SlideShare a Scribd company logo
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228
Volume 24 - Número 1 - 1º Semestre 2024
EFEITO DA DIETA NOS CLADOCERA MOINA MINUTA HANSEN (1899) E
DIAPHANOSOMA SPINULOSUM HERBST (1967) SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES
ALIMENTARES
Flávia Martins Franco de Oliveira¹; Maria Cristina Crispim²
RESUMO
Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar o efeito alimentar dos cladocera Moina minuta e
Diaphanosoma spinulosum em diferentes tipos alimentares e concentrações. O estudo testou
diferentes tipos de alimentação (plurialgal e unialgal) e em diferentes densidades alimentares em
três tratamentos T10³ (2,4.103
cél.ml-1
), T104
(2,4.104
cél.ml-1
) e T105
(2,4.105
cél.ml-1
). Os
resultados mostraram que M. minuta, no T10³ não sobreviveram em ambas as culturas. Na cultura
unialgal o T104
e T105
apresentaram no último dia analisado, 17 indivíduos. D. spinulosum obteve
média máxima de 45 indivíduos no T105
(8o
dia). Foram observados 100% de juvenis de D.
spinulosum no 8ºdia (T105
) enquanto no 11º dia, foram observados 84% de juvenis de M. minuta. A
taxa de fecundidade na cultura unialgal apresentou decréscimo no T103
e no T104
, sendo constante
no T105
, enquanto na cultura mista, o T105
apresentou decréscimo. Ambas as espécies foram
sensíveis a quantidade alimentar. M. minuta, apresentou desenvolvimento similar em ambas as
culturas, sendo melhor no T105
. D. spinulosum não apresentou indivíduos no T103 e no T104
no
último dia, revelando que estas espécies são sensíveis a presença de espécies dominantes do
fitoplâncton, como Merismopedia sp e Chlorella sp.
Palavras-chave: Dinâmica populacional, Estado trófico, Zooplâncton.
DIET EFFECT ON CLADOCERA MOINA MINUTA HANSEN (1899) AND
DIAPHANOSOMA SPINULOSUM HERBST (1967) UNDER DIFFERENT FOOD
CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT
This study aims to analyze the feeding effect on Cladocera Moina minuta and Diaphanosoma
spinulosum under different food and concentration. The study tested different feeding (plurialgal
and unialgal) and under different food density in three treatments: T103
(2.4.103
cel.ml-1
), T104
(2.4.104
cel.ml-1
) and T105
(2.4.105
cel.ml-1
). The results showed that M. minuta, in T10³, did not
survive in both cultures. In the unialgal culture, the T104
and T105
they showed in the last day
analyzed, 17 individuals. D. spinulosum achived its maximum media of 15 individuals on 8th
day. It
was observed 100% of D. spinulosum juveniles on 8th
day (T103
) nevertheless on 11th
day 84%
juveniles of M. minuta was observed only on T104
. To M. minuta the fecundity rate in the unialgal
culture has shown decrease in T103
and T104
, and it was constant in T105
, while, in the mixed
culture, the treatment T105
has shown decrease. Both species showed sensibility to food quantity.
M. minuta showed a similar development in both culture, better in T105
. D. spinulosum didn’t
present individuals in T103
and T104
on the last day, revealing that this species is sensitive to
phytoplankton dominant species present, as Merismopedia sp. and Chlorella sp.
Keywords: Population dynamics, Trophic state, Zooplankton, Food availability.
79
1 – INTRODUCTION
The study of mutual relations among
phytoplankton and zooplankton communities is
of utmost importance both from ecologic and
economic point of view, by considering that the
aquatic animals from nekton and benthos,
especially the species of commercial interest,
feed directly on plankton, at least in some stage
of their development (LEMUS et al, 2004).
Sipaúba-Tavares et al., (2014) comments that it
is extremely important to verify the type of
culture that best causes zooplankton
development. In aquaculture, mainly in fish
culture (ABE et al., 2016; AZEVEDO et al.,
2016; CAMPELO et al., 2019, ROCHA et al.,
2021) and molluscs (SQUELLA et al., 2015;
LIMA et al., 2018), zooplankton exercises a
crucial role, since the larvae and fingerlings do
not welcome the feed as their food (PIEDRAS
and POUEY, 2004).
With this, the selection of living
organisms is of utmost importance and the
compatible nutritional value, ease of large-scale
cultivation and the appropriate size (LAVENS
et al., 2000; BARROS and VALENTI, 2003), to
allow the capture, management and intake of
them by larvae and fingerlings. The organisms
production, which most are adapted to the taste
of consumption organisms, should be also taken
into consideration. In the environment, for
exemple, factors such as water temperature,
transparency, luminosity, competition, vertical
distribution of organisms, availability of
nutrientes and allelopathy with other primary
producers, in addition to predation by
zooplankton (MULLER et al. 2012) are
fundamental for characterization the types and
density of phytoplankton and zooplankton.
Lampert (1981a) mentions one of
cyanobacteria effects on Cladocera species,
reporting that Microcystis aeruginosa can
significantly reduce the filtration capacity of
Daphnia pulicaria, on a diet based on a
Scenedesmus, with carbon concentration of
50µg.L-1
. Following the same trend, Heathcote
et al. (2016) also reported a negative
interference of individuals or colonies of
cyanobacteria, as a key mechanism of efficiency
loss in the use of resources by zooplankton.
Conversely, large size Daphnia could be an
effective solution on controlling the excessive
growth of cyanobacteria, according to Urrutia-
Cordero et al. (2016). Gilbert (1990)
demonstrates that Daphnia species can suppress
rotifers on food competition, and that
cyanobacteria can generally inhibit the growth
of Cladocera species over rotifer ones. In this
way, the importance of elucidating the
relationships between phytoplankton and
zooplankton is verified and several other works
have emphasized this dynamic (OLIVEIRA and
CRISPIM, 2013a; OLIVEIRA and CRISPIM,
2013b; PÉREZ LEGASPI et al., 2015; CHEN et
al., 2016; SEVERIANO, 2017; OVIEDO-
MONTIEL et al., 2019, ROCHA et al., 2021,
OLIVEIRA and CRISPIM, 2022)
According to Sipaúda-Tavares and
Rocha (2013), one factor that must be
considered is cell wall thickness, which can
determine rates of digestibility. This way, small
size chlorophytes are considered a useful food
source. Analyzing the predation effect on a
reservoir in southeastern Brazil, Gnocchi et al.
(2014) noted differences in cyanophyte density,
influenced by the presence of zooplankton.
When zooplankton was present, cyanophyte
density was lower than chlorophytes, and the
opposite trend was registered when zooplankton
was absent. Moreover, Severiano (2017)
reported that an increase in zooplankton
biomass (being this group mainly represented
by Brachionus rubens and Crustacea nauplii)
did not affect filamentous cyanobacteria, but the
increase in biomass of phytoplankton taxa
significantly reduced the presence of such
cyanobacteria. This shows the complexity of the
relationship between phytoplankton and
zooplankton communities.
In this way, this study aims to clarify
some aspects on the population dynamics of the
Cladocera species, Moina minuta and
Diaphanosoma spinulosum, in face of different
algal food quantities and qualities, in their
population dynamics, and aiming a large-
scale production for aquaculture, since these
species have a wide occurrence in Paraíba state,
Brazil and are easily seeing by predators.
For this purpose, laboratory experiments
were carried out with different treatments,
unialgal and mixed cultures, and the different
effects found in Cladocera species were
analyzed through organism counting, and
biometric analysis in adults.
This research tested the following
hypotheses: H1 – the density of both Cladocera
species, their embryos and their size are
influenced by the amount of food; H2 – The
unialgal diet will be a restrictive factor and will
negative interfere in the number of embryos and
both species densities; H3 – A minimum
amount of mixed and unialgal food will be a
limiting resource.
2 - MATERIAL AND METHODS
The experiments were carried out in the
Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology
(LABEA/DSE/Federal University of Paraíba),
for 11 days (no more, because M. minuta
population increased so much, that was
impossible to count and measure the
individuals). Zooplankton cultures were
obtained from ephippia present in the sediment
of the Manoel Marcionilio Dam, in Taperoá,
PB. Both species are used in this aquaculture
experiment, because they are good food and
easy to capture, so we tried to verify their
behavior in relation to the quantity and quality
of food administered in order to propose a better
feeding culture protocol.
Regarding food quality, two types of
algal cultures were used: mixed culture (with
algae of genera Chlorella sp, Tetraedron sp,
Microcystis sp, Scenedesmus sp, Coelastrum sp,
Kirchneriela sp, Trachelomonas sp,
Selenastrum sp and Merismopedia sp, with
Chlorella sp and Merismopedia sp. as the most
relative abundant genera and unialgal culture
(Kirchneriela contorta). For both cultures, the
Conway medium was used (WALNE, 1966).
The mixed culture was obtained from the
experimental tank of the aquatic ecology
laboratory and the Kirchneriella contorta
culture were obtained from the plankton
laboratory.
Initially, mother cultures were obtained
from zooplankton individuals of the species
Moina minuta, Diaphanosoma spinulosum and
kept in plastic containers at environmental
temperature (25+2 o
C).
For the tests, initially, adult samples of
medium-sized M. minuta and D. spinulosum
non ovigerous, were cultivated in a vessel with
capacity of 300 mL, with 100 mL of water and
were covered with a screen, to allow the
exchange of gases and avoid insect larvae. D.
spinulosum was not subjected to unialgal
treatment; the results are only for the mixed
culture treatment.
The micro-algal cultures (unialgal and
mixed) were kept in acclimatized environment,
with 24 + 1ºC and constant lighting. The count
of algae to feed Cladocera in the experimental
culture was carried out by using Fuchs
Rosental, counting chamber, and applying
three treatments with densities of 2,4 x 103
cells.mL-1
(T10³); 2,4 x 104
cells.mL-1
(T104
)
and 2,4 x 105
cells.mL-1
(T105
). For each
experimental treatment, three replicates were
made, containing an initial density of 5
cladocerans species individuals, each one,
involving an overall of 15 individuals per
treatment. Food was offered three times a
week, always preceded by algal count, to keep
the same algal density. The water was changed
weekly. Two times a week, the zooplankton
organisms were counted, measured, and
identified as having or not eggs/embryos,
to fecundity analysis.
Biometrics – the biometrics of
Cladocera species analyzed was carried out in
live animals. The body was measured by
considering from the anterior to the posterior
edge. To distinguish the adults of the juveniles,
the shorter lengths of females with
eggs/embryos or pregnant females, from this
length to the upper part, were considered adults
and the values lower than those lengths were
considered as juveniles.
Fertility – for the fertility analyses, eggs
and/or embryos in the incubation chambers of
females were considered. These data were used
in the following formula:
F = mnumber of eggs/embryos
total adult females
In order to compare the biometric data,
food quality and quantity, ANOVA was used
through the statistical program SPSS (STAT
SOFT, 1998).
3 – RESULTS
3.1 – Population density and length
The experiment with M. minuta, which
was fed through unialgal culture, has shown
several lengths between 90µm and 480µm, and
the organisms with up to 280µm were
considered young. In T103
, organisms were not
recorded on the 11th
experimental day,
consequently, there was total mortality. T104
oscillated between minimum average of 5 and
a maximum of 17 organisms throughout the
experiment, but only in T105
the maximum
number of organisms was verified with an
average of 38 individuals in the 8th day (Fig.
2), decreasing after that.
M. minuta, in the treatment with
plurialgalculture had their lengths varying
from 200µm to 550µm, and the juveniles varied
up to 250µm. Individuals did not survive until
the end of the experiment in the treatment with
the lowest amount of food (T103
), in which case
individuals were registered on 4th
day and 8th
,
and accounting for 8 organisms in this
treatment.
As juveniles length were higher in
unialgal culture, it seems that there was a
population effort to individual growth instead
populational one. Maybe the nutritional value of
plurialgal culture was not able to support bigger
populations. In fact, fecundity, juveniles and
densities achieved higher values in unialgal
culture, especially on T104
treatment. The
dominant species in plurialgal culture,
Merismopedia and Chlorella, probably were not
nutritional enough to maintain higher
populational growth.
In the T104
the individual numbers have
oscillated throughout the experiment, with an
average of 32 organisms on the 8th
, then
reducing the average to 20 on the 11th
day. It
was also registered an increase on treatment
