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International Research Journal      ISSN-0975-3486        VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4          RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097

                                    Research Paper—Psychology
                              A STUDY OF OPTIMISM AND
                              PESSIMISM ON EMOTIONAL
                          MATURITY, DEPRESSION AND COPING
                           STRATEGIES AMONG ADOLESCENT
 Dec.-09—Jan.-2010                     *Dr. Renuka Joshi **Ms. Sapna Tomar
             *Head, Deptt. of Psychology, DAV (PG) College, DEHRADUN
        **Research Scholar, Deptt of Psychology, DAV (PG) College, DEHRADUN
 A B S T R A C T
     The present study has tried to explore the differences between Optimist and Pessimist adolescents on
     Emotional Maturity, Depression and Coping Strategies. The data was collected on 144(86 optimists
     and 58 pessimist) adolescents. Subjects were selected from K.V. Schools of Dehradun using quota
     random sampling technique. The data was collected using Optimistic-Pessimistic attitude Scale (Dr.D.S.
     Prashar 1998) Emotional Maturity Scale (Dr. Yashvir Singh and Dr. Mahesh Bhargava 1990) De-
     pression Scale (Dr. Shamim Karim and Dr. Rama Tiwari 1986) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire
     (Folkman and Lazarus 1985) was administered. The result of the present study revealed a significant
     difference between Optimists and Pessimists on Emotional Maturity and its dimensions. On Depres-
     sion Optimists and Pessimists did not differ on Sleep Disturbance and the feeling of Sadness. Optimists
     were found to possess a tendency of using Planful Problem Solving and Positive Reappraisal more as
     compared to Pessimists when in a stressful situation.

     Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical       good outcome. Optimist is the person one who is dis-
and mental human development that occurs between           posed for the best. An optimistic thinking style in the
childhood and adulthood. This transition involves bio-     present time increases our resilience power, maintain
logical (i.e. pubertal), social, and psychological         hope for the best and improve our chance for the suc-
changes, shown in their personality traits. Adolescent     cess. On the other hand, pessimism lends to make us
period is associated with notable changes in mood          more anxious, depressed and hopeless. Optimistic per-
sometimes known as mood swings. Cognitive, emo-            son have an ability to maintain balance in difficult situ-
tional and attitudinal changes which are characteristic    ation such as in anxiety and depression. Pessimist tends
of adolescence, often take place during this period,       to see bad events as inevitable, as some permanent
and this can be a cause of conflict, stress and depres-    reflection of the environment on themselves. Optimist
sion on one hand and positive personality develop-         on the other hand, tends to see bad situation s as
ment on the other. Because the adolescents are experi-     temporary and specific something they can address.
encing various strong cognitive and physical changes,      They can take responsibility for their own poor be-
for the first time in their lives they may start to view   havior. They will not however blame themselves as a
their friends, their peer group, as more important and     whole. Pessimist is more realistic about their flows.
influential than their parents/guardians.                  (Martin Seligman 1991).
     Optimism is general tendency to expect always a            Pessimism is the general tendency to expect al-

42
International Research Journal         ISSN-0975-3486        VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4          RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097
ways bed outcomes. A pessimist is the person one              about the likelihood of future successes are more likely
who always looking to the dark side of the thing. Pes-        to persists in their goal directed efforts (i.e., the opti-
simism, from the Latin pessimus (worst), is the deci-         mist ) than those who have more negative expecta-
sion to evaluate, perceive and view life in a generally       tions (i.e., the pessimists). Thus the optimist and the
negative light. Value judgment may vary dramatically          pessimist exhibit distinct types of coping in stressful
between individuals, even when judgments of fact are          situations (Scheier and Carver, 1985). Optimism has
undisputed. The most common example of this phe-              been conceptualized as a temporary state and trait like
nomenon is the “Is the glass half empty or half full?”        factor outcomes of one’s life. It has been suggested
situation. Emotional maturity can be understood in term       that optimism is beneficial for psychological as well as
of ability of self-control which in turn is a result of       physical well being. Various studies shows that opti-
thinking and learning (Singh and Bhargava 1980).              mist as compared to pessimists adjust more favorably
Morgan and King Weisz and Schopler (1986) stated              to a variety of stressors ( Aspinwall and Taylor, 1992).
