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20090712 commodities in the if study undp exeuctive summarywith covers

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20090712 commodities in the if study undp exeuctive summarywith covers

  1. 1. English ISBN #: 978-92-1-126265-0Sales #: E.09.III.B.30Design: TaitDesign®Printed in Denmark by Phoenix Design AidJuly 2009 © United Nations Development Programme
  2. 2. Commodity Development Strategiesin the Integrated FrameworkRaymond Saner, Lichia Yiu with Alka Bhatia for UNDP iii
  3. 3. ContentsAcronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiAcknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivExecutive Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82. Analytical Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1 Objective of the review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Scope of the analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.4 Criteria and rational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 A) Supply chain analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 B) Value chain analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 C) Levels of intervention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.5 Data analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143. Main Findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.1 Heterogeneous in-country approach to commodity development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2 Heterogeneous between-country approach to commodity development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.3 Policy-oriented bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234. Main Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.1 Supply chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2 Value chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.3 Summing up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405. Recommendations for Follow Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 5.1 Commodity development strategy of LDCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 5.2 Policy recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 5.3 Recommendations on institutional arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 5.4 Recommendations on enterprise participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5.5 Preparation of future DTISs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48TablesTable 1: Generic Commodity Development Matrix used for comparative analysis by commodity and country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Table 2: Country Commodity Development Strategy Map based on Benin’s DTIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Table 3: Summary overview of the 29 DTIS notations by country and criteria (no weighting) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Table 4: Total number of occurrences by supply and value chain across all DTISs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Table 5: Total number of references by occurrence in the DTISs by country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Table 6: Total number of references made at different levels of intervention within DTIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23AnnexesAnnex I: List of commodities surveyed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Annex II:List of countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Annex III: Detailed methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Annex IV:Country Commodity Development Analysis Matrices based on corresponding DTIS and Action Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Annex V: Country Commodity Development Strategy Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65iv
  4. 4. Executive SummaryP rimary commodities, including agricultural and mineral commodities, are the major source of income and employment for a number of developing countries (DCs) and least developed countries (LDCs). Development of this sector offers hope for reducing poverty in an LDC country especially amongstmarginalized groups like small farm producers and women. For a large number of commodity-dependentLDCs, their journey out of poverty is linked to the development of their commodity sector and to theirsuccessful transition up the production ladder. The the economic literature. However, it is widely under-prospect of achieving a more developed stage of stood that there is need to address the root causestheir economies, however, waxes and wanes with of the crisis in commodities, which includes supplythe volatility of commodity prices and changes in capacity constraints as well as inadequate diversifi-demand. In recent years, the demand for commodi- cation of production. Greater emphasis on trade inties has experienced an upswing owing to demand primary commodities has come at the cost of indus-from large commodity consuming countries like trial development which is the basic building blockChina and India. But the gains from a rise in demand for economic development.and prices have not been shared equitably acrosscountries or even across commodities.1 For a more The studyequitable distribution of benefits from commoditiesproduction and trade there is a need to address sup- In order to address this problem, endemic to LDCs,ply side and value chain issues, which are essential an analysis was conducted of the existing Diag-to any commodity development strategy. Commod- nostic Trade Integration Studies (DTISs) that wereity-dependent countries need the necessary factor carried out under the Integrated Framework forconditions, such as resources and additional finan- Trade-related Technical Assistance to Least Devel-cial aid, to capitalize on their natural endowments oped Countries (IF). The objective of this analysisthrough diversification of their economies which was to assess whether, and to what extent, the DTISswould result in greater economic growth and pov- provide concrete recommendations and actionserty reduction. which can support a more comprehensive global strategy for