T105
, with an average of individual numbers
almost twice greater on day 8th
, reaching 38
ind., and decreasing to 16 ind on the 11th
day,
(Fig. 2).
The development of M. minuta was
similar for both cultures, considering that there
were no survivors on treatment T103
, and
treatments T104
and T105
continued available,
but reaching on the end of the experiment near
20 ind, what means a density of about 200
ind.L-1
. Therefore, what most interfered on
individual numbers was not the quality or algae
type, but the amount of food resources used on
each treatment, revealing that this species needs
a larger amount of food in order to maintain
viable populations.
Figure 2: Media number of individuals of M.minuta in
the three treatments (T10³, T104
, T105
) by using unialgal
culture (above) and by using mixed culture (below)
throughout the experimental period.
Font: Elaborated by the author
The experiment with D. spinulosum
being fed with mixed algal food presented
organisms between 240µm and 650µm, being
considered juveniles up to 300µm. In this
treatment the individuals did not increase, most
treatments decreased densities. It is relevant to
salient that D. spinulosum achieved the
maximum density on 8th
day in T105
with 15
individuals, decreasing numbers after that. In
the other treatments T10³ e T104
no individuals
survived untill the 11th
day (Fig. 3).
Figure 3: Media number of individuals of Diaphanosoma
spinulosum in the three treatments (T10³, T104
, T105
) by
using mixed culture throughout the experimental period
Font: Elaborated by the author
The development of M. minuta in the
mixed culture produced better outcomes than D.
spinulosum. On the mixed culture, D.
spinulosum count reached the maximum of 15
organisms on treatment T105
, with a decrease in
the number of organisms on the 11th
day.
Moreover, none of D. spinulosum organisms
survived on treatments T103
and T104
by the
end of the experiment. Conversely, the counts of
M. minuta surpassed 30 organisms on the last
treatment.
3.2 – Percentage of juveniles
Juveniles were not counted on the 1st
day
of any of treatments because the experiments
initiated with adult non ovigerous females. In
the experiment with M. minuta with unialgal
culture, individuals with up to 280µm were
considered juveniles. In this way, juveniles were
registered on the 4th
and 8th
days of experiment
in treatment T103
, corresponding to 40.9% and
20%, respectively.
The highest percentage of juveniles, in
the unialgal feeding treatment, was observed in
T104
of the last day analyzed (84%) and the
lowest percentage was 20% in T10³ of the 8th
day. Throughout the whole experiment and in
all the treatments, the value 55% of juveniles
was rarely surpassed (Fig. 4).
M. minuta individuals fed with mixed
culture were considered juveniles up to 250µm.
25% of juveniles were recorded in treatment
T103
only on 8th
day. Regarding the percentage
of juveniles throughout the experiment in
the mixed culture, there were no records of
juveniles until the 8th experimental day;
however, on the 8th day, the percentage value
found was above 20% in T103
and in T104
; and,
on the 11th
day, juveniles were not found in
T103
, only in the two other treatments in the
mixed culture (Fig. 4).
Figure 4: Percentage of M. minuta juveniles in the three
treatments (T10³, T104
, T105
) using unialgal culture
(above) and mixed culture (below) throughout the
experimental period.
Font: Elaborated by the author
D. spinulosum juveniles fed with mixed
culture were considered juveniles up to 300µm
size. Treatment T103
registered juveniles on the
4th
and 8th
days of experiment, with the later
corresponding to 100% of juveniles. The
percentage of juveniles of D. spinulosum was
present between 100%, since all adult died in
T103
in 8th
experimental day, and 11% in T105
in
11th
day. The presence of juveniles in T103
and
T104
, was observed until 8th
experimental day,
only in T105
juveniles were observed all
analyzed days (Fig. 5).
Figure 5: Percentage of D. spinulosum juveniles in the
three treatments (T10³, T104
, T105
) by using mixed
culture throughout the experimental period.
Font: Elaborated by the author
When comparing M. minuta and D.
spinulosum treatments fed with mixed culture,
the later species show a higher percentage of
juveniles, as well as the presence of juveniles
during all days of experiment. Even though, D.
spinulosum has not had a satisfactory
population development, showing M. minuta
higher numbers at the end of the experiment.
3.3 – Fecundity rate
It was observed that the treatment with
higher food amount (T105
), in the
unialgal culture with M. minuta, has shown
more homogeneous fertility rates throughout
the experiment, while in treatment T104
and
T103
the fertility rates have always
decreased throughout the time. This is due to
the high population densities achieved in
T105
treatment, showing more stability in the
well-fed population, while in lower food levels,
fecundity decreased along time. That reflected
in population extinction under T103
treatment
and lower numbers in T104
treatment.
In 104
treatment there was an effort of
increase population, especially in earlier days,
through high reproduction rate, but could not be
maintained, due low food levels (Fig. 6).
The fertility rate in T105
, in the mixed
culture with M. minuta, was higher than the
others in the 4th
experimental day, then
experiencing a period of decline until the end of
the experiment. This occurred because M.
minuta tried a population increase, but probably
the low quality of food did not favor high
fecundity rates and the population presented
slightly increases in fecundity rates in 105
mixed
algal treatment. This rates in T104
had also
experienced a period of decline between the 4th
and the 8th day (Fig. 6). This was explained by
the great increase of densities under this
treatment. As food decreased by the increase in
consumption, the M. minuta population
decreased as well, allowing a new increase in
reproduction and densities. In T103
there were
found ovigerous females only in the 8th day of
experiment (Fig. 8), but the population did not
survive the low food levels, that not allowed egg
production most of the time.
Fecundity rates of M. minuta fed with
unialgal and mixed cultures showed different
results. In the unialgal culture, fecundity rates
were higher than 1.4 in all days of experiments
and in most of treatments, while in the mixed
culture, fecundity rates were around 0.4 in all
days of experiments and in most of treatments.
Figure 6: Fecundity rate of M. minuta in the three
treatments (T10³, T104
, T105
) by using unialgal culture
(above) and by using mixed culture (below) throughout
the experimental period.
Font: Elaborated by the author
D. spinulosum in the mixed culture, the
only treatment where the species was observed
all the experimental days was T105
, while in
T104
, the fecundity rate declined from 4th
day
on, with no eggs or embryos registered on 11th
day.
Fecundity rates did not reach 0.5 in the
treatments with M. minuta and D. spinulosum
fed with mixed culture in most of treatments,
excepting in treatment T105
(on the 4th
day for
M. minuta, and on the 8th
day for D.
spinulosum). Treatment T103
showed similar
low results for both species, and only Moina
registered egg/embryos on the 8th
day (Figs. 6
and 7).
Figure 7: Fecundity of D.spinulosum in the three
treatments (T10³, T104
, T105
) by using mixed culture
throughout the experimental period.
Font: Elaborated by the author
The ANOVA results, in the unialgal
culture, showed that, there were significant
differences among the M. minuta lengths of the
individuals in the three treatments in the 11th
day of experiment in both cultures, and the
organisms were larger in the treatments with
higher algal concentrations (Tab 1).
The analyses to test the influence of
(unialgal and mixed) food quality on the lengths
of M. minuta showed significant differences in
T104
on 8th
and 11th
day and in T105
on 11th
day,
and the larger individuals are in mixed
treatment (Tab 2).
ANOVA data showed that differences
among length, subjected to different food
quantity in the mixed culture along the
experiment period were no significant to D.
spinulosum. (Tab 3 ).
Table 1: ANOVA results comparing the lenghts of M.
minuta which were submitted to unialgal food (above)
and mixed food (below), on each day of analysis, amount
throughout the experimente. The value in bold is
significant.
ANOVA
(unialgal food)
F p ( %) N
4th Day - - -
8th Day 2,882 0,059 146
11th Day 21,149 ˂0,001 102
ANOVA
(mixed food)
F p ( %) N
4th Day 0,348 0,708 44
8th Day 0,442 0,644 161
11th Day 7,931 0,006 125
Table 2: ANOVA analyses to test the influence of
unialgal and mixed food quality on the lenght od M.
minuta, separately in each treatment (103
, 104
, 105
), along
the experimente period.
ANOVA
(M. minuta)
F p (%) N
8th Day 10³ 2,149 0,155 28
104 6,740 0,011 115
105 0,465 0,496 164
11th Day 10³ - - -
104 14,689 ˂0,001 112
105 5,816 0,017 115
Table 3: ANOVA comparing D. spinulosum lenght
subjected to diferente quantities of food in the mixed
culture, on each day of analysis, along the experimente
period.
ANOVA
(D. spinulosum)
F p (%) N
4th Day 0,358 0,701 72
8th Day 0,358 0,701 52
11th Day - - -
4 – DISCUSSION
Analyzing food relationships among the
plankton, M. minuta show similar populations
growths between the two types, unialgal and
plurialgal food, reaching a slightly higher peak
in unialgal culture (T105
), and final density
lightly higher in the mixed culture (T104
and
T105
). However, the percentage of juveniles
was higher at unialgal culture, which can be a
result of a higher adult or juvenile mortality
rate, since abundance of adults did not increase
at the experiment end. Has the final abundance
been similar in both uni and plurialgal cultures,
it looks like that space could had been limitant
to this species, since there was only 100 mL of
water.
The highest abundance peak was
obtained in treatment T105
, with unialgal
culture, on the 8th
day, reaching an average of
37 individuals, and decreasing to 16 individuals
in the following analysis. Plurialgal food culture
reached the highest density peak also on the 8th
day in treatment T104
, corresponding to an
average of 32 individuals, and then reducing to
20 individuals. Rocha et al. (2021) observed a
growth peack of Moina sp on 11th
day reaching
150 org/mL subjected to Scenedesmus
subspicatus and fish ration as food. Macedo and
Pinto-Coelho (2000) observed that Daphnia
laevis reached a greater number of individuals,
with a diet of Ankistrodesmus gracilis, than
when fed with Scenedesmus quadricauda. This
result reveals the influence of food quality (i.e.
different preys) on the fecundity rates of
Cladocera populations. Analyzing the
interference of cyanobacteria on the diet of large
size Daphia, Urrutia-Cordero et al. (2016) noted
that they were capable of reduce the abundance
of Aphanizomenon, Dolichospermum,
Microcystis and Planktothrix, while the
filamentous Dolichospermum crissum were
positively affected.
Sipaúba-Tavares et al. (2014), evaluating
the Cladocera Diaphanosoma birgei growth
when fed with the microalgae Chlorophyceae,
Anikstrodesmus gracilis and Haematococcus
pluvialis in monoculture and mixed culture,
found that only A. gracilis and mixed
microalgae diets were able to maintain adequate
levels in egg production and development in D.
birgei. In the present study, the development of
M. minuta in mixed culture yielded better
outcomes than the development of D.
spinulosum in the same culture, indicating that
the later species is more affected by food quality
(i.e. algae type). Nevertheless, unialgal seemed
to be of better quality than the plurialgal, since
higher abundance was observed in 8th
day.
Vieira et al. (2011) testing M. minuta
and D. spinulosum in different trophic states
(oligo, meso and eutrophic) observed that there
was a density peak followed by a sequent
decrease, before the end of the experiment. The
same was observed in our research, the 8th
day
was the day with higher densities in M. minuta,
in both cultures, uni (T105
) and plurialgal
(T104
). Looks like there is a population effort
for growing, that declines afterwards, if there is
no conditions to support that grow. That is
observed in fecundity rates, that increase in the
early days, but decrease in the sequence, maybe
limited by space, or interspecific competition
for food. Maximum abundance in the Vieira et
al. (2011) research was similar to those
achieved in this work, with 30 individuals
maximum, and also showed that M. minuta
developed higher populations under higher food
levels.
Crispim et al. (2003) observed M.
minuta, high population densities over 1,200
ind.L-1
in a short period, in organisms ecloded
from ephippia. It seems there is an effort to
increase densities in both treatments, but
environmental conditions would only tolerate an
average of 25 up to 30 individuals (250 and 300
ind.L-1
), although as the experiment ended at
11th
, no conclusive result is available. As