the view that adequate theory of emotional maturity                Optimism and pessimism defined as generalized
must take account of the full scope of the individuality      positive and negative outcome expectancies, respec-
powers and ability to enjoy the use of his powers. It         tively, are believed to represent important predictors
arouses through healthy perception of the surround-           of adjustment .specifically, this investigator have ar-
ings and hence enables them to maintain a healthy             gued that optimism is associated with and leads to
equilibrium. Emotional maturity is important for healthy      incurring negative outcomes (Scheier & Carver, 1985).
emotional development, it is a kind of processes that         Consistent with this view, numerous studies have
make himself more mature in emotional condition. A            found that optimism associated with greater positive
person who is not able to keep his emotions under             psychological outcomes, whereas pessimism is asso-
control he suffer with self pity. He might still be stunned   ciated with greater negative psychological
and childish. Emotional maturity is a process in which        outcomes(for reviews , see Andersson,1996; Scheier
the personality is continuously striving for greater          & Carver, 1992), whereas pessimism has been found to
sense of emotional health both physically and psy-            be associated with greater depressive symptoms
chologically.                                                 (Chang et al., 1996).
      Depression is a serious, but treatable illness. It      Method
affects people of all ages, but it is common among            Aim and Objective
older people. However it is not a normal part of aging             The present study has tried to explore differences
(Alexopoulos 2001). Coping (psychology) is the pro-           between optimist and pessimist adolescents on Emo-
cess of managing taxing circumstances, expending ef-          tional Maturity, Depression and Coping strategies and
fort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and        their dimensions.
seeking to master, minimize, reduce or tolerate stress             Hypothesis To achieve the main objective of the
or conflict. Coping strategies refer to the specific ef-      study following hypothesis are framed;
forts, both behavioral and psychological, that people              1. Optimist adolescents will be significantly higher
employ to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize stress-       on Emotional Maturity and its dimensions than Pessi-
ful events. In coping with stress, people tend to use         mist adolescents. 2. Pessimist adolescents will be sig-
one of the three main coping strategies: either appraisal     nificantly higher on Depression and its dimensions
focused, problem focused, or emotion focused cop-             than Optimist adolescents. 3. Optimist adolescents
ing.                                                          will be significantly higher on Coping Strategies and
      Over the years, considerable research has been          its dimensions than Pessimist adolescents.
focused on how people cope with their encounters              Tools used
with stressful life events. When faced with a novel                * Optimistic-Pessimistic attitude Scale (Op/Pm)
and potentially difficult situation, or in a state of de-     - Constructed and standardized by Dr.D.S. Prashar
pression, people with generally positive expectation          (1998) was used to know the Optimistic Pessimistic

çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ                                                                                      43
International Research Journal      ISSN-0975-3486        VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4         RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097
attitude of the subjects.                                  Optimist and Pessimist on Emotional Maturity and its
      * Emotional Maturity Scale (EMS) - Constructed       dimensions. It represents that on Total Emotional
and standardized by Dr. Yashvir Singh and Dr. Mahesh       Maturity and their dimensions namely; Emotional
Bhargava (1990) was used to know Emotional Matu-           Unstability, Emotional Regression, Social Maladjust-
rity of the subjects. it measures Emotional Maturity on    ment, Personality Disintegration, and Lack of Inde-
five dimensions namely, Emotional Unstability, Emo-        pendence Pessimists scored significantly higher mean
tional Regression, Social Maladjustment, Personality       values than optimists.
