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INSTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
Submitted by – Neha Saini, Shabana Akhter
Bachelor of pharmacy (8th sem)
Submitted To- Dr. Jyoti
SARS –CoV-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING
VARIANTS
CONTENT
 INTRODUCTION OF COVID-19
 TRANSMISSION ROUTE OF SARS-CoV– 2 INFECTION
 GENOMIC STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF ACTION OF SARS-
CoV-2 VIRUS
 EMERGENCE OF SARS CoV-2 VARIANTS
 CONTROL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES
 ANTI VIRAL TREATMENT OF COVID -19
 ROLE OF PHARMACIST’S DURING COVID-19 GLOBAL PANDEMIC
CORONA VIRUS
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large, enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA
(+ssRNA) viruses that are a part of the subfamily Coronaviridae & Nidovirales order.
The spike (S) protein, which protrudes through the viral envelope and gives the
virus its distinctive & look and gets its name from the Latin word corona, which
means crown, is one of the four or five proteins that the genome encodes.
All CoVs discovered are divided into four genera: alpha coronaviruses, beta
coronaviruses, gamma coronaviruses, and deltacoronavirus .
The SARS-CoV-2 genome contains 15 open reading frames (ORFs) that encode
non-structural proteins (NSP1-16), structural proteins (N, M, E, S proteins), and
accessory proteins (ORF3a, 3b, 6, 7a, 7b, 8, 9a, 9b, and 10).
It appears to have first emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. By the end of January,
the new coronavirus had been declared a public health emergency of international
concern by the WHO.
COVID-19 TIMELINE
SARS-CoV-2 can spread via contact, droplet,
aerosol, fomite, fecal-oral, bloodborne, mother-to-
child, and animal-to-human transmission, among
other methods. SARS-CoV-2 infection primarily
results in respiratory sickness, which can range in
severity from mild illness to severe illness and
death.
Three main methods exist for infectious
exposures to respiratory secretions carrying
SARS-CoV-2:
Inhalation- Air carrying minuscule droplets and
aerosol particles containing contagious viruses is
inhaled..
Deposition – the spreading of a virus through
"splashes and sprays," such as being coughed on,
onto mucosal membranes that are exposed.
Touching mucous membranes—either with hands
that have been contaminated by virus-containing
exhaled respiratory secretions or by touching
inanimate objects.
TRANSMISSION ROUTE OF SARS- CoV – 2
INFECTION
CLINICAL MANIFESTATION
According to the disease& severity,
COVID-19 is categorized into three
categories: mild, severe, and
critical. Most patients only have
minor symptoms and get better.
SYSTEM SYMPTOMS
General Fever
Headache
Fatigue
muscle pain
Respiratory Dry cough
Difficulty to breathing
Congestion of nose
Running nose
Sore throat
CNS and sensory organs Acute psychosis
Loss of sense smell
Loss of sense of taste
Dizziness
Stroke
Impared vision
Cardiac Acute chest pain
Arrhythmia
Heart failure
GENOMIC STRUCTURE OF SARS-CoV-2
VIRUS
 NON-STRUCTURAL PROTEINS
In this at the end of 5’head of SARS-CoV-2 genome contains 15 open reading
frames (ORFs) that encode non-structural proteins (NSP1-16),
 STRUCTURAL PROTEINS
It is a protein that either holds the RNA genome or are built into the viral
envelope ,So at the end of 3’poly tail of SARS-CoV-2 the main structural
proteins are encoded i.e. spike, envelope, matrix, and nucleocapsid, which
are found in all coronaviruses.
MECHANISM OF ACTION OF SARS CoV-2
EMERGENCE OF SARS CoV-2
VARIANTS
 There are three categories of variants that are now
gaining ground globally: variants of concern, variants of
interest, and variants under observation (WHO,
2022b).Variants share a particular mutation called
D614G, which predominated early in the worldwide
epidemic.
VARIANTS OF CONCERN:
 Variants of concern (VOC) are defined as VOI variations
that exhibit increased transmissibility, virulence, and
poor responsiveness to available tests, vaccinations, and
therapies (WHO, 2022b). Alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and
on are the five variations of concern.