promoting, upgrading, diversificationIn the last few years, the commodities issue has and value addition in manufacturing and industrialoccupied centre stage due to the demand and development activities associated with commoditysupply uncertainties that often hamper commod- production.ity markets, resulting in price volatility, which hasa direct impact on the country’s financial stability. The present analysis focuses on the 29 DTISs avail-The impact is particularly pronounced on smaller able as of October 2008, completed under the IF,and poorer countries that are dependent on a sin- with specific reference to the commodities surveyedgle or at most two commodities as the main source therein. The commodities examined in this analysisof income generation and trade. Countries that include all agro-products (including cash crops),are dependent solely on primary agricultural com- livestock, forestry, horticulture and floriculture prod-modities also rank low on the Human Development ucts, as well as minerals and ores.Index.2 The causes for the persistence of commod-ity dependence and vulnerability to crisis are many In this report, the concept of commodity chains,and have been analyzed and discussed at length in including the supply and value chains as well as the1 UNCTAD reports that ‘the impact on developing countries exporting agricultural products varies, with some benefiting over the period (e.g., cof- fee exporters) and others recording a deterioration between 2003 and 2005 (cotton or soybean exporting countries)’. UNCTAD/PRESS/IN/2007/015, 27/04/07.2 Human Development is a development paradigm that is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes. It is about creating an environ- ment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. This is captured by the Human Development Index (HDI), first introduced in 1990 in the Human Development Report. The HDI represents a new way of measuring development by combining indicators of life expectancy, educational attainment and income into a composite single statistic, which serves as a frame for social and economic development. (UNDP, accessed on 02/06/09 at http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/hdi/ ). 1
  5. 5. linkages between the two, has been applied to ana- 3. policy-oriented policy bias, which is long on pol-lyze the whole process of value creation of a product icy recommendations and short on implementablefrom primary processing to consumption. Analyz- actions.ing the different stages of the commodity chain andfocusing on the necessary functions of actors at Main findingseach stage will help policy makers, institutions andentrepreneurs pinpoint competitive disadvantages Admittedly, the DTISs have not been designed toand identify areas for further action to upgrade pro- develop commodities, nor to craft an integrated,cessing know-how, capacities and trading poten- coherent and focused strategy towards enhancingtials; and ultimately to attain more equitable and productivity, diversification and industrial develop-pro-poor growth. ment in the LDCs. It is therefore not surprising that the DTISs, to a great extent, do not respond wellAnalytical framework to the criteria selected for this commodity sector development oriented study. The DTISs do, however,This study analyzed DTISs according to criteria span- perform an extremely useful function by providingning supply side and value chain issues, in order a comprehensive macroeconomic overview and byto assess how supply side constraints, pathways to putting the commodity problématique into perspec-diversification, value chain creation and backward tive. Some of the DTISs contain useful pointers onand forward linkages for industrial development have using a more focused strategy for commodities withbeen addressed. These criteria were then integrated considerable potential but which are hampered byinto a Commodity Development Matrix, in which rel- policy, institutional and infrastructural constraints.evant information from each DTIS was recorded and The following issues were identified in the DTISs:analyzed. Data has been generated on a per country 1. Insufficient attention has been given to the ade-basis and the commodities featured in the DTIS have quacy of the existing physical infrastructure for eachbeen listed separately at three different levels of commodity profiled in the DTIS.intervention, namely policy, institutional actors andenterprise development, and in accordance with the 2. Supply side issues including production of pri-criteria used for this study. Results are depicted in the mary commodities, which form the crux of com-form of Country Matrices (see annex IV in attached modity development strategies, lack in depthCD Rom). There are 29 matrices in all, featuring the analysis. Commodities have been treated more fromcommodities surveyed in their respective DTISs and a macro perspective, and thus the details essentialaccompanying Action Matrices. Data analysis based to adequately addressing broader supply side issueson these Country Matrices has resulted in 29 Coun- remain absent.try Commodity Strategy Maps (annex V). A cross- 3. Details about gender participation are limitedcountry comparison was also performed regarding at best.the general thrust of DTISs in commodity develop-ment (table 3). Details of the nature and depth of the 4. Processing of primary commodities through pri-analyses and recommendations made within each mary and secondary production processes has notcountry DTIS can be seen at a glance by the reader. been linked to a comprehensive strategy for com- modity development and diversification. The rela-Through this visualization of data, it becomes evi- tionships between investment climate, adequacydent that the following characteristics exist across of production capacities, distribution networks and29 DTISs concerning commodity development: business linkages at each step of the value chain have not been clearly articulated.1. heterogeneous in-country approach to commod-ity development, across commodities 5. Quality control issues with respect to commodities are mentioned only in a general manner in the DTISs.2. heterogeneous between-country approach to A systematic approach to building a quality culturecommodity development, across countries2