Disintegration and Lack of Independence.                        Table 2 represents Mean, SD and‘t’ values among
      *Depression Scale (DEP) - Constructed and stan-      optimist and pessimist adolescents on Total Depres-
dardized by Dr. Shamim Karim and Dr. Rama Tiwari           sion and its dimensions. Optimist adolescent scored
(1986) was used to check the depression level of sub-      higher mean values on Total Depression and its di-
jects. It measures Depression on twelve dimensions         mensions namely, Apathy, Pessimism, Fatigability, Ir-
namely, Apathy, Sleep Disturbance, Pessimism, Fati-        ritability, Social Withdrawal and Self Centeredness, Self
gability, Irritability, Social Withdrawal & Self           Dislike, Self Harm, Social Reoccupation and Indeci-
Centeredness, Dejected or Sadness, Self Dislike, Self      siveness, ’t’ values on these dimensions were also
Acquisition, Self Harm, Social Reoccupation, Indeci-       found to be significant, whereas insignificant t values
siveness.                                                  were found between Optimist and Pessimist on Sleep
      *Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WAYSS) - con-         Disturbance, Dejected or Sadness, and Self Acquisi-
structed and standardized by Folkman and Lazarus           tion. Table 3 shows the Mean, SD and ‘t’ values among
(1985) was used to measure the coping strategies of        optimist and pessimist adolescents on Coping Strate-
the subjects. Different Coping Strategies measured by      gies and its dimensions. On Total Coping Strategies
the scale are Confrontive Coping, Distancing, Self-        and its dimensions namely, Planful Problem Solving
Control, Seeking Social Support, Accepting Respon-         and Positive Reappraisal Optimists obtained higher
sibility, Escape Avoidance, Planful Problem Solving,       mean values than Pessimists and ‘t’ values on these
and Positive Reappraisal.                                  dimensions were also observed to be significant
Sample                                                     whereas on other dimensions namely, Confrontive
      The sample consisted of 144 adolescents (86 op-      Coping, Distancing, Self Control, Seeking Social Sup-
timists and 58 pessimists). Subjects were selected from    port, Accepting Responsibility and Escape Avoidance
K.V. Schools of Dehradun using quota random sam-           t values emerged to be insignificant between Optimists
pling technique. All the subject were matched on their     and Pessimists..
socio economic status and educational level. The age       Discussion
range of subjects was 13-17 yrs.                           Optimist/Pessimist and Emotional Maturity
Procedure                                                       The obtained t value on total Emotional Maturity
      The respondents were contacted individually and      (Table 1) was found to be significant at .01 levels. It
data was collected through structured questionnaire.       shows that Optimists and Pessimists differ from each
After establishing good rapport with the subjects all      other on total Emotional Maturity level. Observation
the four questionnaires were administered. Individual      of mean values revealed that Pessimists obtained
scores were obtained with the help of respective manu-     higher mean scores on total Emotional Maturity. On all
als and processed further using computerized statisti-     its dimensions namely; Emotional Unstability, Emo-
cal techniques namely; Means, SDs and t test.              tional Regression, Social Maladjustment, Personality
Results                                                    Disintegration and Lack of Independence Pessimists
      The present study has tried to explore the differ-   obtained significantly higher mean scores than Opti-
ences among optimist and pessimist adolescents on          mists. It means that the level of Emotional Immaturity
Emotional Maturity, Depression and Coping Strate-          is significantly more among Pessimists as compared
gies. Table 1 showed the Mean SD and‘t’ values of          to Optimists. It can be said that Pessimists possessed

44
International Research Journal         ISSN-0975-3486        VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4          RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097
low level of Emotional Maturity or it can be said that        demic stress or depression while greater academic
Optimists have high level of Emotional Maturity than          stress was experienced by the Pessimistic students.
Pessimists. Pessimists were found to have significantly       Gillhan Jane. E Revich (2001) also reported that Opti-
higher level of Emotional Unstability, Emotional Re-          mism builds resilience to depression. And Optimist
gression, Social Maladjustment, Personality Disinte-          group are less affected by the depression than pessi-
gration and Lack of Independence as compared to               mists.
Optimists. Therefore, the proposed hypothesis was             Optimist/Pessimist and Coping Strategies
accepted claiming that Optimists are more Emotionally              Significant t value for total Coping Strategies and
Mature than Pessimists. The obtained findings stands          its dimensions namely Planful Problem Solving and
in line with the earlier findings of Joshi,Gupta and          Positive Reappraisal (Table 3) indicated that Optimists
Tomar, (2009) who also reported that Optimists are more       and Pessimists differ from each other on this variable.
