Karve, Purushottam Laxman Deshpande, Shivaji Sawant are some of the iconic names of Marathi short story writers.
  • 26. The Cambridge Introduction to the Short Story in English – British and Others • The nineteenth century - • Charles Dickens • Thomas Hardy • Rudyard Kipling • Joseph Conrad • The Yellow Book circle and the 1890s avant-garde • The modernist short story - • James Joyce • Virginia Woolf • Katherine Mansfield • Samuel Beckett
  • 27. • Post-modernist stories – • Frank O’Connor and Sean O’Faolain • Elizabeth Bowen and V. S. Pritchett • Angela Carter and Ian McEwan • Postcolonial and other stories – • Frank Sargeson • Marjorie Barnard • James Kelman • Chinua Achebe • Alice Munro
  • 28. The Cambridge Introduction to the American Short Story • Washington Irving • William Austin • Nathaniel Hawthorne • Edgar Allan Poe • Herman Melville • Bret Harte • Mark Twain • Realism, the grotesque and impressionism: Hamlin Garland, Ambrose Bierce and Stephen Crane • Henry James • Rebecca Harding Davis • Sarah Orne Jewett • Mary Wilkins Freeman • Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Kate Chopin • Edith Wharton • Willa Cather
  • 29. • O. Henry • Jack London • Sherwood Anderson • Ernest Hemingway • F. Scott Fitzgerald • William Faulkner • Raymond Carver • Katherine Anne Porter, • Eudora Welty • Flannery O’Connor • Charles Chesnutt • Richard Wright • James Baldwin
  • 31. Contact me:- • Email – vaidehi09hariyani@gmail.com • Instagram - @learnwithvaidehi • Facebook – Vaidehi Hariyani
  • 32. Works Cited:- • Bande Usha, Amta Ram, “Contemporary Indian Short Story”, Women in Indian Short Stories: Feminist Perspective, Rawat Publication, 2003. • Hunter, Adrian, The Cambridge Introduction to the American Short Story. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. • Reid, Ian. The Short Story, Routledge Publication, 1977. • Scofield, Martin, The Cambridge Introduction to the American Short Story. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006