  6. 6. which is supported by quality standard setting to the lack of systematic scanning on the ground ofestablishments and control mechanisms is missing. operational processes, or proper data collection andIn addition, investment in appropriate (hardware) recording. Without such an information manage-infrastructure is lacking. These elements have, how- ment system, it will not be possible to identify localever, only been mentioned in a small number of innovations and disseminate them through globalcases without any detailed analysis. Without signifi- knowledge exchanges with international agenciescant investment and improvement in this domain, it and actors.is hard to see how the LDCs could actually increasetheir export earnings and acquire higher values from Recommendationstheir commodities. And it is equally difficult to imag-ine that LDCs can compete in the already highly com- This study concludes with a set of recommenda-petitive semi-processed or manufactured market tions to follow up on DTISs already undertaken, andwhere advanced developing countries dominate. suggestions for including additional elements and a more commodity-centric perspective in future6. The need for personnel training and skill develop- DTISs. These recommendations have broadly beenment either through domestic investment or tech- grouped into a set of actions that call for policy mak-nical assistance for some commodities has been ers, institutional actors and enterprises to developbroadly indicated in some of the DTISs. Technical an integrated commodity development strategyassistance projects, wherever ongoing, have also that will reverse the present trend of industrial stag-been indicated in the DTISs. nation and deindustrialization in LDCs and move pri-7. Feedback and monitoring mechanism to provide mary commodity producers up the value chain. Evenoversight on the implementation of the Action Matrix though neoliberal economic theory recommends ahas not been included in the DTISs. Such a mecha- hands-off approach to policy makers, the authors ofnism would make it possible to assess whether a this study nonetheless advise that governments andcountry’s policy implementation or capacity-build- the international community need to provide muching effort is on track according to agreed objectives needed infrastructure, an enabling regulatory envi-listed in the Action Matrix, and whether the assump- ronment that encourages investments in productivetions that underline the DTIS and action plan need sectors as well as efficient tax and energy policies.to be adjusted once a better understanding of theactual commercial system emerges that may contra- Institutions such as banks and trade associationsdict or invalidate the operational assumptions used. are key players in implementing governmental policies, such as prioritizing specific commodity-LDCs need to have such a monitoring system to scan related action, through pricing mechanisms, pro-and track their own actions in order to be truly in the viding safety nets through appropriate financingdriver’s seat by taking ownership and being account- schemes and easing credit crunches in times ofable as agreed in the Paris Declaration. Similarly, at volatility. Dynamic enterprises and cooperatives arethe global level, without ongoing monitoring and also increasingly viewed as the engine that powersfeedback, financial support for capacity-building growth and development by linking the local supplyand other interventions tend to suffer delays, lack of capacities to the global value chain. Another signifi-responsiveness, insufficient participation and inad- cant factor in developing a coherent global initiativeequate accountability. for commodities is the supporting role that needs to be played by regional policy makers in integrat-Similarly, it will also be difficult to facilitate institu- ing regional production clusters which promotetional learning without a stable information manage- industrial growth, thus providing opportunities forment system based on a standardized monitoring exports and creating jobs.procedure. The absence of such a system is often due 3
  7. 7. The DTISs were not intended to provide recom- supportive secondary processes, such as workforcemendations for a comprehensive national strategy development and developing quality culture andfor commodities diversification and value addition practices at the enterprise level.through manufacturing and industrial development. developing a proactive agenda to overcome sup-Thus, policies and interventions which ensure more ply constraints by upgrading infrastructure likeequitable development and environmental sus- roads, ports and storage facilities, and enhancingtainability tend to be absent from many DTISs. The inputs like irrigation, electricity, seeds and othergeneral recommendations in all DTISs are directed appropriate raw material.towards increasing exports, which are expected toresult in increased incomes and hence in a reduction implementing policies to improve productiv-of poverty. However, factors of supply production ity, employ appropriate technology in production,such as processing, marketing and different stages develop new skills for cultivation and farm man-of the value chain have not been given adequate agement techniques, promote innovation to boostattention. Thus, strategies are required which direct productivity and to create linkages between farm-LDCs towards a concomitant development of manu- ing community, enterprises with universities andfacturing and industry, and a proper integration of research entities.supply and value chain activities with their com- enhancing capacity-building initiatives andmodities. Research is needed to understand and developing a viable programme for R&D to employmap the ‘binding constraints’ in the value chain that newer technologies (e.g., biotechnology) forkeep LDCs from harvesting their productive