observed in Macrothrix cf. trisserialis in
research carried out by Oliveira and Crispim
(2022) there seems to be something in the food
with K. contorta that inhibits the growth of the
species in the highest food concentration.
Population growth should be described by an
ascendant trend in unialgal culture, because
around 80% of individuals were juveniles. This
demonstrates that M. minuta is less sensitive to
food quality over quantity. When analyzing the
percentage of juveniles, D. spinulosum species
did have a better development than M. minuta
with the same culture reaching 100%,
nevertheless this does not result in higher
populations, since the abundance in D.
spinulosum was lower (half)_ than in M. minuta,
revealing higher mortality rates in juveniles or
adults.
Examining the food quality is an
essential step to the development of a good
culture. Studying the influence of the diet on
survival, development, and growth rates of
crustaceans, Camara et al. (2014) found out that
Notodiaptomus cearensis had better nutritional
adequacy with chlorophytes algae than
cyanophytes, and that Ceriodaphnia dubia
presented higher mortality rates and fecundity
reduction with cyanobacteria treatment.
Heathcote et al. (2016), analyzing the
relationship between phytoplankton and
zooplankton biomass of eutrophic lakes, also
reported a reduction in zooplankton biomass
related to the presence of cyanobacteria,
emphasizing how eutrophization leads to a
decline in the effective use of resources by
consumers. As the plurialgal culture were
dominated by Merismopedia (cyanobacteria)
and Chlorella sp., maybe the population growth
could be better, for both species, if a better algae
quality was present.
In a study carried out by Severiano
(2017), the author demonstrated that in higher
zooplankton concentration, spiral cyanobacteria
Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and
Dolychospermum sp. increased their filament
sizes, indicating that the morphology can act as
defense mechanisms.
The amount of food in treatment T104
of
the mixed culture was high enough to maintain
positive growth rates of M. minuta, indicating
an algae concentration threshold of 103
not
adequate to Moina minuta cultures. The
decrease in M. minuta on T103
, was a result of
decrease in fecundity rates, that was 0,0 on 11th
day, and no jeveniles were observed as well. Is
possible the initial densities could have food
enough, but with densities increase food became
limiting.
As densities in both treatments T104
and
T105
(unialgal and mixed) ended up the same, it
is possible that the maximum limit delimitated
by the available space was reached. Nakauth et
al. (2015), studying Moina sp. growth in a static
system using Chorella sp. and fishmeal, explain
that this food culture can maintain fish larvae
production, if they start optimizing the
production from the 4th
day on to keep the
exponential growth period.
The length of individuals grown in the
mixed algae culture was significantly higher
than those grown in the unialgal culture.
Furthermore, in the treatment T105
with mixed
culture, individuals were still significantly
larger, being more effective in aquaculture. This
way, it is proposed a diet with minimum
concentration of 105
, which will provide more
biomass and, consequently, more food resource
to the larvae. Nakauth et al. (2015) note that the
size of organisms offers information of which
developmental phase the organisms can be used
to feed fish larvae.
Fecundity rates in the three unialgal
treatments were twice higher than in the
plurialgal cultures. The unialgal treatment T104
showed a sharp decline on the fecundity rates,
while T105
maintained constant rates throughout
the experiment. The reproductive effort is
expected to decline as the densities rise, a trend
observed in other studies (Crispim and Boavida,
2002). Pérez Legaspi et al. (2015) verified that
the highest fertility and fecundity rate of
Ceriodaphnia cornuta accurred at 30ºC, fed
with Scenedesmus obliquos and the lowest
occurred when fed with Nannochloris oculata
proving that phytoplankton species play no
importante role in zooplankton population
growth.
Macedo and Pinto-Coelho (2000) also
reported in their research that Moina micrura
produced eggs two days before, when fed with
Ankistrodesmus gracilis than when fed with
Scenedesmus quadricauda. According to
Beatrici (2004), Daphnia similis produced better
outcomes related to its fertility in medium M4,
and with diet based on Selenastrum
capricornutum and S. capricornutum, than when
artemia was used. However, when using
medium ISO associated with other diet types,
the fertility rates of Cladodera were lower than
one individual per female per day.
5 – CONCLUSION
Moina minuta showed higher population
growth in T105
for the unialgal culture and in
T104
for the mixed culture throughout the
experimental period. Their body length was
significantly higher in the plurialgal culture and
the percentage of young individuals was higher
in unialgal culture, as well as fecundity.
With regard to the three treatments, the
higher amount of M.minuta during the whole
experiment was obtained in treatment T104
in
the plurialgal culture and in T105
in the unialgal
culture. This means that one of the algae
Chlorella or Merismopedia inhibited the
M.minuta growth, as their population did not
increased higher in the presence of more food.
The treatment T10³, in both culture types for
both species, proved to be unfeasible since the
organisms could not survive until the end of the
experiment. We observed that Hipothesis 2 was
accepted, since densities, lengths and
fecundities were benefit from T105
; H3 was also
corroborated, with 104
being the minimum limit
in cultures for these two species tested H2 was
rejected, since unialgal culture was able of
maintain growing populations, since in higher
densities.
6 – BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES
ABE, H.A.; DIAS, J.A.R.; REIS R.G.A.;
SOUSA N.C.; RAMOS F.M.; FUJIMOTO,
R.Y. Manejo alimentar e densidade de
estocagem na larvicultura do peixe ornamental
amazônico Heros severus. Boletim do Instituto
de Pesca, v.42., n.3, p. 514-522, 2016.
AZEVEDO, R.V.; FOSSE FILHO, J.C.;
PEREIRA, S.L.; ANDRADE, D.R.; VIDAL
JÚNIOR, M.V. Prebiótico, probiótico e
simbiótico para larvas de Trichogaster leeri
(Bleeker, 1852, Perciformes, Osphronemidae).
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e
Zootecnia. v.68, n.3, p.795-804, 2016.
BARROS, H.P.; VALENTI, W.C. Ingestion
Rates of Artemia nauolii for Different Larval
Stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
Aquaculture, v.217, n.(1-4), p.223-233, 2003.
BEATRICI, A.C.. Avaliação da fertilidade e
sensibilidade de Daphnia similis e Daphnia
magna (crustácea cladocera) submetida a
diferentes tipos de dietas e meios de cultivo.
Dissertação – Mestrado em Ecologia pela
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
2004.
CAMARA, F.R.A.; PESSOA , E.K.R.;
SANTOS, L.L.S.; ROCHA, O.; CHELLAPPA,
S.; CHELLAPPA, N.T., Influência da
alimentação na taxa de sobrevivência e
desenvolvimento de Notodiaptomus cearensis
Wright, 1936 (Crustacea: Copepoda) e
Physiocypria schubarti Farkas, 1958
(Crustacea: Ostracoda), Biota Amazônia.
Macapá, v. 4, n. 2, p. 43-50, 2014.
CAMPELO, D.A.V.; SILVA, I.C.;.
MARQUES, M.H.C.; EIRAS, B.J.C.F.;
BRABO, M.F.; MOURA, L.B.; VERAS, G.C.
Estratégias alimentares na larvicultura do peixe
ornamental amazônico acará-severo (Heros
severus) (Heckel, 1840). Arquivo Brasileiro de
Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia., v.71, n.5,
p. 1601-1608, 2019.
CHEN, R.; TANG, H.; ZHAO, F.; WU, V.;
HUANG, V; VANG, Z. Food availability and
initial relative abundance determine the
outcome of interspecific competition between
two different-sized cladocerans. International
Review of Hydrobiology, v.101, n. 1, p.105-
112, 2016.
CRISPIM, M. C e BOAVIDA, M.J. Competição
entre Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Daphnia
hyalina e Daphnia parvula. Revista nordestina
de Biologia, 16(1/2): 71-89, 2002.
CRISPIM, M. C., PAZ. R. J. e WATANABE,
T. Comparison of different Moina minuta
population dynamics ecloded from resting eggs
in a semi arid region in Brazil. Brazilian
Journal of Ecology. 1 e 2: 33-38, 2003.
GILBERT, J.J., Differential Effects of
Anabaena affinis on Cladocerans and Rotifers:
Mechanisms and Implications. Ecology, 71 (5),
pp. 1727-1740, 1990.
GNOCCHI, K.G; MIRANDA, T.O.;
MORETTI, M.S. Efeito de predação do
zooplâncton sobre as comunidades de
fitoplâncton em um pequeno reservatório numa
Floresta de Tabuleiro, Sudeste do Brasil.
Natureza on line, 12 (5): 250-243, 2014.
HEATHCOTE, A.J.; FILSTRUP, C.T.;
KENDALL, D.; DOWNING, J.A., Biomass
pyramids in lake plankton: influence of
Cyanobacteria size and abundance. Inland
Waters, pp.250-257 . DOI: 10.5268/IW-
6.2.941, 2016.
LAMPERT, W., Inhibitory and Toxic Effects of
Blue-green Algae on Daphnia. Internationale
Revueder Gesamten Hydrobiologie , 66: 285-
298, 1981a
LAMPERT, W. & SCHOBER, U., The
importance of "Threshold"food concentrations
In: Evolution and Ecology of Zooplankton
Communities, W charles kerfoot (ed) 264-267,
1980.
LAVENS, P.; THONGROD, S.; SORGELOOS.
P., Larval prawn feeds and the dietary
importance of Artemia In: NEW, M.B.;
VALENTI, W.C. (Eds.) Freshwater prawn
culture: the farming of Macrobrachium
rosenbergii. Oxford: Blackwell, p.91-111,
2000.
LEMUS, J.L.C.; TORRES-GARCIA, P.;
FRÍAS, M.M., El Océano y sus Recursos:
Plâncton, v.5, 2004.
LIMA, P.C.M.; LAVANDER, H.D.; SILVA,
L.O.B.; GÁLVEZ, A.O. Larviculture of the
sand clam cultivated in different densities.
Boletim do Instituto de Pesca. V. 44, n. 2, p.
350-358, 2018.
MACEDO, C.F. & PINTO-COELHO, R.M.,
Efeito das algas Ankistrodesmus gracilis e
Scenedesmus quadricauda no crescimento e no
índice lipídico de Daphnia laevis e Moina
micrura. Acta Scientiarum, 2000, 22(2):397-
401. Disponível em:
http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciB
iolSci/article/view/2887 Acessado em:
Julho/2018
NAKAUTH, A.C.S.S.; MÜLLER, R.L.;
VILLACORTA-CORREA, M.A.; Agno Nonato
Serrão ACIOLI, A.N.S.; ALMEIDA, R.
Crescimento populacional do cladocera moina
sp.em sistema de cultivo estático. Anuário do
instituto de natureza e cultura, 2015.
OLIVEIRA, F.M.F. & CRISPIM, M.C., Dieta
de Macrothrix cf. triserialis (Brady, 1886) sob
Diferentes Tratamentos Alimentares. Revista
Internacional de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, v.
12, n. 01, p. 79 – 92. e-ISSN 2316-7041. DOI:
10.12957/ric.2022.59734, 2022.
PÉREZ LEGASPI, I. A., GARCÍA VILLAR, A.
M., GARATACHIA VARGAS, M.,
HERNÁNDEZ VERGARA, M. P., PÉREZ
ROSTRO, C. I., ORTEGA CLEMENTE, L. A.
Influencia de la temperatura y tipo de alimento
en la historia de vida de Ceriodaphnia cornuta
Sars (1885) (Crustacea: Cladocera).
Investigación y Ciencia. Nº 64, 11-18, ISSN:
1665-4412, 2015.
PIEDRAS, Sérgio Renato Noguez & POUEY,
Juvêncio Luis Osório Fernandes. Alimentação
de Alevinos de Peixe-Rei (Odontesthes
Bonariensis) com Dietas Naturais e Artificiais.
Ciência Rural, vol.34, n.4, 2004.
ROCHA, K.C.; ARAUCO, L.R.R.; MAIA,
A.M.; PIMENTA, J.L.L.A. Crescimento
populacional de Moina sp. alimentadas com
diferentes dietas para uso na larvicultura e
aquariofilia. Research, Society and
Development, v. 10, n. 13. ISSN 2525-3409 |
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-
v10i13.20909, 2021.
SEVERIANO, J.S., Efeitos do zooplâncton
sobre o fitoplâncton e as cianotoxinas:
abordagem experimental em um reservatório
tropical eutrófico. Tese – Doutorado em
Botânica pela Universidade Federal de
Pernambuco, Recife – Brasil, 2017.
SIPAÚBA-TAVARES, L.H. & ROCHA,
O.,Produção de plâncton (fitoplâncton e
Zooplâncton) para alimentação de
organismos aquáticos. São Carlos, ed. RiMa,
2003.
SIPAÚBA-TAVARES, L.H; TRUZZI, B.S. and
BERCHIELLI-MORAIS, F.A. Growth and
development time of subtropical Cladocera
Diaphanosoma birgei Korinek, 1981 fed with
different microalgal diets. Brazilian Journal of
Biology, vol.74, 2014.
SQUELLA, F.J.L; ALBUQUERQUE, M.C.P.;
ARAUJO, J.; SÜHNEL, S.; MELO, C.M.R.
Sobrevivência e crescimento de larvas do
molusco de areia Anomalocardia brasiliana
(Gmelin, 1791) em laboratório*. Bol. Instituto
de Pesca, São Paulo, v. 41, n. 1, p. 133 – 14,
2015.
STAT SOFT, Inc., Statistica for windows
(programa de computador). Stat soft, in: Tulsa
(U.S.A.). URL: www.statsoft.com, 1998.
URRUTIA-CORDERO, P.; EKWALL, M.K.;
HANSSON, L.A., Controlling Harmful
Cyanobacteria: Taxa-Specific Responses of
Cyanobacteria to Grazing by Large-Bodied
Daphnia in a Biomanipulation Scenario. PLOS
ONE, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0153032,
2016.
WALNE, P.R., Experimentsin the large-scale
culture of larvae of Ostrea edulis. L. Fishery
Invest. Lond, Serv. 2, 25 (4): 1-53, 1966.
______________________________________
1- PhD by Postgraduate in Development and
Environment Program – PRODEMA/UFPB,
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6974-
138X, E-mail: fmf_oliveira@hotmail.com
2- PhD Teacher of the Systematics and Ecology
Department – UFPB, campus I – 58059-900,
ORCID: 0000-0002-4414-2989
90

