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Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1
The invertebrate fauna on the forest floor of Semuliki rain forest
Zvi Sever
Biology Dep., University of Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A
sever.zvi@gmail.com
In order to obtain data on the invertebrates inhabiting the forest floor of a lowland
tropical rain forest, I filtered leaves and ground during the dry season (February 2017)
in a 1sq.km. area, populated by mixed evergreen forest and semi deciduous forest
(see appendix map 4) in middle Semuliki forest (sq. No. 39-40 in map 1, see
appendix), Kirumia trail, around 35N UTM 0089712 X0088735 , (see appendix map
2-3) of Semuliki N.P, (extension of Virunga forest) west Uganda on the D.R.C.
border. Two samples a day (one between trees and one between a tree's buttresses)
were taken over a 3 day period, composed of 80x80 cm of leaves and soil that had
been filtered through nets (20x2o mm to 3x3 mm). The ground was filtered to a depth
of 1 cm (6 liter each time)
In order to obtain data on the mammals, four Trap cameras were wrapped to trees in
North west Semuliki NP in the forest, 100 meter from Semuliki river (sq. No. 46-45;
Semuliki river and Lamia river junction, around 36N UTM 0092620 X0093345 , see
appendix map No. 1). Bait placed in front of three cameras (fruits, vegetables and
breadcrumbs).
Total of 91 specimens were caught in the filtration activity. Accordingly, 51
specimens covering 22 species were found on the ground surface among the leaves
(leaf layer, average depth of 2.6 cm): 2 spiders, 4 snails and 16 species of insects .
The 80X80X1 cm volume of filtered soil produced 40 specimens from total of 16
species: 1 species of millipede, 7 of snails and 8 species of insects .
In both the leaf layer and the surface/soil layer, the same 4 species were found, that is,
a sum total of 34 different species of animals, invertebrates, were observed .
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2
By calculating how many individuals found in each layer, we can observe that the
greatest number of individuals is present in the leaves layer. This can, probably be
attributed to the fact that the leaves are humid by the dispersal rains during the dry
season. By comparing both, layers and sites the largest number of specimens is in the
leaves' layer between trees' buttresses. It can be explained by the comparatively
absence effect between the buttresses during the dry season.
It was apparent that additional filtering in central Semuliki during the dry season
might produce a much longer list of species in both layers. It would be of interest for
future research to conduct comparative studies on the forest floor of different flora in
Semuliki N.P. (see appendix, map 3).
The 'Trap cameras' produce 10,636 pictures with many flying insects and only 8 of
mammals, lowland bongo and duiker (see appendix, Pictures, p. 12). It is too early for
any conclusion and next time it is important to try the Trap cameras method in some
other areas in Semuliki NP.
See appendix:
Appendix to the Forest floor's filtration research and Trap cameras
1. The temperatures in the filtration sites …………………….. p.3
2. The animals' list and pictures ……………..……………….. p.3
Phylum – ARTHROPODA ………………….…………… p.3
-Spiders ……….………………………………… p.3
-Insects .. ……………………………………….. p.4
-Millipedes ………………………………….…… p.10
Phylum – MOLUSCA …………….………………………p.10
-Snails ……….…………………………………. p.10
3. Trap Cameras- Pictures………….…………………...……. p.12
4. Maps ………………………………………………………. p.14
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3
1. Temperatures
The temperatures were measured in all the filtration sites every hour from 8:30 to
10:30 am.
Stratum measured Average (c°)
Air – 5 cm above the leaves……………………..... 25.5
On leaves' surface ……………………………..…. 24.9
Among the leaves ……………………………..…. 24.5
On the ground surface under the leaves …………. 23.8
In the ground (depth 2 cm) ………………………. 24.3
It is possible to see that as much as we measured deeper to the leaves and ground
surface, the temperature is lower. In the ground it is wormer than on ground in the dry
season.
2. The animals' list and pictures (34 different species observed)
Body length - in mm.
Phylum – ARTHROPODA
Class - ARACHNIDA
Order – ARANEAE
Sub order- Araneomorphae
2 species of spiders:
1) Spider A - Body length 5 mm, found on ground among the leaves
Sub order, Family and Species=?