poten- increased productivity, and new product develop-tial, from the seeds and fertilizer stage, transport and ment (e.g., use of tobacco leaf in the pharma sector,storage, limitations to processing, value addition and and tobacco seed oil in soaps and detergents) todiversification, and finally to market information and build competitiveness.market opening negotiations in the WTO. acknowledging the contribution made by theTransforming their natural resources (i.e., commodi- female workforce and actively promoting theirties) into export products through labour intensive skills development to ensure sustainable economicindustrial development is the most viable path to and welfare gains for women, who in general havegenerating sustainable jobs and creating wealth in a smaller share of the national wealth and sufferLDCs. In light of the present food, fuel and financial more from poverty. Skill development and trainingcrises, enhanced aid with greater effectiveness is for women have to be institutionalized as a nationalessential to build the productive and trade capaci- policy to be integrated with the commodity devel-ties so that LDCs can achieve economic resilience opment strategy.and continue their march towards development. On the value chain side there is need for:1 . P O L I C Y R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S creating a suitable policy framework and insti-On the supply side there is need for: tutional structure to facilitate development of backward and forward linkages in commodity pro- sensitizing relevant ministries and departments in duction, processing, value addition and marketing. LDC governments about the need to develop inte- grated national policy frameworks for commodity- supporting local economic development and clus- led growth strategies. At a general level, this would ter initiatives through horizontal linkages of enter- mean integrated infrastructure development in prises within a territory which are at the same stage strategic areas as a priority for national invest- of production, to encourage competitiveness. ment. Investment needs to be made also in other making quality a national priority and investing in the creation of quality culture and corresponding quality infrastructure. Quality standards for goods4
  8. 8. and services need to include skill-based standards 2 . R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S O N as well as quality management systems for training INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS and education such as ISO 100153 and EFQM.4 On the supply side there is need for: introducing brand or quality labels, which helps a supportive institutional framework comprising promote products and develop niche markets, banks, commodity boards, donors and a dynamic making them attractive for the collaborator or con- public sector. This is necessary for the implemen- sumer, both domestically and across borders. tation of national commodity development and developing effective implementation and moni- diversification strategies. toring mechanisms for sanitary and phytosanitary institutions that are key players in implementing (SPS) standards and technical barriers to trade (TBT) and monitoring government policies on infrastruc- by establishing a sufficient number of laboratories ture development, and improving productivity by and accreditation facilities. informing, training and reinforcing international increasing outreach for international develop- quality standards for operational management and ment assistance and building national agencies delivery. with strong policy coordination and monitoring the development of cooperatives to achieve econ- instruments for efficient and effective use of aid omies of scale and mobilization of non-traditional funding. resources. Cooperatives can also facilitate access to creating sustainable regional partnerships and inputs, production, harvesting, first stage process- competitive regional clusters for economies of ing, marketing and certification in some cases. They scale, and complementary linkages which could can also lead to better bargaining power for pro- result in reduced transaction costs, extended sup- ducers vis-à-vis traders and multinationals. ply and value chains and potential product and regional funding mechanisms to encourage process innovations. entrepreneurship and business creation. It makes consulting with and involving the private sector sense for the production of certain products to be through public-private partnerships, transparency encouraged in areas where comparative advantage and accountability. is present. encouraging the organization of fairs showcas- On the value chain side there is need for: ing products produced locally while also promot- innovative institutional arrangements to improve ing regional and international participation in these coordination among all actors along the commod- fairs to apprise producers of consumer require- ity chain. Hence the need for developing func- ments. In other words, providing a suitable plat- tioning market information systems to encourage form to produce for the markets. domestic, intra-regional and international trade. undertaking programme impact assessment institutions in charge of competition policy, by LDC governments to ensure that commodity small and medium enterprise (SME) development, development objectives are met. This also has the import-export finance, etc. These agencies have an advantage of enabling policy makers to learn and important role in prioritizing specific commodity to improve their programmes continuously. related action in terms of pricing mechanisms, pro- viding safety nets through appropriate financing3 ISO 10015 is an international quality standard focusing on the training quality management system. It provides a process map to guide the process of making training investment decisions by an organization and of managing the training operations through monitoring and evaluation. More informa- tion is available at www.iso.org, or at www.adequate.org4 EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management) offers an assessment tool, The EFQM Excellence Model, to “deliver a picture of how well the organization compares to similar or very different kinds of organization. Used as a management model it can be used to define aspirations for the organization’s capability and performance”. (EFQM, accessed on 02/06/09 at http://ww1.efqm.org/en/Home/aboutEFQM/Ourmodels/TheEFQMExcellenceModel/tabid/170/Default.aspx ) 5
