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REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228
Volume 24 - Número 2 - 2º Semestre 2024
HONEYDEW EXCRETED BY Idioscopus sp. (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) AS A
FOOD SOURCE FOR SOCIAL WASPS (VESPIDAE: POLISTINAE)
Lucas Camargos da Silva Araújo¹; Patrícia da Silva Vital²; Luiz Eduardo de Carvalho Chaves Júnior³; Fernando
Gonçalves de Aguiar Crispim4
; Gabriel de Castro Jacques5
; Marcos Magalhães de Souza6
ABSTRACT
The excretion known as honeydew is rich in sugars, produced by different species of herbivores of
the order Hemiptera, such as aphids, leafhoppers, and scale insects, which serve as food for many
animals, however there is still few information about its use by social wasps. Therefore, the objective
of this study is to report the use of this excretion as a food source for different species of these social
insects. The research was conducted in Savanna biome in the city of Bambuí, Minas Gerais, from
september 25 to 31 of 2023, aside with behavior recorded using ad libitum method. There were
recorded four species of social wasps, Pseudopolybia vespiceps (Saussure, 1864), Polistes simillimus
Zikán, 1951, Agelaia multipicta (Haliday, 1836) and Parachartergus smithii (Saussure, 1854) feeding
on the excretion of the leafhopper Idioscopus sp. (Cicadellidae) on mango, Mangifera indica L.
(Anacardiaceae), where they were competing for this resource. The use of honeydew by these vespids
is likely advantageous due to the acquisition of a carbohydrate-rich resource and abundant in natural
and agricultural ecosystems.
keywords: Interspecific competition, Aphids.
HONEYDEW EXCRETADO POR Idioscopus sp. (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) COMO
RECURSO ALIMENTAR PARA VESPAS SOCIAIS (VESPIDAE: POLISTINAE)
RESUMO
A excreção conhecida por honeydew é rica em açúcares, produzida por diferentes espécies de
herbívoros da ordem Hemiptera, como pulgões, cigarrinhas e cochonilhas, que serve de alimento para
muitos animais, mas há poucas informações de seu uso pelas vespas sociais. Sendo assim, o objetivo
deste trabalho é relatar o uso dessa excreção como alimento para diferentes espécies destes insetos
sociais. Realizado em área de Cerrado no município de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, no período de 25 a 31
de setembro de 2023, com registro comportamento pelo método ad libitum. Foram registrados quatro
espécies de vespas sociais, Pseudopolybia vespiceps (Saussure, 1864), Polistes simillimus Zikán,
1951, Agelaia multipicta Haliday, 1836 e Parachartergus smithii (Saussure, 1854) se alimentando das
excreções da cigarrinha Idioscopus sp. (Cicadellidae) em mangueiras, Mangifera indica L.
(Anarcadiaceae) e competindo entre si pelo recurso. O uso de honeydew por esses vespídeos,
provavelmente, é vantajoso devido a aquisição de um recurso rico em carboidratos e abundante em
ecossistemas naturais e agrícolas.
Palavras-chave: Competição interespecífica, afídeos.
64
INTRODUCTION
The social wasps (Vespidae: Polistinae),
during the larval stage, require a protein-rich diet,
primarily obtained through the predation of other
insects, carried out by adult wasps that transport
the food to the colony (PREZOTO et al., 2005;
JACQUES et al., 2018). In the adult stage, they
primarily feed on carbohydrates, derived from
flower nectar, extrafloral nectaries, and
honeydew (DEJEAN; TURILLAZZI, 1992;
BRODMANN et al., 2008; MELLO et al., 2011),
which is an excretion rich in sugars from
herbivorous insects in the order Hemiptera, such
as aphids, leafhoppers, and scale insects (Hijaz;
Killiny, 2014).