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4
2) Spider B - Body length 5 mm, found on ground among the leaves
Class – INSECTA
25 species of insects:
Order – LEPIDOPTERA
Caterpillars
Sub order, Family and Species=?
3) Caterpillar A - Body length 8 mm, found in the ground
Family- Arctiidae
4) Caterpillar - Body length 07 mm, was found on the leaves
5) Caterpillar - Body length 7 mm, was found among the leaves
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5
Pupas
Order- ?
6) Pupa's defend – Length 50 mm, Entrance diameter 27mm, was found in the ground
Order- Hymenoptera
7) Bee or Wasp Pupa's defend – Length 50 mm, Entrance diameter 27mm, was found
among leaves
8) Pupa -Length 11 mm, found among leaves
Order-Diptera
9) Caterpillar - Body length 5 mm, was found among leaves
10) Pupa- Length 7.5 mm, was found in the ground
11) Pupa-Length 12-19 mm, Max. diameter 5mm,was found among leaves
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6
12) Pupa- (11 pupas) Length 10, 12 mm, was found in the ground
13) Pupa- Length 10, 11 mm, Max. diameter 4, 5 mm, was found among leaves
Order- DICTYOPTERA
14) Imago - Body length 10 mm, was found among leaves
15) Imago - Body length 3 mm, was found among leaves
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7
Sub order- BLATTODEA
16) Imago - Body length 10 mm, found in the ground
17) Imago - Body length 15 mm, found in the ground
18) Imago - Body length 15 mm, found in the ground
Sub Order- Isoptera
19) Termite's Imago –Species of termite
20) Termite's Imago - Body length 4 mm Termite or ant? Was found among lives
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8
Order: COLEOPTERA
Family ?
21) Imago - Body length 7 mm, was found in the ground
Order- HYMENOPTERA
Sub order- APOCRITA
Super family- FORMICOIDAE
22) Imago – Body length 2 mm, was found among leaves
23) Imago – Body length 10 mm, found among leaves
24) Imago – Body length 13 mm, found among leaves
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9
25) Imago – Body length 2.5 mm, tow dots on the wings, found among leaves
26) Imago – Body length 3 mm, found among leaves
27) Imago – Big ants, Max head's width 5 mm, found among leaves
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11
Sub Phylum – MYRIAPODA
1 species of Millipedes:
28) Millipede – Length 20 mm, was found in the ground
Phylum – MOLUSCA
Class - GASTROPODA
Order – Stylommatophora
11 species of snails:
–4 Were found in the leaves
Snail C – 8 mmSnail B- 10 mmSnail A- 4 mm
Snail G- 36 mmSnail F- 7 mmSnail E- 10 mm
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11
–7 Were found in the ground
Snail C – 17 mmSnail B- part of it-6 mmSnail A- 7 mm
‫חילזון‬2-
Snail H- 6 mmSnail G-17 mmSnail F- broken, 8 mm
dorsal side
ventral side, entrance=left
Snail I- 6,7 mm
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12
3. Trap Cameras' Pictures
Lowland Bongo-
Duiker-
Duiker enlarged (from different pictures):
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13
See Maps – next page
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
14
4. Maps
Map 1- Grid map of Semuliki N.P.(report about activities in sq. No. 46-45, 40-39)
Map 2 - Semuliki N.P. (Photo of the map in the visitor center, April 2015)
Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA,
Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
15
Map 3 – Semuliki N.P. (fig. 4 in: Semuliki NP general management plan 2005-2015)
Map 4 – Plant's map of Semuliki N.P. (map 2 from Howard et all, 1991)
Howard, P.C., Butono, F., Kayondo-Jjemba, P., and Muhumuzaa, C. (1991).
Integrating forest conservation into district development: a case study. Chapter 5
in: Howard, P.C. (Ed.). Nature Conservation in Uganda's Tropical Forest
Reserves. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Xvii. 313 pp.