  9. 9. schemes and easing credit constraints in times of On the value chain side there is need for: commodity price volatility. Social safety nets can be mobilizing enterprise inputs to identify areas based on domestic commodity production as well of value addition and further processing of as higher value-added crops which generate more commodities. income per hectare. increasing the use of producer organizations to commodity exchanges to facilitate transactions disseminate a variety of information, be it related between producers, processors, traders, consum- to pricing mechanisms, early warning systems or ers, aid agencies and state agencies in a low-cost in establishing business linkages with domestic environment. This lowering of costs benefits all industry and foreign buyers. stakeholders as they receive higher prices for their products. encouraging participation of individual enter- prises and growers even in policy dialogues, stan- a monitoring mechanism to steer the policy dard setting and quality control. implementation by the institutional actors and national authority in charge of development strat- involving enterprises in the governance of com- egy and provide timely feedback to beneficiaries, modity exchanges and futures trading to put in donors and experts alike. place pricing mechanisms and to gather inputs for market development.In addition to these institutional arrangements, it isalso necessary for governments to keep in mind the raising awareness of the enterprises of theirgeneral conditions and mechanisms for good gov- social and environmental impact and engaging inernance, which include improved inter-ministerial benchmark exercises to introduce process innova-policy coordination and regular channels for com- tions resulting in improved competitiveness. Thismunication and consultation between government encourages institutional learning through analyti-actors and the private and social sector stakehold- cal research, checking underlying assumptions anders. These channels are essential to building trust, modification of policies and actions in case of con-in order to develop and implement integrated com- flict between various interests and priorities.modity strategies. LDCs cannot afford to remain primary commodity3 . R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S O N producers. A detailed commodity analysis needs toE N T E R P R I S E PA R T I C I PAT I O N be carried out to strengthen the place of primary producers in the value chain, which would entailOn the supply side there is need for: their diversification and development. This is imper- strengthening producers’ organizations that can ative to reverse the trend of de-industrialization wit- interface with policy makers and institutions and nessed in many of the LDCs, and create sustainable working with them to develop a cogent commod- growth for poverty reduction. ity development strategy. devising vertical and horizontal consultative strat- egies to inform government of the most efficient allocation of development resources to develop robust supply side capacity and responsiveness to changes in domestic and international agricultural conditions. supporting and strengthening SMEs’ productive capacities and market competitiveness.6
  10. 10. ConclusionsThis report concludes that while the DTISs deal suf-ficiently with sector-related issues like policy, regu-latory and institutional constraints, they do notadequately highlight the cross-linkages betweendifferent elements in the supply and value chains ofcommodity development, thus making suggestedpolicies and recommended interventions frag-mented and difficult to achieve. The present studymakes an attempt to bridge this gap. It also showsa disparity among the DTIS reports in terms of qual-ity and comprehensiveness of their analysis of com-modity development. Therefore, it is recommendedthat selected country DTISs should be updatedbased on the Explanatory Notes to the DTIS Tem-plate (May2008)5 and pay more attention to small-scale producers and poverty reduction impacts.When the poorest countries are able to realizetheir potential for adding value to their raw mate-rials, they would see higher profit margins, greateremployment and potentially more backward link-ages (through supplying raw materials) and forwardlinkages (through technological and quality require-ments) with the rest of the local economy and theglobal system. For these reasons, this study pointsto the gap that exists in the DTISs and calls for theidentification of viable options and sequencingof policy interventions for value addition of com-modity-related output expansion and upgrading inthe LDCs.5 The EIF Board has adopted a template to guide countries and agencies carrying out the DTISs. It lists the issues and areas that need to be taken into account when undertaking the DTIS. 7
  11. 11. United Nations Development ProgrammeBureau for Development Policy304 East 45th Street, New York, NY 10017United States of Americawww.undp.org/povertyTrade and Human Development UnitUNDP Office in GenevaPalais des Nations, CH – 1211 Geneva 10Switzerland USD 35, EURO 25www.undp.org ISBN 978-92-1-126265-0
  12. 12. Note: This publication has been made available by CSEND.org with the agrement of the author. The Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development (CSEND) aims atpromoting equitable, sustainable and integrated development through dialogue andinstitutional learning.Diplomacy Dialogue is a branch of the Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development(CSEND), a non-profit R&D organization based in Geneva, Switzerland since 1993.

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