These hemipterans constitute the main taxon
of sap-sucking pests, that survive by feeding on
plant sap, which is transported by phloem tissue
(REDDY et al., 2020), rich in nutrients and
sugars such as sucrose, fructose, trehalose,
maltose, among others (DINANT et al., 2010;
DOUGLAS, 2006). The amount excess of sugar
obtained in the feeding of these sap-sucking
insects, is excreted in the form of honeydew
(HIJAZ; KILLINY, 2014), which is used as food
source by birds, ants, bees, fruit flies and moths
(FÖLLING et al., 2001; DAVIDSON et al.,
2003; CHAMORRO et al., 2013), however there
is still few information about its use by social
wasps (DEJEAN; TURILLAZZI, 1992).
Therefore the objective of this study is to report
the use of this excretion as a food resource for
different species of these social insects.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The first register occurred on september 25,
2023, by chance, at the Bambuí Campus of the
Federal Institute of Education, Science and
Technology of Minas Gerais (20°01'56.4"S
46°00'35.2"W), an anthropized area at the
Cerrado biome. Subsequently, for seven days,
from September 25 to 31, for 10 to 30 minutes
per day, ethologic records were made using the
ad libitum method (DEL-CLARO, 2010), which
could record all the activities, uninterrupted,
related to the interaction between social wasps,
the leafhopper, and other insects, totaling two
hours of observations, additionally, photographic
records and video recordings were made.
Some specimens of the social wasps and
the leafhopper were collected, stored in alcohol
70% and sent to ide3ntification. The wasps were
identified through dichotomous keys proposed
by Richards (1978), Carpenter and Marques
(2001), in addition to comparison with the
biological collection of social wasps (CBVS) at
IFSULDEMINAS. The hemipteran was
identified by the Dr. Luiz Carlos Dias da Rocha,
an agronomist at the Federal Institute of
Education, Science, and Technology of Southern
Minas Gerais, Inconfidentes Campus.
RESULTS
Four species of social wasps, Pseudopolybia
vespiceps (Saussure, 1864), Polistes simillimus
Zikán, 1951, Agelaia multipicta (Haliday, 1836),
and Parachartergus smithii (Saussure, 1854),
were recorded feeding on excretions of the
leafhopper Idioscopus sp. (Cicadellidae), in five
clusters found in three mango trees, Mangifera
indica L. (Anarcadiaceae), at a height of 1.6 to 2
meters, with a maximum distance of 10 meters
between them.
The ethological record of P. vespiceps is as
follows, where it was observed in a cluster of
leafhopper: first, the social wasps moved over the
leafhoppers (Figure 1A); second, the wasps using
their antennae, promoted the tactile stimulation
to the abdomen of the hemipteran, promoting the
release of sugary excretion, honeydew; third, at
last, the wasps were feeding of the excretion of
different leafhoppers (Figure 1B), then, right
after they fled. Agonistic encounters were also
observed between specimens of this social wasp
and flies from the Syrphidae family, which were
expelled by the wasps attempting to mandible the
dipterans.
Figure 1 - Honeydew excretion by Idioscopus sp, promoting the tactile stimulation by Pseudopolybia vespiceps (A),
which in sequence, consumed this excretion (B).
The behavior of P. simillimus (Figure 2A) and
P. smithii with the cluster of Idioscopus sp. was
similar to P. vespiceps. However, A. multipicta,
only consumed the honeydew excreted by
Idioscopus deposited over the mango leafs and
fruits (Figure 2B), but with no fiscal interaction
with the leafhopper.
Figure 2 - Honeydew liberation by Idioscopus sp. in response to the tactile stimulation promoted by Polistes simillimus
(A); Agelaia multipcta consuming, in a mango tree, the honeydew excreted by Idioscopus sp. (B).
Also, interspecific competition among social
wasps was observed. P. simillimus, when
present, expelled individuals of P. vespiceps
attempting to approach the leafhoppers. At
another moment, this same behavior was
observed concerning P. vespiceps expelling
individuals of A. multipicta.
DISCUSSION
The stimulus for liberation of honeydew of
wasps in hemipterans has been previously
described in Coccidae, Aphididae, and
Tettigometridae (KROMBEIN 1951;
SAKAGAMI; FUKUSIDMA, 1957; lKAN;
ISHAY 1966; JEANNE 1972; GoBBI;
MACHADO 1986; DEJEAN; TURILLAZZI,
1992). In this study, this symbiotic relationship is
reported for the first time between social wasps
of Ciccadelidade.