VOC ALPHA BETA GAMMA DELTA OMICRON
Linage B.1.1.7 B.1.351 P.1 B.1.617.2 B.1.1.529
First Detection September,2020 May,2020 November,2020 October,2020 November,20
21
First Country UK South Africa Brazil India South Africa
Spike mutation
RBD
N501Y,E484K,
S494P
K417N,E484K,
N501Y
K417N,E484K,
N501Y
L452R,E484Q
Reinfection risk High High High High High
Transmissiblity Spread more
rapidly than
predominant virus
(+++)
Show significant
resistance
( +)
Shows some
resistance,
enhance
infectivity(++)
Significantly
more
transmissible
;somewhat
resistant(+++)
Very high
peak rate
transmission
Severity More severe than
others cause
sickness or death
High possibility High possibility May cause
more severe
cases than
others
May cause
more severe
cases
comparatively
Vaccine
effectiveness
High Reduced Reduced Possible
reduction
Possible
reduction
VARIANTS OF INTEREST
WHO
label
EPILSON ZETA ETA THETA IOTA KAPPA
Lineage B.1.427 P.2 B.1.525 P.3 B.1.526 B.1.617.1
First
detection
March,202
0
April,202
0
Dec,2020 Jan,2021 November,20
20
October,20
20
First
Country
found in
US
(California)
Brazil Multiple
country
Philippine
s
Us (New York) India
Severity May be
more
transmissi
ble
May be
more
resistant
May be
more
resistant
to
vaccines
Has
some of
the same
mutation
s as the
other
VOCs
May be more
resistant
May be
more
resistant,
spread
more
rapidly
VARIANTS UNDER MONITORING
The term "variants under monitoring"
(VUM) refers to variants with genetic
alterations that may provide a risk in the
future, necessitating increased surveillance
and ongoing evaluation. The primary
components of the currently recognized
VUM are B.1.1.318, C.1.2, and B.1.640.
CONTROL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Isolation of the afflicted individual and anyone travelling from impacted nations or
potential carriers.
Implementing travel limitations from and to the impacted nations.
Preventing transmission by keeping your home and surroundings in top hygienic
condition.
Avoid social gatherings since they flatten the curve and prevent its geometric
growth.
Increasing public awareness.
Infected, aged, and immunocompromised people who want to prevent the
spread of infection or shield themselves from COVID-19 use masks and
protective clothing.
Maintaining a strong immune system, eating a balanced diet, taking vitamins—especially
C and E—along with yoga and exercise will help prevent COVID-19 infection.
ANTI VIRAL TREATMENT OF COVID -19
• Chloroquine and Hydroxy
chloroquine: Antimalarial drugs.
• Ritonavir: Anti-HIV drugs.
• Remdesiver: Anti-HIV drugs.
• Azithromycin: Anti-biotic
PRIMARY
TREATMENT
MEDICATIONS
• BNT162b2 vaccine
• mRNA-1273 vaccine
• Vaccine Ad26.COV2
• Vaccination for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
• Vaccination for NVX-CoV2373
• DNA vaccines
• The vaccine Covaxin
• Sputnik V
VACCINES
ROLE OF PHARMACIST’S DURING COVID-19
GLOBAL PANDEMIC
REFERENCES
1.Abbasi, A. Z., Kiyani, D. A., Hamid, S. M., Saalim, M., Fahim, A., Jalal, N.
(2021). Spiking Dependence of SARS-CoV-2 Pathogenicity on TMPRSS2. J.
Med. Virol. 93 (7), 4205–4218.
2.Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., ... & Tan, W.
(2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019.
New England journal of medicine.
3.Yuki, K., Fujiogi, M., & Koutsogiannaki, S. (2020). COVID-19
pathophysiology: A review. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 215,
108427.
4.Walls, A. C., Park, Y. J., Tortorici, M. A., Wall, A., McGuire, A. T., &
Veesler, D. (2020). Structure, Function, and Antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2
Spike Glycoprotein. Cell, 181(2), 281–292.e6.