More Related Content

Similar to REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_N1_06.pdf

Isolation and potential culture of phytoplankton live feed for freshwater mus...
Isolation and potential culture of phytoplankton live feed for freshwater mus...Isolation and potential culture of phytoplankton live feed for freshwater mus...
Isolation and potential culture of phytoplankton live feed for freshwater mus...
AbdullaAlAsif1
 
journal.pone.0138967
journal.pone.0138967journal.pone.0138967
journal.pone.0138967
Meaghan Daley
 
The role of abiotic factors in diurnal vertical distribution of
The role of abiotic factors in diurnal vertical distribution ofThe role of abiotic factors in diurnal vertical distribution of
The role of abiotic factors in diurnal vertical distribution of
Alexander Decker
 
omnivory_Conley
omnivory_Conleyomnivory_Conley
omnivory_Conley
Walter Conley
 
ferdinand
ferdinandferdinand
Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus amendment on the yield of a Chlorella sp. s...
Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus amendment on the yield of a Chlorella sp. s...Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus amendment on the yield of a Chlorella sp. s...
Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus amendment on the yield of a Chlorella sp. s...
Agriculture Journal IJOEAR
 
Notes on the diet of seven terretrial frogs in three agroecosystems
Notes on the diet of seven terretrial frogs in three agroecosystemsNotes on the diet of seven terretrial frogs in three agroecosystems
Notes on the diet of seven terretrial frogs in three agroecosystems
Rodrigo Souza Santos
 
Keystone species
Keystone   speciesKeystone   species
Keystone species
bhavnesthakur
 
Phytochemical screening and proximate composition of the sea grasses Enhalus ...
Phytochemical screening and proximate composition of the sea grasses Enhalus ...Phytochemical screening and proximate composition of the sea grasses Enhalus ...
Phytochemical screening and proximate composition of the sea grasses Enhalus ...
Innspub Net
 
Emily Shultz-Optimized Seperation of Estuarin Plankton to Determine Associati...
Emily Shultz-Optimized Seperation of Estuarin Plankton to Determine Associati...Emily Shultz-Optimized Seperation of Estuarin Plankton to Determine Associati...
Emily Shultz-Optimized Seperation of Estuarin Plankton to Determine Associati...
Emily Shultz, M.S.
 
Feeding Performance and Effectiveness of Ladybird Beetles for Cowpea Aphids C...
Feeding Performance and Effectiveness of Ladybird Beetles for Cowpea Aphids C...Feeding Performance and Effectiveness of Ladybird Beetles for Cowpea Aphids C...
Feeding Performance and Effectiveness of Ladybird Beetles for Cowpea Aphids C...
Dave K Murahwi
 
Final Paper - Adolfo
Final Paper - AdolfoFinal Paper - Adolfo
Final Paper - Adolfo
Adolfo Hernandez
 
The Use of Sub-Tropical East Coast Copepod Species as live feed for fish larv...
The Use of Sub-Tropical East Coast Copepod Species as live feed for fish larv...The Use of Sub-Tropical East Coast Copepod Species as live feed for fish larv...
The Use of Sub-Tropical East Coast Copepod Species as live feed for fish larv...
Deborah Robertson-Andersson
 
Distribution of macrozoobenthos in river narmada near water intake point
Distribution of macrozoobenthos in river narmada near water intake pointDistribution of macrozoobenthos in river narmada near water intake point
Distribution of macrozoobenthos in river narmada near water intake point
Alexander Decker
 
Microalgae: an indispensible feed for bivalves
Microalgae: an indispensible feed for bivalvesMicroalgae: an indispensible feed for bivalves
Microalgae: an indispensible feed for bivalves
International Aquafeed
 
4.Influence of stocking density on production and water quality of a photo-he...
4.Influence of stocking density on production and water quality of a photo-he...4.Influence of stocking density on production and water quality of a photo-he...
4.Influence of stocking density on production and water quality of a photo-he...
earambulm3
 
Diversity_Molluscan_Communities_Kondakarla_Freshwater_Lake_Visakhapatnam.pdf
Diversity_Molluscan_Communities_Kondakarla_Freshwater_Lake_Visakhapatnam.pdfDiversity_Molluscan_Communities_Kondakarla_Freshwater_Lake_Visakhapatnam.pdf
Diversity_Molluscan_Communities_Kondakarla_Freshwater_Lake_Visakhapatnam.pdf
SSR Institute of International Journal of Life Sciences
 
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perma perna (L.); Tripneustes gratula (L...
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perma perna (L.); Tripneustes gratula (L...Microplastic uptake and retention in Perma perna (L.); Tripneustes gratula (L...
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perma perna (L.); Tripneustes gratula (L...
Deborah Robertson-Andersson
 
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perna perna (L.); Tripneustes gratilla (...
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perna perna (L.); Tripneustes gratilla (...Microplastic uptake and retention in Perna perna (L.); Tripneustes gratilla (...
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perna perna (L.); Tripneustes gratilla (...
MACE Lab
 
Feeding
FeedingFeeding

Similar to REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_N1_06.pdf (20)

Isolation and potential culture of phytoplankton live feed for freshwater mus...
Isolation and potential culture of phytoplankton live feed for freshwater mus...Isolation and potential culture of phytoplankton live feed for freshwater mus...
Isolation and potential culture of phytoplankton live feed for freshwater mus...
 
journal.pone.0138967
journal.pone.0138967journal.pone.0138967
journal.pone.0138967
 
The role of abiotic factors in diurnal vertical distribution of
The role of abiotic factors in diurnal vertical distribution ofThe role of abiotic factors in diurnal vertical distribution of
The role of abiotic factors in diurnal vertical distribution of
 
omnivory_Conley
omnivory_Conleyomnivory_Conley
omnivory_Conley
 
ferdinand
ferdinandferdinand
ferdinand
 
Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus amendment on the yield of a Chlorella sp. s...
Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus amendment on the yield of a Chlorella sp. s...Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus amendment on the yield of a Chlorella sp. s...
Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus amendment on the yield of a Chlorella sp. s...
 