The social wasp Ropalidia guttatipennis
(Saussure, 1853) stimulated the Tettigometridae
larvae by palpating the pleural zone of the
abdomen with the mandibles, antennae, or front
legs, depending on the instar of the hemipteran
(DEJEAN; TURILLAZZI, 1992). In our study,
we observed social wasps primarily using
antennae to provide this stimulation.
The use of Honeydew excreted by the
hemipteran as a food source by the social wasp
could have been occurred due to the generalist
feeding habits of these animals (CRISPIM et al.,
2023; SOUTHON et al., 2019; BROCK; CINI;
SUMNER, 2021), as they feed on visible
carbohydrate sources near the colony (HRNCIR;
MATEUS; NASCIMENTO, 2007). Since
honeydew is an attractive substance loaded with
sugars (GOLAN; NAJDA, 2011), using it as a
resource is a significant advantage for these
insects, as it could be an option for carbohydrate
intake by adult individuals.
This nutritive importance of honeydew is
confirmed by the interspecific competition
between different species of social wasps
reported in this study. Competition for honeydew
resources has been observed within the
Hymenoptera order (HARRIS; MOLLER;
WINTERBOURN, 1994), where it can promote
the success of colonies that utilize this excreted
resource, as its consumption may lead to
increased longevity for female social wasps
(FARIA; WÄCKERS; TURLINGS, 2008).
There was also the competitive relationship
between social wasps and flies of the Syrphidae
family, where the wasps chased away these flies
to prevent them from approaching the
leafhoppers. Dejean & Turillazzi (1992) reported
similar occasions where the social wasps stopped
flies and ants from consuming the honeydew
excreted by aphids. This behavior could have
benefited the leafhoppers, once they kept the
predators and parasitoids away from them.
The mango tree may also benefit from
this tritrophic relationship, as a high incidence of
leafhoppers can result in large-scale honeydew
excretions on leaves, shoots, and fruits, leading
to the formation of black sooty mold on the
surface caused by a saprophytic fungi of the
genus Capnodium (REDDY et al., 2020). The
occurrence of sooty mold on foliage affects the
plant's photosynthetic efficiency and fruit quality
loss (LIN, 2006; WALLACE, 2008). The
consumption of honeydew by wasps, both during
the leafhopper's release and consumption on
leaves and fruits, may contribute to reducing this
sooty mold.
There are few studies on the species
Parachartergus smithii, with information on its
geographical distribution in South American
countries, with records in Brazil in the states of
Amazonas, Amapá, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato
Grosso do Sul, Rondônia, Pará São Paulo and
Minas Gerais (RICHARDS AND RICHARDS,
1951; SOUZA et al., 2020a; SOUZA et al.,
2020b; SOMAVILLA et. al., 2021), there is also
work on the differences in the castes of the
colony (MATEUS, 1997) and on their nesting
behavior (RICHARDS, 1978; SOUZA et al.,
2020c), so here is the first information on the
feeding behavior of the species.
CONCLUSION
The use of honeydew by the social wasps
Polistes simillimus, Parachartergus smithii,
Agealia multipcta, Pseudopolybia vespiceps, is
probably advantageous due to the acquisition of
a resource rich in carbohydrates and abundant in
natural and agricultural ecosystems. Therefore,
more hours of observation are important to assess
whether there is a benefit for leafhoppers in this
relationship and whether other species of social
wasps also use this resource.