emotionally matured than Pessimists. Aspinwall and            Mean values revealed that Optimists obtained higher
Taylor (1992) also found that Optimistic group has high       mean scores than Pessimists on these dimensions of
level of maturity and low level of depression than Pes-       Coping Strategies denoting that Optimists possess a
simistic group.                                               tendency of using Planful Problem Solving and Posi-
Optimist/Pessimist and Depression                             tive Reappraisal more as compared to Pessimists. On
      On total Depression and its dimensions namely,          other dimensions namely, Confrontive Coping. Dis-
Apathy, Pessimism, Fatigability, Irritability, Social With-   tancing, Self Control, Seeking Social Support ,Accept-
drawal, Self Dislike, Self- Acquistion, Self Harm, Social     ing Responsibility and Escape Avoidance Optimists
Reoccupation, Indeciciveness the calculated t                 also obtained higher mean values but it was not found
value(Table-2) was found to be significant at .01 lev-        to be significant. It denoted that tendency of using
els. It showed that Optimists and Pessimists differ from      Confrontive Coping. Distancing, Self Control, Seek-
each other on the level of Depression. Pessimists were        ing Social Support ,Accepting Responsibility and Es-
found to have higher level of Depression as compared          cape Avoidance Coping Strategies are similar among
to Optimists. The level of Apathy, Pessimism, tendency        Optimist and Pessimists. It can be said that Optimists
of Fatgability, Irritability, Social Withdrawal, Self Dis-    when in stressful situations use Planful Problem Solv-
like, Self- Acquistion, Self Harm, Social Reoccupation        ing and Positive Reappraisal more to cope up as com-
and Indeciciveness was higher among Pessimist ado-            pared to Pessimists. The obtained findings stands in
lescents as compared to Optimists. It can be said that        line with the earlier findings of Scheier and Carver (1985)
Optimists possessed low level of Depression and               who reported that optimism helped students to cope
lower tendency of Apathy, Pessimism, Fatgability, Irri-       more effectively with stress. Students who are reported
tability, Social Withdrawal, Self Dislike, Self-              themselves as Optimists at the start of semester were
Acquistion, Self Harm, Social Reoccupation, and               less likely to bother by stress related symptoms by
Indeciciveness. Optimists and Pessimists showed no            the end of semester than those who are reported them-
significant difference on Sleep Disturbance and the           selves to be less Optimistic initially. Cruess, Stacy
feeling of Dejected or Sadness. On the basis of ob-           Antoni, Michale et al (2001) also found the differences
tained findings the proposed hypothesis was partially         on coping strategies among Optimists and Pessimists
accepted claiming that Optimist adolescents possess           and revealed that Optimists Coping Strategies are ef-
low level of Depression and its dimensions except             fective than Pessimists. Finally it can be concluded
Sleep Disturbance and the feeling of Sadness.                 that Optimist adolescents are more emotionally ma-
      Findings support the earlier findings of Joshi,         ture and experience significantly lesser degree of De-
Gupta and Tomar (2006) , who also found that Optimist         pression than Pessimist adolescents. Optimists and
are less vulnerable to depression as compared to Pes-         Pessimists did not differ on Sleep Disturbance and the
simist. Viven S. Husen et al (2006) also reported that        feeling of Sadness. Optimists were found to possess a
Optimistic students were likely to perceive less aca-         tendency of using Planful Problem Solving and Posi-
                                                              tive Reappraisal more as compared to Pessimists when
çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ                               in a stressful situation.                               45
International Research Journal         ISSN-0975-3486         VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4            RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097
 Table 1: Comparison of Optimist and Pessimist Adolescents on Emotional Maturity and its Dimensions.
     Variable / Dimension               Optimist (n=86)             Pessimist (n=58)                ‘t’ value
                                        Mean         SD             Mean         SD
     Emotional Unstability              20.4           4.83         25.31            7.42           4.58**
     Emotional Regression               19.26          5.86         22.92            6.17           2.11*
     Social Maladjustment               19.57          4.88         23.46            8.19           3.75**
     Personality Disintegration         18.82          4.22         23.46            7.60           6.10**
     Lack of Independence               14.96          4.59         23.46            3.93           5.66**
     Emotional Maturity (Total)         105.03         19.12        117.42           29.06          7.69**
     * significant at 0.05 level; ** significant at 0.01 level
      Table 2: Comparison of Optimist and Pessimist Adolescents on Depression and its Dimensions.