Notes on the diet of seven terretrial frogs in three agroecosystems
Notes on the diet of seven terretrial frogs in three agroecosystemsNotes on the diet of seven terretrial frogs in three agroecosystems
Notes on the diet of seven terretrial frogs in three agroecosystems
 
Keystone species
Keystone   speciesKeystone   species
Keystone species
 
Phytochemical screening and proximate composition of the sea grasses Enhalus ...
Phytochemical screening and proximate composition of the sea grasses Enhalus ...Phytochemical screening and proximate composition of the sea grasses Enhalus ...
Phytochemical screening and proximate composition of the sea grasses Enhalus ...
 
Emily Shultz-Optimized Seperation of Estuarin Plankton to Determine Associati...
Emily Shultz-Optimized Seperation of Estuarin Plankton to Determine Associati...Emily Shultz-Optimized Seperation of Estuarin Plankton to Determine Associati...
Emily Shultz-Optimized Seperation of Estuarin Plankton to Determine Associati...
 
Feeding Performance and Effectiveness of Ladybird Beetles for Cowpea Aphids C...
Feeding Performance and Effectiveness of Ladybird Beetles for Cowpea Aphids C...Feeding Performance and Effectiveness of Ladybird Beetles for Cowpea Aphids C...
Feeding Performance and Effectiveness of Ladybird Beetles for Cowpea Aphids C...
 
Final Paper - Adolfo
Final Paper - AdolfoFinal Paper - Adolfo
Final Paper - Adolfo
 
The Use of Sub-Tropical East Coast Copepod Species as live feed for fish larv...
The Use of Sub-Tropical East Coast Copepod Species as live feed for fish larv...The Use of Sub-Tropical East Coast Copepod Species as live feed for fish larv...
The Use of Sub-Tropical East Coast Copepod Species as live feed for fish larv...
 
Distribution of macrozoobenthos in river narmada near water intake point
Distribution of macrozoobenthos in river narmada near water intake pointDistribution of macrozoobenthos in river narmada near water intake point
Distribution of macrozoobenthos in river narmada near water intake point
 
Microalgae: an indispensible feed for bivalves
Microalgae: an indispensible feed for bivalvesMicroalgae: an indispensible feed for bivalves
Microalgae: an indispensible feed for bivalves
 
4.Influence of stocking density on production and water quality of a photo-he...
4.Influence of stocking density on production and water quality of a photo-he...4.Influence of stocking density on production and water quality of a photo-he...
4.Influence of stocking density on production and water quality of a photo-he...
 
Diversity_Molluscan_Communities_Kondakarla_Freshwater_Lake_Visakhapatnam.pdf
Diversity_Molluscan_Communities_Kondakarla_Freshwater_Lake_Visakhapatnam.pdfDiversity_Molluscan_Communities_Kondakarla_Freshwater_Lake_Visakhapatnam.pdf
Diversity_Molluscan_Communities_Kondakarla_Freshwater_Lake_Visakhapatnam.pdf
 
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perma perna (L.); Tripneustes gratula (L...
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perma perna (L.); Tripneustes gratula (L...Microplastic uptake and retention in Perma perna (L.); Tripneustes gratula (L...
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perma perna (L.); Tripneustes gratula (L...
 
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perna perna (L.); Tripneustes gratilla (...
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perna perna (L.); Tripneustes gratilla (...Microplastic uptake and retention in Perna perna (L.); Tripneustes gratilla (...
Microplastic uptake and retention in Perna perna (L.); Tripneustes gratilla (...
 
Feeding
FeedingFeeding
Feeding
 

More from Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS

REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS
 

More from Universidade Federal de Sergipe - UFS (20)

REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V25_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_...
 

Recently uploaded

Surface properties of the seas of Titan as revealed by Cassini mission bistat...
Surface properties of the seas of Titan as revealed by Cassini mission bistat...Surface properties of the seas of Titan as revealed by Cassini mission bistat...
Surface properties of the seas of Titan as revealed by Cassini mission bistat...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
anushkakharat13
 
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPYReview Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
niranjangiri009
 
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana MadjarClassification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptxPotential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
J. Bovas Joel BFSc
 
Introduction to Space (Our Solar System)
Introduction to Space (Our Solar System)Introduction to Space (Our Solar System)
Introduction to Space (Our Solar System)
vanshgarg8002
 
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptxPancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
muralinath2
 
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptxellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
muralinath2
 
Potential of Marine Renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine Renewable and Non renewable energy.pptxPotential of Marine Renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine Renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
J. Bovas Joel BFSc
 
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.netBuy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
ludasams003
 
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic SpecimenSynopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Sérgio Sacani
 
Bioconversion of sago waste and oil cakes into biobutanol using Environmental...
Bioconversion of sago waste and oil cakes into biobutanol using Environmental...Bioconversion of sago waste and oil cakes into biobutanol using Environmental...
Bioconversion of sago waste and oil cakes into biobutanol using Environmental...
Dr NEETHU ASOKAN
 
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...
Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...
Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
Robert Luk
 
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina PârvulescuMARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Rapid pulse drying of marine biomasses - Sigurd Sannan
Rapid pulse drying of marine biomasses - Sigurd SannanRapid pulse drying of marine biomasses - Sigurd Sannan
Rapid pulse drying of marine biomasses - Sigurd Sannan
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
PANDURANGLAWATE1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Surface properties of the seas of Titan as revealed by Cassini mission bistat...
Surface properties of the seas of Titan as revealed by Cassini mission bistat...Surface properties of the seas of Titan as revealed by Cassini mission bistat...
Surface properties of the seas of Titan as revealed by Cassini mission bistat...
 
Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
 
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPYReview Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
 
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
 
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana MadjarClassification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
 
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptxPotential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
 
Introduction to Space (Our Solar System)
Introduction to Space (Our Solar System)Introduction to Space (Our Solar System)
Introduction to Space (Our Solar System)
 
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptxPancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
 
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptxellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
 
Potential of Marine Renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine Renewable and Non renewable energy.pptxPotential of Marine Renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine Renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
 
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.netBuy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
 
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic SpecimenSynopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
 
Bioconversion of sago waste and oil cakes into biobutanol using Environmental...
Bioconversion of sago waste and oil cakes into biobutanol using Environmental...Bioconversion of sago waste and oil cakes into biobutanol using Environmental...
Bioconversion of sago waste and oil cakes into biobutanol using Environmental...
 
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
 
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
 
Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...
Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...
Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...
 
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
 
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina PârvulescuMARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
 
Rapid pulse drying of marine biomasses - Sigurd Sannan
Rapid pulse drying of marine biomasses - Sigurd SannanRapid pulse drying of marine biomasses - Sigurd Sannan
Rapid pulse drying of marine biomasses - Sigurd Sannan
 
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
 

REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 - Artigo_Bioterra_V24_N1_06.pdf