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in november 02 2023
______________________________________
1 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e
Tecnologia de Minas Gerais (IFMG) - Campus
Bambuí. E-
mail:lucascamargosprofissional@gmail.com,O
RCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0000-9146-7981
2 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e
Tecnologia de Minas Gerais (IFMG) - Campus
Bambuí. E-mail: patriciavital231@gmail.com,
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0008-5312-2710
3 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e
Tecnologia do Sul de Minas (IFSULDEMINAS)
– Campus Inconfidentes. E-mail:
luizeduardoc1103@gmail.com, ORCID:
https://orcid.org/0009-0008-0473-1122
4 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e
Tecnologia do Sul de Minas (IFSULDEMINAS)
– Campus Inconfidentes. E-mail:
aguiarf648@gmail.com, ORCID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7550-9149
5 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e
Tecnologia de Minas Gerais (IFMG) - Campus
Bambuí. E-mail: gabriel.jacques@ifmg.edu.br,
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9619-6065
6 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e
Tecnologia do Sul de Minas (IFSULDEMINAS)
– Campus Inconfidentes. E-mail:
marcos.souza@ifsuldeminas.edu.br ORCID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0415-1714
70

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REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_N2_06.pdf

  • 1. REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 Volume 24 - Número 2 - 2º Semestre 2024 HONEYDEW EXCRETED BY Idioscopus sp. (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) AS A FOOD SOURCE FOR SOCIAL WASPS (VESPIDAE: POLISTINAE) Lucas Camargos da Silva Araújo¹; Patrícia da Silva Vital²; Luiz Eduardo de Carvalho Chaves Júnior³; Fernando Gonçalves de Aguiar Crispim4 ; Gabriel de Castro Jacques5 ; Marcos Magalhães de Souza6 ABSTRACT The excretion known as honeydew is rich in sugars, produced by different species of herbivores of the order Hemiptera, such as aphids, leafhoppers, and scale insects, which serve as food for many animals, however there is still few information about its use by social wasps. Therefore, the objective of this study is to report the use of this excretion as a food source for different species of these social insects. The research was conducted in Savanna biome in the city of Bambuí, Minas Gerais, from september 25 to 31 of 2023, aside with behavior recorded using ad libitum method. There were recorded four species of social wasps, Pseudopolybia vespiceps (Saussure, 1864), Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951, Agelaia multipicta (Haliday, 1836) and Parachartergus smithii (Saussure, 1854) feeding on the excretion of the leafhopper Idioscopus sp. (Cicadellidae) on mango, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), where they were competing for this resource. The use of honeydew by these vespids is likely advantageous due to the acquisition of a carbohydrate-rich resource and abundant in natural and agricultural ecosystems. keywords: Interspecific competition, Aphids. HONEYDEW EXCRETADO POR Idioscopus sp. (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) COMO RECURSO ALIMENTAR PARA VESPAS SOCIAIS (VESPIDAE: POLISTINAE) RESUMO A excreção conhecida por honeydew é rica em açúcares, produzida por diferentes espécies de herbívoros da ordem Hemiptera, como pulgões, cigarrinhas e cochonilhas, que serve de alimento para muitos animais, mas há poucas informações de seu uso pelas vespas sociais. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é relatar o uso dessa excreção como alimento para diferentes espécies destes insetos sociais. Realizado em área de Cerrado no município de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, no período de 25 a 31 de setembro de 2023, com registro comportamento pelo método ad libitum. Foram registrados quatro espécies de vespas sociais, Pseudopolybia vespiceps (Saussure, 1864), Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951, Agelaia multipicta Haliday, 1836 e Parachartergus smithii (Saussure, 1854) se alimentando das excreções da cigarrinha Idioscopus sp. (Cicadellidae) em mangueiras, Mangifera indica L. (Anarcadiaceae) e competindo entre si pelo recurso. O uso de honeydew por esses vespídeos, provavelmente, é vantajoso devido a aquisição de um recurso rico em carboidratos e abundante em ecossistemas naturais e agrícolas. Palavras-chave: Competição interespecífica, afídeos. 64