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Sever- Semiliki NP- final report-july 2017

  • 1. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 The invertebrate fauna on the forest floor of Semuliki rain forest Zvi Sever Biology Dep., University of Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A sever.zvi@gmail.com In order to obtain data on the invertebrates inhabiting the forest floor of a lowland tropical rain forest, I filtered leaves and ground during the dry season (February 2017) in a 1sq.km. area, populated by mixed evergreen forest and semi deciduous forest (see appendix map 4) in middle Semuliki forest (sq. No. 39-40 in map 1, see appendix), Kirumia trail, around 35N UTM 0089712 X0088735 , (see appendix map 2-3) of Semuliki N.P, (extension of Virunga forest) west Uganda on the D.R.C. border. Two samples a day (one between trees and one between a tree's buttresses) were taken over a 3 day period, composed of 80x80 cm of leaves and soil that had been filtered through nets (20x2o mm to 3x3 mm). The ground was filtered to a depth of 1 cm (6 liter each time) In order to obtain data on the mammals, four Trap cameras were wrapped to trees in North west Semuliki NP in the forest, 100 meter from Semuliki river (sq. No. 46-45; Semuliki river and Lamia river junction, around 36N UTM 0092620 X0093345 , see appendix map No. 1). Bait placed in front of three cameras (fruits, vegetables and breadcrumbs). Total of 91 specimens were caught in the filtration activity. Accordingly, 51 specimens covering 22 species were found on the ground surface among the leaves (leaf layer, average depth of 2.6 cm): 2 spiders, 4 snails and 16 species of insects . The 80X80X1 cm volume of filtered soil produced 40 specimens from total of 16 species: 1 species of millipede, 7 of snails and 8 species of insects . In both the leaf layer and the surface/soil layer, the same 4 species were found, that is, a sum total of 34 different species of animals, invertebrates, were observed .
  • 2. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 By calculating how many individuals found in each layer, we can observe that the greatest number of individuals is present in the leaves layer. This can, probably be attributed to the fact that the leaves are humid by the dispersal rains during the dry season. By comparing both, layers and sites the largest number of specimens is in the leaves' layer between trees' buttresses. It can be explained by the comparatively absence effect between the buttresses during the dry season. It was apparent that additional filtering in central Semuliki during the dry season might produce a much longer list of species in both layers. It would be of interest for future research to conduct comparative studies on the forest floor of different flora in Semuliki N.P. (see appendix, map 3). The 'Trap cameras' produce 10,636 pictures with many flying insects and only 8 of mammals, lowland bongo and duiker (see appendix, Pictures, p. 12). It is too early for any conclusion and next time it is important to try the Trap cameras method in some other areas in Semuliki NP. See appendix: Appendix to the Forest floor's filtration research and Trap cameras 1. The temperatures in the filtration sites …………………….. p.3 2. The animals' list and pictures ……………..……………….. p.3 Phylum – ARTHROPODA ………………….…………… p.3 -Spiders ……….………………………………… p.3 -Insects .. ……………………………………….. p.4 -Millipedes ………………………………….…… p.10 Phylum – MOLUSCA …………….………………………p.10 -Snails ……….…………………………………. p.10 3. Trap Cameras- Pictures………….…………………...……. p.12 4. Maps ………………………………………………………. p.14
  • 3. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 1. Temperatures The temperatures were measured in all the filtration sites every hour from 8:30 to 10:30 am. Stratum measured Average (c°) Air – 5 cm above the leaves……………………..... 25.5 On leaves' surface ……………………………..…. 24.9 Among the leaves ……………………………..…. 24.5 On the ground surface under the leaves …………. 23.8 In the ground (depth 2 cm) ………………………. 24.3 It is possible to see that as much as we measured deeper to the leaves and ground surface, the temperature is lower. In the ground it is wormer than on ground in the dry season. 2. The animals' list and pictures (34 different species observed) Body length - in mm. Phylum – ARTHROPODA Class - ARACHNIDA Order – ARANEAE Sub order- Araneomorphae 2 species of spiders: 1) Spider A - Body length 5 mm, found on ground among the leaves Sub order, Family and Species=?