  • 1. REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA E CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA ISSN 1519-5228 Volume 24 - Número 1 - 1º Semestre 2024 EFEITO DA DIETA NOS CLADOCERA MOINA MINUTA HANSEN (1899) E DIAPHANOSOMA SPINULOSUM HERBST (1967) SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES ALIMENTARES Flávia Martins Franco de Oliveira¹; Maria Cristina Crispim² RESUMO Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar o efeito alimentar dos cladocera Moina minuta e Diaphanosoma spinulosum em diferentes tipos alimentares e concentrações. O estudo testou diferentes tipos de alimentação (plurialgal e unialgal) e em diferentes densidades alimentares em três tratamentos T10³ (2,4.103 cél.ml-1 ), T104 (2,4.104 cél.ml-1 ) e T105 (2,4.105 cél.ml-1 ). Os resultados mostraram que M. minuta, no T10³ não sobreviveram em ambas as culturas. Na cultura unialgal o T104 e T105 apresentaram no último dia analisado, 17 indivíduos. D. spinulosum obteve média máxima de 45 indivíduos no T105 (8o dia). Foram observados 100% de juvenis de D. spinulosum no 8ºdia (T105 ) enquanto no 11º dia, foram observados 84% de juvenis de M. minuta. A taxa de fecundidade na cultura unialgal apresentou decréscimo no T103 e no T104 , sendo constante no T105 , enquanto na cultura mista, o T105 apresentou decréscimo. Ambas as espécies foram sensíveis a quantidade alimentar. M. minuta, apresentou desenvolvimento similar em ambas as culturas, sendo melhor no T105 . D. spinulosum não apresentou indivíduos no T103 e no T104 no último dia, revelando que estas espécies são sensíveis a presença de espécies dominantes do fitoplâncton, como Merismopedia sp e Chlorella sp. Palavras-chave: Dinâmica populacional, Estado trófico, Zooplâncton. DIET EFFECT ON CLADOCERA MOINA MINUTA HANSEN (1899) AND DIAPHANOSOMA SPINULOSUM HERBST (1967) UNDER DIFFERENT FOOD CONDITIONS ABSTRACT This study aims to analyze the feeding effect on Cladocera Moina minuta and Diaphanosoma spinulosum under different food and concentration. The study tested different feeding (plurialgal and unialgal) and under different food density in three treatments: T103 (2.4.103 cel.ml-1 ), T104 (2.4.104 cel.ml-1 ) and T105 (2.4.105 cel.ml-1 ). The results showed that M. minuta, in T10³, did not survive in both cultures. In the unialgal culture, the T104 and T105 they showed in the last day analyzed, 17 individuals. D. spinulosum achived its maximum media of 15 individuals on 8th day. It was observed 100% of D. spinulosum juveniles on 8th day (T103 ) nevertheless on 11th day 84% juveniles of M. minuta was observed only on T104 . To M. minuta the fecundity rate in the unialgal culture has shown decrease in T103 and T104 , and it was constant in T105 , while, in the mixed culture, the treatment T105 has shown decrease. Both species showed sensibility to food quantity. M. minuta showed a similar development in both culture, better in T105 . D. spinulosum didn’t present individuals in T103 and T104 on the last day, revealing that this species is sensitive to phytoplankton dominant species present, as Merismopedia sp. and Chlorella sp. Keywords: Population dynamics, Trophic state, Zooplankton, Food availability. 79
  • 2. 1 – INTRODUCTION The study of mutual relations among phytoplankton and zooplankton communities is of utmost importance both from ecologic and economic point of view, by considering that the aquatic animals from nekton and benthos, especially the species of commercial interest, feed directly on plankton, at least in some stage of their development (LEMUS et al, 2004). Sipaúba-Tavares et al., (2014) comments that it is extremely important to verify the type of culture that best causes zooplankton development. In aquaculture, mainly in fish culture (ABE et al., 2016; AZEVEDO et al., 2016; CAMPELO et al., 2019, ROCHA et al., 2021) and molluscs (SQUELLA et al., 2015; LIMA et al., 2018), zooplankton exercises a crucial role, since the larvae and fingerlings do not welcome the feed as their food (PIEDRAS and POUEY, 2004). With this, the selection of living organisms is of utmost importance and the compatible nutritional value, ease of large-scale cultivation and the appropriate size (LAVENS et al., 2000; BARROS and VALENTI, 2003), to allow the capture, management and intake of them by larvae and fingerlings. The organisms production, which most are adapted to the taste of consumption organisms, should be also taken into consideration. In the environment, for exemple, factors such as water temperature, transparency, luminosity, competition, vertical distribution of organisms, availability of nutrientes and allelopathy with other primary producers, in addition to predation by zooplankton (MULLER et al. 2012) are fundamental for characterization the types and density of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Lampert (1981a) mentions one of cyanobacteria effects on Cladocera species, reporting that Microcystis aeruginosa can significantly reduce the filtration capacity of Daphnia pulicaria, on a diet based on a Scenedesmus, with carbon concentration of 50µg.L-1 . Following the same trend, Heathcote et al. (2016) also reported a negative interference of individuals or colonies of cyanobacteria, as a key mechanism of efficiency loss in the use of resources by zooplankton. Conversely, large size Daphnia could be an effective solution on controlling the excessive growth of cyanobacteria, according to Urrutia- Cordero et al. (2016). Gilbert (1990) demonstrates that Daphnia species can suppress rotifers on food competition, and that cyanobacteria can generally inhibit the growth of Cladocera species over rotifer ones. In this way, the importance of elucidating the relationships between phytoplankton and zooplankton is verified and several other works have emphasized this dynamic (OLIVEIRA and CRISPIM, 2013a; OLIVEIRA and CRISPIM, 2013b; PÉREZ LEGASPI et al., 2015; CHEN et al., 2016; SEVERIANO, 2017; OVIEDO- MONTIEL et al., 2019, ROCHA et al., 2021, OLIVEIRA and CRISPIM, 2022) According to Sipaúda-Tavares and Rocha (2013), one factor that must be considered is cell wall thickness, which can determine rates of digestibility. This way, small size chlorophytes are considered a useful food source. Analyzing the predation effect on a reservoir in southeastern Brazil, Gnocchi et al. (2014) noted differences in cyanophyte density, influenced by the presence of zooplankton. When zooplankton was present, cyanophyte density was lower than chlorophytes, and the opposite trend was registered when zooplankton was absent. Moreover, Severiano (2017) reported that an increase in zooplankton biomass (being this group mainly represented by Brachionus rubens and Crustacea nauplii) did not affect filamentous cyanobacteria, but the increase in biomass of phytoplankton taxa significantly reduced the presence of such cyanobacteria. This shows the complexity of the relationship between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities. In this way, this study aims to clarify some aspects on the population dynamics of the Cladocera species, Moina minuta and Diaphanosoma spinulosum, in face of different algal food quantities and qualities, in their population dynamics, and aiming a large- scale production for aquaculture, since these species have a wide occurrence in Paraíba state, Brazil and are easily seeing by predators. For this purpose, laboratory experiments were carried out with different treatments, unialgal and mixed cultures, and the different effects found in Cladocera species were
  • 3. analyzed through organism counting, and biometric analysis in adults. This research tested the following hypotheses: H1 – the density of both Cladocera species, their embryos and their size are influenced by the amount of food; H2 – The unialgal diet will be a restrictive factor and will negative interfere in the number of embryos and both species densities; H3 – A minimum amount of mixed and unialgal food will be a limiting resource. 2 - MATERIAL AND METHODS The experiments were carried out in the Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology (LABEA/DSE/Federal University of Paraíba), for 11 days (no more, because M. minuta population increased so much, that was impossible to count and measure the individuals). Zooplankton cultures were obtained from ephippia present in the sediment of the Manoel Marcionilio Dam, in Taperoá, PB. Both species are used in this aquaculture experiment, because they are good food and easy to capture, so we tried to verify their behavior in relation to the quantity and quality of food administered in order to propose a better feeding culture protocol. Regarding food quality, two types of algal cultures were used: mixed culture (with algae of genera Chlorella sp, Tetraedron sp, Microcystis sp, Scenedesmus sp, Coelastrum sp, Kirchneriela sp, Trachelomonas sp, Selenastrum sp and Merismopedia sp, with Chlorella sp and Merismopedia sp. as the most relative abundant genera and unialgal culture (Kirchneriela contorta). For both cultures, the Conway medium was used (WALNE, 1966). The mixed culture was obtained from the experimental tank of the aquatic ecology laboratory and the Kirchneriella contorta culture were obtained from the plankton laboratory. Initially, mother cultures were obtained from zooplankton individuals of the species Moina minuta, Diaphanosoma spinulosum and kept in plastic containers at environmental temperature (25+2 o C). For the tests, initially, adult samples of medium-sized M. minuta and D. spinulosum non ovigerous, were cultivated in a vessel with capacity of 300 mL, with 100 mL of water and were covered with a screen, to allow the exchange of gases and avoid insect larvae. D. spinulosum was not subjected to unialgal treatment; the results are only for the mixed culture treatment. The micro-algal cultures (unialgal and mixed) were kept in acclimatized environment, with 24 + 1ºC and constant lighting. The count of algae to feed Cladocera in the experimental culture was carried out by using Fuchs Rosental, counting chamber, and applying three treatments with densities of 2,4 x 103 cells.mL-1 (T10³); 2,4 x 104 cells.mL-1 (T104 ) and 2,4 x 105 cells.mL-1 (T105 ). For each experimental treatment, three replicates were made, containing an initial density of 5 cladocerans species individuals, each one, involving an overall of 15 individuals per treatment. Food was offered three times a week, always preceded by algal count, to keep the same algal density. The water was changed weekly. Two times a week, the zooplankton organisms were counted, measured, and identified as having or not eggs/embryos, to fecundity analysis. Biometrics – the biometrics of Cladocera species analyzed was carried out in live animals. The body was measured by considering from the anterior to the posterior edge. To distinguish the adults of the juveniles, the shorter lengths of females with eggs/embryos or pregnant females, from this length to the upper part, were considered adults and the values lower than those lengths were considered as juveniles. Fertility – for the fertility analyses, eggs and/or embryos in the incubation chambers of females were considered. These data were used in the following formula: F = mnumber of eggs/embryos total adult females In order to compare the biometric data, food quality and quantity, ANOVA was used through the statistical program SPSS (STAT SOFT, 1998).
  • 4. 3 – RESULTS 3.1 – Population density and length The experiment with M. minuta, which was fed through unialgal culture, has shown several lengths between 90µm and 480µm, and the organisms with up to 280µm were considered young. In T103 , organisms were not recorded on the 11th experimental day, consequently, there was total mortality. T104 oscillated between minimum average of 5 and a maximum of 17 organisms throughout the experiment, but only in T105 the maximum number of organisms was verified with an average of 38 individuals in the 8th day (Fig. 2), decreasing after that. M. minuta, in the treatment with plurialgalculture had their lengths varying from 200µm to 550µm, and the juveniles varied up to 250µm. Individuals did not survive until the end of the experiment in the treatment with the lowest amount of food (T103 ), in which case individuals were registered on 4th day and 8th , and accounting for 8 organisms in this treatment. As juveniles length were higher in unialgal culture, it seems that there was a population effort to individual growth instead populational one. Maybe the nutritional value of plurialgal culture was not able to support bigger populations. In fact, fecundity, juveniles and densities achieved higher values in unialgal culture, especially on T104 treatment. The dominant species in plurialgal culture, Merismopedia and Chlorella, probably were not nutritional enough to maintain higher populational growth. In the T104 the individual numbers have oscillated throughout the experiment, with an average of 32 organisms on the 8th , then reducing the average to 20 on the 11th day. It was also registered an increase on treatment T105 , with an average of individual numbers almost twice greater on day 8th , reaching 38 ind., and decreasing to 16 ind on the 11th day, (Fig. 2). The development of M. minuta was similar for both cultures, considering that there were no survivors on treatment T103 , and treatments T104 and T105 continued available, but reaching on the end of the experiment near 20 ind, what means a density of about 200 ind.L-1 . Therefore, what most interfered on individual numbers was not the quality or algae type, but the amount of food resources used on each treatment, revealing that this species needs a larger amount of food in order to maintain viable populations. Figure 2: Media number of individuals of M.minuta in the three treatments (T10³, T104 , T105 ) by using unialgal culture (above) and by using mixed culture (below) throughout the experimental period. Font: Elaborated by the author The experiment with D. spinulosum being fed with mixed algal food presented organisms between 240µm and 650µm, being considered juveniles up to 300µm. In this treatment the individuals did not increase, most treatments decreased densities. It is relevant to salient that D. spinulosum achieved the maximum density on 8th day in T105 with 15 individuals, decreasing numbers after that. In the other treatments T10³ e T104 no individuals survived untill the 11th day (Fig. 3).