  • 2. INTRODUCTION The social wasps (Vespidae: Polistinae), during the larval stage, require a protein-rich diet, primarily obtained through the predation of other insects, carried out by adult wasps that transport the food to the colony (PREZOTO et al., 2005; JACQUES et al., 2018). In the adult stage, they primarily feed on carbohydrates, derived from flower nectar, extrafloral nectaries, and honeydew (DEJEAN; TURILLAZZI, 1992; BRODMANN et al., 2008; MELLO et al., 2011), which is an excretion rich in sugars from herbivorous insects in the order Hemiptera, such as aphids, leafhoppers, and scale insects (Hijaz; Killiny, 2014). These hemipterans constitute the main taxon of sap-sucking pests, that survive by feeding on plant sap, which is transported by phloem tissue (REDDY et al., 2020), rich in nutrients and sugars such as sucrose, fructose, trehalose, maltose, among others (DINANT et al., 2010; DOUGLAS, 2006). The amount excess of sugar obtained in the feeding of these sap-sucking insects, is excreted in the form of honeydew (HIJAZ; KILLINY, 2014), which is used as food source by birds, ants, bees, fruit flies and moths (FÖLLING et al., 2001; DAVIDSON et al., 2003; CHAMORRO et al., 2013), however there is still few information about its use by social wasps (DEJEAN; TURILLAZZI, 1992). Therefore the objective of this study is to report the use of this excretion as a food resource for different species of these social insects. MATERIAL AND METHODS The first register occurred on september 25, 2023, by chance, at the Bambuí Campus of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Minas Gerais (20°01'56.4"S 46°00'35.2"W), an anthropized area at the Cerrado biome. Subsequently, for seven days, from September 25 to 31, for 10 to 30 minutes per day, ethologic records were made using the ad libitum method (DEL-CLARO, 2010), which could record all the activities, uninterrupted, related to the interaction between social wasps, the leafhopper, and other insects, totaling two hours of observations, additionally, photographic records and video recordings were made. Some specimens of the social wasps and the leafhopper were collected, stored in alcohol 70% and sent to ide3ntification. The wasps were identified through dichotomous keys proposed by Richards (1978), Carpenter and Marques (2001), in addition to comparison with the biological collection of social wasps (CBVS) at IFSULDEMINAS. The hemipteran was identified by the Dr. Luiz Carlos Dias da Rocha, an agronomist at the Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of Southern Minas Gerais, Inconfidentes Campus. RESULTS Four species of social wasps, Pseudopolybia vespiceps (Saussure, 1864), Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951, Agelaia multipicta (Haliday, 1836), and Parachartergus smithii (Saussure, 1854), were recorded feeding on excretions of the leafhopper Idioscopus sp. (Cicadellidae), in five clusters found in three mango trees, Mangifera indica L. (Anarcadiaceae), at a height of 1.6 to 2 meters, with a maximum distance of 10 meters between them. The ethological record of P. vespiceps is as follows, where it was observed in a cluster of leafhopper: first, the social wasps moved over the leafhoppers (Figure 1A); second, the wasps using their antennae, promoted the tactile stimulation to the abdomen of the hemipteran, promoting the release of sugary excretion, honeydew; third, at last, the wasps were feeding of the excretion of different leafhoppers (Figure 1B), then, right after they fled. Agonistic encounters were also observed between specimens of this social wasp and flies from the Syrphidae family, which were expelled by the wasps attempting to mandible the dipterans.
  • 3. Figure 1 - Honeydew excretion by Idioscopus sp, promoting the tactile stimulation by Pseudopolybia vespiceps (A), which in sequence, consumed this excretion (B). The behavior of P. simillimus (Figure 2A) and P. smithii with the cluster of Idioscopus sp. was similar to P. vespiceps. However, A. multipicta, only consumed the honeydew excreted by Idioscopus deposited over the mango leafs and fruits (Figure 2B), but with no fiscal interaction with the leafhopper. Figure 2 - Honeydew liberation by Idioscopus sp. in response to the tactile stimulation promoted by Polistes simillimus (A); Agelaia multipcta consuming, in a mango tree, the honeydew excreted by Idioscopus sp. (B). Also, interspecific competition among social wasps was observed. P. simillimus, when present, expelled individuals of P. vespiceps attempting to approach the leafhoppers. At another moment, this same behavior was observed concerning P. vespiceps expelling individuals of A. multipicta.