     Variable / Dimension                            Optimist (n=86)         Pessimist (n=58)                ‘t’ value
                                                     Mean        SD          Mean           SD
     Apathy                                          7.85        10.59       12.14          4.52             22.03**
     Sleep Disturbance                               8.33        4.62        10.5           4.57             1.91NS
     Pessimism                                       5.58        3.85        12.46          3.03             5.88**
     Fatigability                                    5.79        3.66        11.85          4.90             5.66**
     Irritability                                    6.93        4.71        13.62          3.39             4.82**
     SocialWithdrawal & Self enteredness             7.7         4.61        12.07          4.75             4.80**
     Dejected or Sadness                             9.94        4.38        12.46          4.45             1.93NS
     Self Dislike                                    6.69        4.25        13.85          4.92             5.51**
     Self Acquisition                                8.07        4.72        10.85          5.19             1.98*
     Self Harm                                       6.05        3.99        11.69          5.37             4.59**
     Social Reoccupation                             6.22        4.11        13.62          5.82             6.21**
     Indecisiveness                                  6.75        4.01        13.23          3.79             5.43**
     Social Withdrawal & Self Centeredness           7.7         4.61        12.07          4.75             4.80**
     Dejected or Sadness                             9.94        4.38        12.46          4.45             1.93
     Self Dislike                                    6.69        4.25        13.85          4.92             5.51**
     Self Acquisition                                8.07        4.72        10.85          5.19             1.98*
     Self Harm                                       6.05        3.99        11.69          5.37             4.59**
     Social Reoccupation                             6.22        4.11        13.62          5.82             6.21**
     Indecisiveness                                  6.75        4.01        13.23          3.79             5.43**
     Depression (Total)                              116.06      35.30       147.00         36.64            9.13**
     * significant at 0.05 level; ** significant at 0.01 level



46
International Research Journal         ISSN-0975-3486          VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4           RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097
   Table3: Comparison of Optimist and Pessimist Adolescents on Coping Strategies and its Dimensions.
     Variable / Dimension                               Optimist (n=86)          Pessimist (n=58)             ‘t’ value
                                                        Mean        SD           Mean        SD
     Confrontive Coping                                 9.23        3.10         9.76        2.73             1.63NS
     Distancing                                         9.93        3.32         9.92        4.51             0.01NS
     Self- Control                                      11.12       3.54         10.54       4.28             1.52NS
     Seeking Social Support                             9.39        3.48         9.23        2.28             0.16NS
     Accepting Responsibility                           7.69        3.90         7.28        2.76             0.83NS
     Escape Avoidance                                   11.06       3.82         11.42       4.76             1.62NS
     Planful Problem Solving                            13.37       4.34         10.57       3.50             4.23**
     Positive Reappraisal                               14.83       4.83         11.07       4.81             4.05**
     Coping Strategies (Total)                          82.64       16.35        74.75       19.22            16.46**
     * significant at 0.05 level; ** significant at 0.01 level




R E F E R E N C E

      * Alexopoulous, G. (2001). Pharmacotherapy of depressive disorder in older patient. Mc Graw –Hill Healthcare Informa-
tion, Minneapolis,USA. * Aspinwall, L.G. & Taylor, S.E. (1992). Modeling Cognitive adaptation: A longitudinal differences and
coping on college adjustment and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 63: 989-1003.* Chang, E .C.
(1996). Cultural difference in optimism, pessimism and coping: Predictors of subsequent adjustment in Asian American and
Caucasian American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 43:113-123.* Cruess Stacy, Antoni Michael,
Kilbourn, Kristin-Gall & Klimas, Nancy, Fletcher-Marry, Ann Back, Andy & Schneider man Neil (2001). “Optimism distress
and immunologic status in HIV-infected gay man following hurricanes Andrew. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Vol. 7 (2): 160-182.* Gillham, Jane E. (2001).” The science of optimism and hope”. Research essay in honor of Martin
Seligman. Templeton Foundation Press, Philaduphia, US. pp 445. * Folkman, Susan and Lazarus, S. Richard. (1988). Construct
and standardized “Ways of coping questionnaire (WAYSS).* Joshi, R; Gupta, N and Tomar, S. (2006). Depression in relation to
optimistic and pessimistic Attitude among Adolescent Boys and Girls. Behavorial Scientist , Vol 7(1): 47-50.* Joshi, R; Gupta,
N. & Tomar, S. (2009). Emotional maturity in relation to optimism – pessimism among adolescents. Indian Psychological
Review. Vol. 72(1): 11-14.* Morgan, C.T; King, R. A ; Weisz , J. R. & Schopler, J. (1986). Introduction to Psychology, 7 th
Edition Mc Graw Hill Book Company. Singapore.* Seligman, M.E.P(1991). Learned Optimism. New York, Knoff.* Prasar, D.S.