5.Hu, B., Guo, H., Zhou, P., and Shi, Z. L. (2021). Characteristics of SARS-
CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 19 (3), 141–154.
6.Singhal T. (2020). A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19).
Indian journal of pediatrics, 87(4), 281–286.
SARS Cov-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTS

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SARS Cov-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTS

  • 1. INSTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES Submitted by – Neha Saini, Shabana Akhter Bachelor of pharmacy (8th sem) Submitted To- Dr. Jyoti SARS –CoV-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTS
  • 2. CONTENT  INTRODUCTION OF COVID-19  TRANSMISSION ROUTE OF SARS-CoV– 2 INFECTION  GENOMIC STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF ACTION OF SARS- CoV-2 VIRUS  EMERGENCE OF SARS CoV-2 VARIANTS  CONTROL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES  ANTI VIRAL TREATMENT OF COVID -19  ROLE OF PHARMACIST’S DURING COVID-19 GLOBAL PANDEMIC
  • 3. CORONA VIRUS Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large, enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses that are a part of the subfamily Coronaviridae & Nidovirales order. The spike (S) protein, which protrudes through the viral envelope and gives the virus its distinctive & look and gets its name from the Latin word corona, which means crown, is one of the four or five proteins that the genome encodes. All CoVs discovered are divided into four genera: alpha coronaviruses, beta coronaviruses, gamma coronaviruses, and deltacoronavirus . The SARS-CoV-2 genome contains 15 open reading frames (ORFs) that encode non-structural proteins (NSP1-16), structural proteins (N, M, E, S proteins), and accessory proteins (ORF3a, 3b, 6, 7a, 7b, 8, 9a, 9b, and 10). It appears to have first emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. By the end of January, the new coronavirus had been declared a public health emergency of international concern by the WHO.
  • 5. SARS-CoV-2 can spread via contact, droplet, aerosol, fomite, fecal-oral, bloodborne, mother-to- child, and animal-to-human transmission, among other methods. SARS-CoV-2 infection primarily results in respiratory sickness, which can range in severity from mild illness to severe illness and death. Three main methods exist for infectious exposures to respiratory secretions carrying SARS-CoV-2: Inhalation- Air carrying minuscule droplets and aerosol particles containing contagious viruses is inhaled.. Deposition – the spreading of a virus through "splashes and sprays," such as being coughed on, onto mucosal membranes that are exposed. Touching mucous membranes—either with hands that have been contaminated by virus-containing exhaled respiratory secretions or by touching inanimate objects. TRANSMISSION ROUTE OF SARS- CoV – 2 INFECTION
  • 6. CLINICAL MANIFESTATION According to the disease& severity, COVID-19 is categorized into three categories: mild, severe, and critical. Most patients only have minor symptoms and get better.
  • 7. SYSTEM SYMPTOMS General Fever Headache Fatigue muscle pain Respiratory Dry cough Difficulty to breathing Congestion of nose Running nose Sore throat CNS and sensory organs Acute psychosis Loss of sense smell Loss of sense of taste Dizziness Stroke Impared vision Cardiac Acute chest pain Arrhythmia Heart failure
  • 8. GENOMIC STRUCTURE OF SARS-CoV-2 VIRUS  NON-STRUCTURAL PROTEINS In this at the end of 5’head of SARS-CoV-2 genome contains 15 open reading frames (ORFs) that encode non-structural proteins (NSP1-16),  STRUCTURAL PROTEINS It is a protein that either holds the RNA genome or are built into the viral envelope ,So at the end of 3’poly tail of SARS-CoV-2 the main structural proteins are encoded i.e. spike, envelope, matrix, and nucleocapsid, which are found in all coronaviruses.
  • 9. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF SARS CoV-2
  • 10. EMERGENCE OF SARS CoV-2 VARIANTS  There are three categories of variants that are now gaining ground globally: variants of concern, variants of interest, and variants under observation (WHO, 2022b).Variants share a particular mutation called D614G, which predominated early in the worldwide epidemic. VARIANTS OF CONCERN:  Variants of concern (VOC) are defined as VOI variations that exhibit increased transmissibility, virulence, and poor responsiveness to available tests, vaccinations, and therapies (WHO, 2022b). Alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and on are the five variations of concern.