  • 4. DISCUSSION The stimulus for liberation of honeydew of wasps in hemipterans has been previously described in Coccidae, Aphididae, and Tettigometridae (KROMBEIN 1951; SAKAGAMI; FUKUSIDMA, 1957; lKAN; ISHAY 1966; JEANNE 1972; GoBBI; MACHADO 1986; DEJEAN; TURILLAZZI, 1992). In this study, this symbiotic relationship is reported for the first time between social wasps of Ciccadelidade. The social wasp Ropalidia guttatipennis (Saussure, 1853) stimulated the Tettigometridae larvae by palpating the pleural zone of the abdomen with the mandibles, antennae, or front legs, depending on the instar of the hemipteran (DEJEAN; TURILLAZZI, 1992). In our study, we observed social wasps primarily using antennae to provide this stimulation. The use of Honeydew excreted by the hemipteran as a food source by the social wasp could have been occurred due to the generalist feeding habits of these animals (CRISPIM et al., 2023; SOUTHON et al., 2019; BROCK; CINI; SUMNER, 2021), as they feed on visible carbohydrate sources near the colony (HRNCIR; MATEUS; NASCIMENTO, 2007). Since honeydew is an attractive substance loaded with sugars (GOLAN; NAJDA, 2011), using it as a resource is a significant advantage for these insects, as it could be an option for carbohydrate intake by adult individuals. This nutritive importance of honeydew is confirmed by the interspecific competition between different species of social wasps reported in this study. Competition for honeydew resources has been observed within the Hymenoptera order (HARRIS; MOLLER; WINTERBOURN, 1994), where it can promote the success of colonies that utilize this excreted resource, as its consumption may lead to increased longevity for female social wasps (FARIA; WÄCKERS; TURLINGS, 2008). There was also the competitive relationship between social wasps and flies of the Syrphidae family, where the wasps chased away these flies to prevent them from approaching the leafhoppers. Dejean & Turillazzi (1992) reported similar occasions where the social wasps stopped flies and ants from consuming the honeydew excreted by aphids. This behavior could have benefited the leafhoppers, once they kept the predators and parasitoids away from them. The mango tree may also benefit from this tritrophic relationship, as a high incidence of leafhoppers can result in large-scale honeydew excretions on leaves, shoots, and fruits, leading to the formation of black sooty mold on the surface caused by a saprophytic fungi of the genus Capnodium (REDDY et al., 2020). The occurrence of sooty mold on foliage affects the plant's photosynthetic efficiency and fruit quality loss (LIN, 2006; WALLACE, 2008). The consumption of honeydew by wasps, both during the leafhopper's release and consumption on leaves and fruits, may contribute to reducing this sooty mold. There are few studies on the species Parachartergus smithii, with information on its geographical distribution in South American countries, with records in Brazil in the states of Amazonas, Amapá, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondônia, Pará São Paulo and Minas Gerais (RICHARDS AND RICHARDS, 1951; SOUZA et al., 2020a; SOUZA et al., 2020b; SOMAVILLA et. al., 2021), there is also work on the differences in the castes of the colony (MATEUS, 1997) and on their nesting behavior (RICHARDS, 1978; SOUZA et al., 2020c), so here is the first information on the feeding behavior of the species. CONCLUSION The use of honeydew by the social wasps Polistes simillimus, Parachartergus smithii, Agealia multipcta, Pseudopolybia vespiceps, is probably advantageous due to the acquisition of a resource rich in carbohydrates and abundant in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Therefore, more hours of observation are important to assess whether there is a benefit for leafhoppers in this relationship and whether other species of social wasps also use this resource.
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  • 7. https://doi.org/10.1673/031.008.5901> accessed in november 02 2023 ______________________________________ 1 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Minas Gerais (IFMG) - Campus Bambuí. E- mail:lucascamargosprofissional@gmail.com,O RCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0000-9146-7981 2 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Minas Gerais (IFMG) - Campus Bambuí. E-mail: patriciavital231@gmail.com, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0008-5312-2710 3 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas (IFSULDEMINAS) – Campus Inconfidentes. E-mail: luizeduardoc1103@gmail.com, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0008-0473-1122 4 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas (IFSULDEMINAS) – Campus Inconfidentes. E-mail: aguiarf648@gmail.com, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7550-9149 5 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Minas Gerais (IFMG) - Campus Bambuí. E-mail: gabriel.jacques@ifmg.edu.br, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9619-6065 6 - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas (IFSULDEMINAS) – Campus Inconfidentes. E-mail: marcos.souza@ifsuldeminas.edu.br ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0415-1714 70