(1998). Optimistic-pessimistic attitude Scale Arohi Manovigyan Kendra 168/13, Near Head Post Office, South Civil lines
Jabalpur 482001. *Scheier, M. F. & Carver, C.S. (1992). Effect of Optimism of Psychological and Physical well being. In
Theoretical overview and empirical up deal Cognitive. Theory or reader Vol. 16 Page No. 201-202.*Scheier, M.F. & Carver,
G.S. (1985). Optimism coping strategies Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Journal of Health
Psychology, Vol. 4: 219-247.*Shamim, Karim and Rama, Tiwari (1986). Construct and standardized “A Depression Scale. Agra
Research Cell. *Singh Yashvir and Bhargava Mahesh (1980).mannual for Emotional Maturity Construct and standardized
“Emotional Maturity Sca Scale ”. National Psychological Corporation, 4/230, Kachari gate, Agra , India.*Viven S. Husen et al
(2006). Ccomparative study of optimistic students on depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.65: 375-
390.*Watson, D; Clark, L.A. & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measure of positive and negative
affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 54 :1063-1070.

çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ                                                                                           47

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RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION

  • 1. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 Research Paper—Psychology A STUDY OF OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM ON EMOTIONAL MATURITY, DEPRESSION AND COPING STRATEGIES AMONG ADOLESCENT Dec.-09—Jan.-2010 *Dr. Renuka Joshi **Ms. Sapna Tomar *Head, Deptt. of Psychology, DAV (PG) College, DEHRADUN **Research Scholar, Deptt of Psychology, DAV (PG) College, DEHRADUN A B S T R A C T The present study has tried to explore the differences between Optimist and Pessimist adolescents on Emotional Maturity, Depression and Coping Strategies. The data was collected on 144(86 optimists and 58 pessimist) adolescents. Subjects were selected from K.V. Schools of Dehradun using quota random sampling technique. The data was collected using Optimistic-Pessimistic attitude Scale (Dr.D.S. Prashar 1998) Emotional Maturity Scale (Dr. Yashvir Singh and Dr. Mahesh Bhargava 1990) De- pression Scale (Dr. Shamim Karim and Dr. Rama Tiwari 1986) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (Folkman and Lazarus 1985) was administered. The result of the present study revealed a significant difference between Optimists and Pessimists on Emotional Maturity and its dimensions. On Depres- sion Optimists and Pessimists did not differ on Sleep Disturbance and the feeling of Sadness. Optimists were found to possess a tendency of using Planful Problem Solving and Positive Reappraisal more as compared to Pessimists when in a stressful situation. Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical good outcome. Optimist is the person one who is dis- and mental human development that occurs between posed for the best. An optimistic thinking style in the childhood and adulthood. This transition involves bio- present time increases our resilience power, maintain logical (i.e. pubertal), social, and psychological hope for the best and improve our chance for the suc- changes, shown in their personality traits. Adolescent cess. On the other hand, pessimism lends to make us period is associated with notable changes in mood more anxious, depressed and hopeless. Optimistic per- sometimes known as mood swings. Cognitive, emo- son have an ability to maintain balance in difficult situ- tional and attitudinal changes which are characteristic ation such as in anxiety and depression. Pessimist tends of adolescence, often take place during this period, to see bad events as inevitable, as some permanent and this can be a cause of conflict, stress and depres- reflection of the environment on themselves. Optimist sion on one hand and positive personality develop- on the other hand, tends to see bad situation s as ment on the other. Because the adolescents are experi- temporary and specific something they can address. encing various strong cognitive and physical changes, They can take responsibility for their own poor be- for the first time in their lives they may start to view havior. They will not however blame themselves as a their friends, their peer group, as more important and whole. Pessimist is more realistic about their flows. influential than their parents/guardians. (Martin Seligman 1991). Optimism is general tendency to expect always a Pessimism is the general tendency to expect al- 42