  • 11. VOC ALPHA BETA GAMMA DELTA OMICRON Linage B.1.1.7 B.1.351 P.1 B.1.617.2 B.1.1.529 First Detection September,2020 May,2020 November,2020 October,2020 November,20 21 First Country UK South Africa Brazil India South Africa Spike mutation RBD N501Y,E484K, S494P K417N,E484K, N501Y K417N,E484K, N501Y L452R,E484Q Reinfection risk High High High High High Transmissiblity Spread more rapidly than predominant virus (+++) Show significant resistance ( +) Shows some resistance, enhance infectivity(++) Significantly more transmissible ;somewhat resistant(+++) Very high peak rate transmission Severity More severe than others cause sickness or death High possibility High possibility May cause more severe cases than others May cause more severe cases comparatively Vaccine effectiveness High Reduced Reduced Possible reduction Possible reduction
  • 12. VARIANTS OF INTEREST WHO label EPILSON ZETA ETA THETA IOTA KAPPA Lineage B.1.427 P.2 B.1.525 P.3 B.1.526 B.1.617.1 First detection March,202 0 April,202 0 Dec,2020 Jan,2021 November,20 20 October,20 20 First Country found in US (California) Brazil Multiple country Philippine s Us (New York) India Severity May be more transmissi ble May be more resistant May be more resistant to vaccines Has some of the same mutation s as the other VOCs May be more resistant May be more resistant, spread more rapidly
  • 13. VARIANTS UNDER MONITORING The term "variants under monitoring" (VUM) refers to variants with genetic alterations that may provide a risk in the future, necessitating increased surveillance and ongoing evaluation. The primary components of the currently recognized VUM are B.1.1.318, C.1.2, and B.1.640.
  • 14. CONTROL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES Isolation of the afflicted individual and anyone travelling from impacted nations or potential carriers. Implementing travel limitations from and to the impacted nations. Preventing transmission by keeping your home and surroundings in top hygienic condition. Avoid social gatherings since they flatten the curve and prevent its geometric growth. Increasing public awareness. Infected, aged, and immunocompromised people who want to prevent the spread of infection or shield themselves from COVID-19 use masks and protective clothing. Maintaining a strong immune system, eating a balanced diet, taking vitamins—especially C and E—along with yoga and exercise will help prevent COVID-19 infection.
  • 15. ANTI VIRAL TREATMENT OF COVID -19 • Chloroquine and Hydroxy chloroquine: Antimalarial drugs. • Ritonavir: Anti-HIV drugs. • Remdesiver: Anti-HIV drugs. • Azithromycin: Anti-biotic PRIMARY TREATMENT MEDICATIONS • BNT162b2 vaccine • mRNA-1273 vaccine • Vaccine Ad26.COV2 • Vaccination for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 • Vaccination for NVX-CoV2373 • DNA vaccines • The vaccine Covaxin • Sputnik V VACCINES
  • 16. ROLE OF PHARMACIST’S DURING COVID-19 GLOBAL PANDEMIC
  • 17. REFERENCES 1.Abbasi, A. Z., Kiyani, D. A., Hamid, S. M., Saalim, M., Fahim, A., Jalal, N. (2021). Spiking Dependence of SARS-CoV-2 Pathogenicity on TMPRSS2. J. Med. Virol. 93 (7), 4205–4218. 2.Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., ... & Tan, W. (2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England journal of medicine. 3.Yuki, K., Fujiogi, M., & Koutsogiannaki, S. (2020). COVID-19 pathophysiology: A review. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 215, 108427. 4.Walls, A. C., Park, Y. J., Tortorici, M. A., Wall, A., McGuire, A. T., & Veesler, D. (2020). Structure, Function, and Antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein. Cell, 181(2), 281–292.e6. 5.Hu, B., Guo, H., Zhou, P., and Shi, Z. L. (2021). Characteristics of SARS- CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 19 (3), 141–154. 6.Singhal T. (2020). A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian journal of pediatrics, 87(4), 281–286.