  • 5. Figure 3: Media number of individuals of Diaphanosoma spinulosum in the three treatments (T10³, T104 , T105 ) by using mixed culture throughout the experimental period Font: Elaborated by the author The development of M. minuta in the mixed culture produced better outcomes than D. spinulosum. On the mixed culture, D. spinulosum count reached the maximum of 15 organisms on treatment T105 , with a decrease in the number of organisms on the 11th day. Moreover, none of D. spinulosum organisms survived on treatments T103 and T104 by the end of the experiment. Conversely, the counts of M. minuta surpassed 30 organisms on the last treatment. 3.2 – Percentage of juveniles Juveniles were not counted on the 1st day of any of treatments because the experiments initiated with adult non ovigerous females. In the experiment with M. minuta with unialgal culture, individuals with up to 280µm were considered juveniles. In this way, juveniles were registered on the 4th and 8th days of experiment in treatment T103 , corresponding to 40.9% and 20%, respectively. The highest percentage of juveniles, in the unialgal feeding treatment, was observed in T104 of the last day analyzed (84%) and the lowest percentage was 20% in T10³ of the 8th day. Throughout the whole experiment and in all the treatments, the value 55% of juveniles was rarely surpassed (Fig. 4). M. minuta individuals fed with mixed culture were considered juveniles up to 250µm. 25% of juveniles were recorded in treatment T103 only on 8th day. Regarding the percentage of juveniles throughout the experiment in the mixed culture, there were no records of juveniles until the 8th experimental day; however, on the 8th day, the percentage value found was above 20% in T103 and in T104 ; and, on the 11th day, juveniles were not found in T103 , only in the two other treatments in the mixed culture (Fig. 4). Figure 4: Percentage of M. minuta juveniles in the three treatments (T10³, T104 , T105 ) using unialgal culture (above) and mixed culture (below) throughout the experimental period. Font: Elaborated by the author D. spinulosum juveniles fed with mixed culture were considered juveniles up to 300µm size. Treatment T103 registered juveniles on the 4th and 8th days of experiment, with the later corresponding to 100% of juveniles. The percentage of juveniles of D. spinulosum was present between 100%, since all adult died in T103 in 8th experimental day, and 11% in T105 in 11th day. The presence of juveniles in T103 and T104 , was observed until 8th experimental day, only in T105 juveniles were observed all analyzed days (Fig. 5).
  • 6. Figure 5: Percentage of D. spinulosum juveniles in the three treatments (T10³, T104 , T105 ) by using mixed culture throughout the experimental period. Font: Elaborated by the author When comparing M. minuta and D. spinulosum treatments fed with mixed culture, the later species show a higher percentage of juveniles, as well as the presence of juveniles during all days of experiment. Even though, D. spinulosum has not had a satisfactory population development, showing M. minuta higher numbers at the end of the experiment. 3.3 – Fecundity rate It was observed that the treatment with higher food amount (T105 ), in the unialgal culture with M. minuta, has shown more homogeneous fertility rates throughout the experiment, while in treatment T104 and T103 the fertility rates have always decreased throughout the time. This is due to the high population densities achieved in T105 treatment, showing more stability in the well-fed population, while in lower food levels, fecundity decreased along time. That reflected in population extinction under T103 treatment and lower numbers in T104 treatment. In 104 treatment there was an effort of increase population, especially in earlier days, through high reproduction rate, but could not be maintained, due low food levels (Fig. 6). The fertility rate in T105 , in the mixed culture with M. minuta, was higher than the others in the 4th experimental day, then experiencing a period of decline until the end of the experiment. This occurred because M. minuta tried a population increase, but probably the low quality of food did not favor high fecundity rates and the population presented slightly increases in fecundity rates in 105 mixed algal treatment. This rates in T104 had also experienced a period of decline between the 4th and the 8th day (Fig. 6). This was explained by the great increase of densities under this treatment. As food decreased by the increase in consumption, the M. minuta population decreased as well, allowing a new increase in reproduction and densities. In T103 there were found ovigerous females only in the 8th day of experiment (Fig. 8), but the population did not survive the low food levels, that not allowed egg production most of the time. Fecundity rates of M. minuta fed with unialgal and mixed cultures showed different results. In the unialgal culture, fecundity rates were higher than 1.4 in all days of experiments and in most of treatments, while in the mixed culture, fecundity rates were around 0.4 in all days of experiments and in most of treatments. Figure 6: Fecundity rate of M. minuta in the three treatments (T10³, T104 , T105 ) by using unialgal culture (above) and by using mixed culture (below) throughout the experimental period. Font: Elaborated by the author
  • 7. D. spinulosum in the mixed culture, the only treatment where the species was observed all the experimental days was T105 , while in T104 , the fecundity rate declined from 4th day on, with no eggs or embryos registered on 11th day. Fecundity rates did not reach 0.5 in the treatments with M. minuta and D. spinulosum fed with mixed culture in most of treatments, excepting in treatment T105 (on the 4th day for M. minuta, and on the 8th day for D. spinulosum). Treatment T103 showed similar low results for both species, and only Moina registered egg/embryos on the 8th day (Figs. 6 and 7). Figure 7: Fecundity of D.spinulosum in the three treatments (T10³, T104 , T105 ) by using mixed culture throughout the experimental period. Font: Elaborated by the author The ANOVA results, in the unialgal culture, showed that, there were significant differences among the M. minuta lengths of the individuals in the three treatments in the 11th day of experiment in both cultures, and the organisms were larger in the treatments with higher algal concentrations (Tab 1). The analyses to test the influence of (unialgal and mixed) food quality on the lengths of M. minuta showed significant differences in T104 on 8th and 11th day and in T105 on 11th day, and the larger individuals are in mixed treatment (Tab 2). ANOVA data showed that differences among length, subjected to different food quantity in the mixed culture along the experiment period were no significant to D. spinulosum. (Tab 3 ). Table 1: ANOVA results comparing the lenghts of M. minuta which were submitted to unialgal food (above) and mixed food (below), on each day of analysis, amount throughout the experimente. The value in bold is significant. ANOVA (unialgal food) F p ( %) N 4th Day - - - 8th Day 2,882 0,059 146 11th Day 21,149 ˂0,001 102 ANOVA (mixed food) F p ( %) N 4th Day 0,348 0,708 44 8th Day 0,442 0,644 161 11th Day 7,931 0,006 125 Table 2: ANOVA analyses to test the influence of unialgal and mixed food quality on the lenght od M. minuta, separately in each treatment (103 , 104 , 105 ), along the experimente period. ANOVA (M. minuta) F p (%) N 8th Day 10³ 2,149 0,155 28 104 6,740 0,011 115 105 0,465 0,496 164 11th Day 10³ - - - 104 14,689 ˂0,001 112 105 5,816 0,017 115 Table 3: ANOVA comparing D. spinulosum lenght subjected to diferente quantities of food in the mixed culture, on each day of analysis, along the experimente period. ANOVA (D. spinulosum) F p (%) N 4th Day 0,358 0,701 72 8th Day 0,358 0,701 52 11th Day - - - 4 – DISCUSSION Analyzing food relationships among the plankton, M. minuta show similar populations growths between the two types, unialgal and plurialgal food, reaching a slightly higher peak
  • 8. in unialgal culture (T105 ), and final density lightly higher in the mixed culture (T104 and T105 ). However, the percentage of juveniles was higher at unialgal culture, which can be a result of a higher adult or juvenile mortality rate, since abundance of adults did not increase at the experiment end. Has the final abundance been similar in both uni and plurialgal cultures, it looks like that space could had been limitant to this species, since there was only 100 mL of water. The highest abundance peak was obtained in treatment T105 , with unialgal culture, on the 8th day, reaching an average of 37 individuals, and decreasing to 16 individuals in the following analysis. Plurialgal food culture reached the highest density peak also on the 8th day in treatment T104 , corresponding to an average of 32 individuals, and then reducing to 20 individuals. Rocha et al. (2021) observed a growth peack of Moina sp on 11th day reaching 150 org/mL subjected to Scenedesmus subspicatus and fish ration as food. Macedo and Pinto-Coelho (2000) observed that Daphnia laevis reached a greater number of individuals, with a diet of Ankistrodesmus gracilis, than when fed with Scenedesmus quadricauda. This result reveals the influence of food quality (i.e. different preys) on the fecundity rates of Cladocera populations. Analyzing the interference of cyanobacteria on the diet of large size Daphia, Urrutia-Cordero et al. (2016) noted that they were capable of reduce the abundance of Aphanizomenon, Dolichospermum, Microcystis and Planktothrix, while the filamentous Dolichospermum crissum were positively affected. Sipaúba-Tavares et al. (2014), evaluating the Cladocera Diaphanosoma birgei growth when fed with the microalgae Chlorophyceae, Anikstrodesmus gracilis and Haematococcus pluvialis in monoculture and mixed culture, found that only A. gracilis and mixed microalgae diets were able to maintain adequate levels in egg production and development in D. birgei. In the present study, the development of M. minuta in mixed culture yielded better outcomes than the development of D. spinulosum in the same culture, indicating that the later species is more affected by food quality (i.e. algae type). Nevertheless, unialgal seemed to be of better quality than the plurialgal, since higher abundance was observed in 8th day. Vieira et al. (2011) testing M. minuta and D. spinulosum in different trophic states (oligo, meso and eutrophic) observed that there was a density peak followed by a sequent decrease, before the end of the experiment. The same was observed in our research, the 8th day was the day with higher densities in M. minuta, in both cultures, uni (T105 ) and plurialgal (T104 ). Looks like there is a population effort for growing, that declines afterwards, if there is no conditions to support that grow. That is observed in fecundity rates, that increase in the early days, but decrease in the sequence, maybe limited by space, or interspecific competition for food. Maximum abundance in the Vieira et al. (2011) research was similar to those achieved in this work, with 30 individuals maximum, and also showed that M. minuta developed higher populations under higher food levels. Crispim et al. (2003) observed M. minuta, high population densities over 1,200 ind.L-1 in a short period, in organisms ecloded from ephippia. It seems there is an effort to increase densities in both treatments, but environmental conditions would only tolerate an average of 25 up to 30 individuals (250 and 300 ind.L-1 ), although as the experiment ended at 11th , no conclusive result is available. As observed in Macrothrix cf. trisserialis in research carried out by Oliveira and Crispim (2022) there seems to be something in the food with K. contorta that inhibits the growth of the species in the highest food concentration. Population growth should be described by an ascendant trend in unialgal culture, because around 80% of individuals were juveniles. This demonstrates that M. minuta is less sensitive to food quality over quantity. When analyzing the percentage of juveniles, D. spinulosum species did have a better development than M. minuta with the same culture reaching 100%, nevertheless this does not result in higher populations, since the abundance in D. spinulosum was lower (half)_ than in M. minuta, revealing higher mortality rates in juveniles or adults. Examining the food quality is an essential step to the development of a good culture. Studying the influence of the diet on