  • 4. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 2) Spider B - Body length 5 mm, found on ground among the leaves Class – INSECTA 25 species of insects: Order – LEPIDOPTERA Caterpillars Sub order, Family and Species=? 3) Caterpillar A - Body length 8 mm, found in the ground Family- Arctiidae 4) Caterpillar - Body length 07 mm, was found on the leaves 5) Caterpillar - Body length 7 mm, was found among the leaves
  • 5. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Pupas Order- ? 6) Pupa's defend – Length 50 mm, Entrance diameter 27mm, was found in the ground Order- Hymenoptera 7) Bee or Wasp Pupa's defend – Length 50 mm, Entrance diameter 27mm, was found among leaves 8) Pupa -Length 11 mm, found among leaves Order-Diptera 9) Caterpillar - Body length 5 mm, was found among leaves 10) Pupa- Length 7.5 mm, was found in the ground 11) Pupa-Length 12-19 mm, Max. diameter 5mm,was found among leaves
  • 6. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 12) Pupa- (11 pupas) Length 10, 12 mm, was found in the ground 13) Pupa- Length 10, 11 mm, Max. diameter 4, 5 mm, was found among leaves Order- DICTYOPTERA 14) Imago - Body length 10 mm, was found among leaves 15) Imago - Body length 3 mm, was found among leaves
  • 7. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 Sub order- BLATTODEA 16) Imago - Body length 10 mm, found in the ground 17) Imago - Body length 15 mm, found in the ground 18) Imago - Body length 15 mm, found in the ground Sub Order- Isoptera 19) Termite's Imago –Species of termite 20) Termite's Imago - Body length 4 mm Termite or ant? Was found among lives
  • 8. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Order: COLEOPTERA Family ? 21) Imago - Body length 7 mm, was found in the ground Order- HYMENOPTERA Sub order- APOCRITA Super family- FORMICOIDAE 22) Imago – Body length 2 mm, was found among leaves 23) Imago – Body length 10 mm, found among leaves 24) Imago – Body length 13 mm, found among leaves
  • 9. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 25) Imago – Body length 2.5 mm, tow dots on the wings, found among leaves 26) Imago – Body length 3 mm, found among leaves 27) Imago – Big ants, Max head's width 5 mm, found among leaves
  • 10. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 Sub Phylum – MYRIAPODA 1 species of Millipedes: 28) Millipede – Length 20 mm, was found in the ground Phylum – MOLUSCA Class - GASTROPODA Order – Stylommatophora 11 species of snails: –4 Were found in the leaves Snail C – 8 mmSnail B- 10 mmSnail A- 4 mm Snail G- 36 mmSnail F- 7 mmSnail E- 10 mm
  • 11. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 –7 Were found in the ground Snail C – 17 mmSnail B- part of it-6 mmSnail A- 7 mm ‫חילזון‬2- Snail H- 6 mmSnail G-17 mmSnail F- broken, 8 mm dorsal side ventral side, entrance=left Snail I- 6,7 mm
  • 12. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 3. Trap Cameras' Pictures Lowland Bongo- Duiker- Duiker enlarged (from different pictures):
  • 13. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 See Maps – next page
  • 14. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 4. Maps Map 1- Grid map of Semuliki N.P.(report about activities in sq. No. 46-45, 40-39) Map 2 - Semuliki N.P. (Photo of the map in the visitor center, April 2015)
  • 15. Final report of findings to the Monitoring & Research unit of the UWA, Zvi Sever, University of Indianapolis, July 2017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 Map 3 – Semuliki N.P. (fig. 4 in: Semuliki NP general management plan 2005-2015) Map 4 – Plant's map of Semuliki N.P. (map 2 from Howard et all, 1991) Howard, P.C., Butono, F., Kayondo-Jjemba, P., and Muhumuzaa, C. (1991). Integrating forest conservation into district development: a case study. Chapter 5 in: Howard, P.C. (Ed.). Nature Conservation in Uganda's Tropical Forest Reserves. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Xvii. 313 pp.