  • 9. survival, development, and growth rates of crustaceans, Camara et al. (2014) found out that Notodiaptomus cearensis had better nutritional adequacy with chlorophytes algae than cyanophytes, and that Ceriodaphnia dubia presented higher mortality rates and fecundity reduction with cyanobacteria treatment. Heathcote et al. (2016), analyzing the relationship between phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass of eutrophic lakes, also reported a reduction in zooplankton biomass related to the presence of cyanobacteria, emphasizing how eutrophization leads to a decline in the effective use of resources by consumers. As the plurialgal culture were dominated by Merismopedia (cyanobacteria) and Chlorella sp., maybe the population growth could be better, for both species, if a better algae quality was present. In a study carried out by Severiano (2017), the author demonstrated that in higher zooplankton concentration, spiral cyanobacteria Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Dolychospermum sp. increased their filament sizes, indicating that the morphology can act as defense mechanisms. The amount of food in treatment T104 of the mixed culture was high enough to maintain positive growth rates of M. minuta, indicating an algae concentration threshold of 103 not adequate to Moina minuta cultures. The decrease in M. minuta on T103 , was a result of decrease in fecundity rates, that was 0,0 on 11th day, and no jeveniles were observed as well. Is possible the initial densities could have food enough, but with densities increase food became limiting. As densities in both treatments T104 and T105 (unialgal and mixed) ended up the same, it is possible that the maximum limit delimitated by the available space was reached. Nakauth et al. (2015), studying Moina sp. growth in a static system using Chorella sp. and fishmeal, explain that this food culture can maintain fish larvae production, if they start optimizing the production from the 4th day on to keep the exponential growth period. The length of individuals grown in the mixed algae culture was significantly higher than those grown in the unialgal culture. Furthermore, in the treatment T105 with mixed culture, individuals were still significantly larger, being more effective in aquaculture. This way, it is proposed a diet with minimum concentration of 105 , which will provide more biomass and, consequently, more food resource to the larvae. Nakauth et al. (2015) note that the size of organisms offers information of which developmental phase the organisms can be used to feed fish larvae. Fecundity rates in the three unialgal treatments were twice higher than in the plurialgal cultures. The unialgal treatment T104 showed a sharp decline on the fecundity rates, while T105 maintained constant rates throughout the experiment. The reproductive effort is expected to decline as the densities rise, a trend observed in other studies (Crispim and Boavida, 2002). Pérez Legaspi et al. (2015) verified that the highest fertility and fecundity rate of Ceriodaphnia cornuta accurred at 30ºC, fed with Scenedesmus obliquos and the lowest occurred when fed with Nannochloris oculata proving that phytoplankton species play no importante role in zooplankton population growth. Macedo and Pinto-Coelho (2000) also reported in their research that Moina micrura produced eggs two days before, when fed with Ankistrodesmus gracilis than when fed with Scenedesmus quadricauda. According to Beatrici (2004), Daphnia similis produced better outcomes related to its fertility in medium M4, and with diet based on Selenastrum capricornutum and S. capricornutum, than when artemia was used. However, when using medium ISO associated with other diet types, the fertility rates of Cladodera were lower than one individual per female per day. 5 – CONCLUSION Moina minuta showed higher population growth in T105 for the unialgal culture and in T104 for the mixed culture throughout the experimental period. Their body length was significantly higher in the plurialgal culture and the percentage of young individuals was higher in unialgal culture, as well as fecundity. With regard to the three treatments, the higher amount of M.minuta during the whole experiment was obtained in treatment T104 in
  • 10. the plurialgal culture and in T105 in the unialgal culture. This means that one of the algae Chlorella or Merismopedia inhibited the M.minuta growth, as their population did not increased higher in the presence of more food. The treatment T10³, in both culture types for both species, proved to be unfeasible since the organisms could not survive until the end of the experiment. We observed that Hipothesis 2 was accepted, since densities, lengths and fecundities were benefit from T105 ; H3 was also corroborated, with 104 being the minimum limit in cultures for these two species tested H2 was rejected, since unialgal culture was able of maintain growing populations, since in higher densities. 6 – BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES ABE, H.A.; DIAS, J.A.R.; REIS R.G.A.; SOUSA N.C.; RAMOS F.M.; FUJIMOTO, R.Y. Manejo alimentar e densidade de estocagem na larvicultura do peixe ornamental amazônico Heros severus. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, v.42., n.3, p. 514-522, 2016. AZEVEDO, R.V.; FOSSE FILHO, J.C.; PEREIRA, S.L.; ANDRADE, D.R.; VIDAL JÚNIOR, M.V. Prebiótico, probiótico e simbiótico para larvas de Trichogaster leeri (Bleeker, 1852, Perciformes, Osphronemidae). Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. v.68, n.3, p.795-804, 2016. BARROS, H.P.; VALENTI, W.C. Ingestion Rates of Artemia nauolii for Different Larval Stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture, v.217, n.(1-4), p.223-233, 2003. BEATRICI, A.C.. Avaliação da fertilidade e sensibilidade de Daphnia similis e Daphnia magna (crustácea cladocera) submetida a diferentes tipos de dietas e meios de cultivo. Dissertação – Mestrado em Ecologia pela Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. 2004. CAMARA, F.R.A.; PESSOA , E.K.R.; SANTOS, L.L.S.; ROCHA, O.; CHELLAPPA, S.; CHELLAPPA, N.T., Influência da alimentação na taxa de sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de Notodiaptomus cearensis Wright, 1936 (Crustacea: Copepoda) e Physiocypria schubarti Farkas, 1958 (Crustacea: Ostracoda), Biota Amazônia. Macapá, v. 4, n. 2, p. 43-50, 2014. CAMPELO, D.A.V.; SILVA, I.C.;. MARQUES, M.H.C.; EIRAS, B.J.C.F.; BRABO, M.F.; MOURA, L.B.; VERAS, G.C. Estratégias alimentares na larvicultura do peixe ornamental amazônico acará-severo (Heros severus) (Heckel, 1840). Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia., v.71, n.5, p. 1601-1608, 2019. CHEN, R.; TANG, H.; ZHAO, F.; WU, V.; HUANG, V; VANG, Z. Food availability and initial relative abundance determine the outcome of interspecific competition between two different-sized cladocerans. International Review of Hydrobiology, v.101, n. 1, p.105- 112, 2016. CRISPIM, M. C e BOAVIDA, M.J. Competição entre Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Daphnia hyalina e Daphnia parvula. Revista nordestina de Biologia, 16(1/2): 71-89, 2002. CRISPIM, M. C., PAZ. R. J. e WATANABE, T. Comparison of different Moina minuta population dynamics ecloded from resting eggs in a semi arid region in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Ecology. 1 e 2: 33-38, 2003. GILBERT, J.J., Differential Effects of Anabaena affinis on Cladocerans and Rotifers: Mechanisms and Implications. Ecology, 71 (5), pp. 1727-1740, 1990. GNOCCHI, K.G; MIRANDA, T.O.; MORETTI, M.S. Efeito de predação do zooplâncton sobre as comunidades de fitoplâncton em um pequeno reservatório numa Floresta de Tabuleiro, Sudeste do Brasil. Natureza on line, 12 (5): 250-243, 2014. HEATHCOTE, A.J.; FILSTRUP, C.T.; KENDALL, D.; DOWNING, J.A., Biomass pyramids in lake plankton: influence of Cyanobacteria size and abundance. Inland
  • 11. Waters, pp.250-257 . DOI: 10.5268/IW- 6.2.941, 2016. LAMPERT, W., Inhibitory and Toxic Effects of Blue-green Algae on Daphnia. Internationale Revueder Gesamten Hydrobiologie , 66: 285- 298, 1981a LAMPERT, W. & SCHOBER, U., The importance of "Threshold"food concentrations In: Evolution and Ecology of Zooplankton Communities, W charles kerfoot (ed) 264-267, 1980. LAVENS, P.; THONGROD, S.; SORGELOOS. P., Larval prawn feeds and the dietary importance of Artemia In: NEW, M.B.; VALENTI, W.C. (Eds.) Freshwater prawn culture: the farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oxford: Blackwell, p.91-111, 2000. LEMUS, J.L.C.; TORRES-GARCIA, P.; FRÍAS, M.M., El Océano y sus Recursos: Plâncton, v.5, 2004. LIMA, P.C.M.; LAVANDER, H.D.; SILVA, L.O.B.; GÁLVEZ, A.O. Larviculture of the sand clam cultivated in different densities. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca. V. 44, n. 2, p. 350-358, 2018. MACEDO, C.F. & PINTO-COELHO, R.M., Efeito das algas Ankistrodesmus gracilis e Scenedesmus quadricauda no crescimento e no índice lipídico de Daphnia laevis e Moina micrura. Acta Scientiarum, 2000, 22(2):397- 401. Disponível em: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciB iolSci/article/view/2887 Acessado em: Julho/2018 NAKAUTH, A.C.S.S.; MÜLLER, R.L.; VILLACORTA-CORREA, M.A.; Agno Nonato Serrão ACIOLI, A.N.S.; ALMEIDA, R. Crescimento populacional do cladocera moina sp.em sistema de cultivo estático. Anuário do instituto de natureza e cultura, 2015. OLIVEIRA, F.M.F. & CRISPIM, M.C., Dieta de Macrothrix cf. triserialis (Brady, 1886) sob Diferentes Tratamentos Alimentares. Revista Internacional de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, v. 12, n. 01, p. 79 – 92. e-ISSN 2316-7041. DOI: 10.12957/ric.2022.59734, 2022. PÉREZ LEGASPI, I. A., GARCÍA VILLAR, A. M., GARATACHIA VARGAS, M., HERNÁNDEZ VERGARA, M. P., PÉREZ ROSTRO, C. I., ORTEGA CLEMENTE, L. A. Influencia de la temperatura y tipo de alimento en la historia de vida de Ceriodaphnia cornuta Sars (1885) (Crustacea: Cladocera). Investigación y Ciencia. Nº 64, 11-18, ISSN: 1665-4412, 2015. PIEDRAS, Sérgio Renato Noguez & POUEY, Juvêncio Luis Osório Fernandes. Alimentação de Alevinos de Peixe-Rei (Odontesthes Bonariensis) com Dietas Naturais e Artificiais. Ciência Rural, vol.34, n.4, 2004. ROCHA, K.C.; ARAUCO, L.R.R.; MAIA, A.M.; PIMENTA, J.L.L.A. Crescimento populacional de Moina sp. alimentadas com diferentes dietas para uso na larvicultura e aquariofilia. Research, Society and Development, v. 10, n. 13. ISSN 2525-3409 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd- v10i13.20909, 2021. SEVERIANO, J.S., Efeitos do zooplâncton sobre o fitoplâncton e as cianotoxinas: abordagem experimental em um reservatório tropical eutrófico. Tese – Doutorado em Botânica pela Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife – Brasil, 2017. SIPAÚBA-TAVARES, L.H. & ROCHA, O.,Produção de plâncton (fitoplâncton e Zooplâncton) para alimentação de organismos aquáticos. São Carlos, ed. RiMa, 2003. SIPAÚBA-TAVARES, L.H; TRUZZI, B.S. and BERCHIELLI-MORAIS, F.A. Growth and development time of subtropical Cladocera Diaphanosoma birgei Korinek, 1981 fed with different microalgal diets. Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol.74, 2014. SQUELLA, F.J.L; ALBUQUERQUE, M.C.P.; ARAUJO, J.; SÜHNEL, S.; MELO, C.M.R. Sobrevivência e crescimento de larvas do
  • 12. molusco de areia Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) em laboratório*. Bol. Instituto de Pesca, São Paulo, v. 41, n. 1, p. 133 – 14, 2015. STAT SOFT, Inc., Statistica for windows (programa de computador). Stat soft, in: Tulsa (U.S.A.). URL: www.statsoft.com, 1998. URRUTIA-CORDERO, P.; EKWALL, M.K.; HANSSON, L.A., Controlling Harmful Cyanobacteria: Taxa-Specific Responses of Cyanobacteria to Grazing by Large-Bodied Daphnia in a Biomanipulation Scenario. PLOS ONE, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0153032, 2016. WALNE, P.R., Experimentsin the large-scale culture of larvae of Ostrea edulis. L. Fishery Invest. Lond, Serv. 2, 25 (4): 1-53, 1966. ______________________________________ 1- PhD by Postgraduate in Development and Environment Program – PRODEMA/UFPB, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6974- 138X, E-mail: fmf_oliveira@hotmail.com 2- PhD Teacher of the Systematics and Ecology Department – UFPB, campus I – 58059-900, ORCID: 0000-0002-4414-2989 90