  • 2. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 ways bed outcomes. A pessimist is the person one about the likelihood of future successes are more likely who always looking to the dark side of the thing. Pes- to persists in their goal directed efforts (i.e., the opti- simism, from the Latin pessimus (worst), is the deci- mist ) than those who have more negative expecta- sion to evaluate, perceive and view life in a generally tions (i.e., the pessimists). Thus the optimist and the negative light. Value judgment may vary dramatically pessimist exhibit distinct types of coping in stressful between individuals, even when judgments of fact are situations (Scheier and Carver, 1985). Optimism has undisputed. The most common example of this phe- been conceptualized as a temporary state and trait like nomenon is the “Is the glass half empty or half full?” factor outcomes of one’s life. It has been suggested situation. Emotional maturity can be understood in term that optimism is beneficial for psychological as well as of ability of self-control which in turn is a result of physical well being. Various studies shows that opti- thinking and learning (Singh and Bhargava 1980). mist as compared to pessimists adjust more favorably Morgan and King Weisz and Schopler (1986) stated to a variety of stressors ( Aspinwall and Taylor, 1992). the view that adequate theory of emotional maturity Optimism and pessimism defined as generalized must take account of the full scope of the individuality positive and negative outcome expectancies, respec- powers and ability to enjoy the use of his powers. It tively, are believed to represent important predictors arouses through healthy perception of the surround- of adjustment .specifically, this investigator have ar- ings and hence enables them to maintain a healthy gued that optimism is associated with and leads to equilibrium. Emotional maturity is important for healthy incurring negative outcomes (Scheier & Carver, 1985). emotional development, it is a kind of processes that Consistent with this view, numerous studies have make himself more mature in emotional condition. A found that optimism associated with greater positive person who is not able to keep his emotions under psychological outcomes, whereas pessimism is asso- control he suffer with self pity. He might still be stunned ciated with greater negative psychological and childish. Emotional maturity is a process in which outcomes(for reviews , see Andersson,1996; Scheier the personality is continuously striving for greater & Carver, 1992), whereas pessimism has been found to sense of emotional health both physically and psy- be associated with greater depressive symptoms chologically. (Chang et al., 1996). Depression is a serious, but treatable illness. It Method affects people of all ages, but it is common among Aim and Objective older people. However it is not a normal part of aging The present study has tried to explore differences (Alexopoulos 2001). Coping (psychology) is the pro- between optimist and pessimist adolescents on Emo- cess of managing taxing circumstances, expending ef- tional Maturity, Depression and Coping strategies and fort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and their dimensions. seeking to master, minimize, reduce or tolerate stress Hypothesis To achieve the main objective of the or conflict. Coping strategies refer to the specific ef- study following hypothesis are framed; forts, both behavioral and psychological, that people 1. Optimist adolescents will be significantly higher employ to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize stress- on Emotional Maturity and its dimensions than Pessi- ful events. In coping with stress, people tend to use mist adolescents. 2. Pessimist adolescents will be sig- one of the three main coping strategies: either appraisal nificantly higher on Depression and its dimensions focused, problem focused, or emotion focused cop- than Optimist adolescents. 3. Optimist adolescents ing. will be significantly higher on Coping Strategies and Over the years, considerable research has been its dimensions than Pessimist adolescents. focused on how people cope with their encounters Tools used with stressful life events. When faced with a novel * Optimistic-Pessimistic attitude Scale (Op/Pm) and potentially difficult situation, or in a state of de- - Constructed and standardized by Dr.D.S. Prashar pression, people with generally positive expectation (1998) was used to know the Optimistic Pessimistic çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 43
  • 3. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 attitude of the subjects. Optimist and Pessimist on Emotional Maturity and its * Emotional Maturity Scale (EMS) - Constructed dimensions. It represents that on Total Emotional and standardized by Dr. Yashvir Singh and Dr. Mahesh Maturity and their dimensions namely; Emotional Bhargava (1990) was used to know Emotional Matu- Unstability, Emotional Regression, Social Maladjust- rity of the subjects. it measures Emotional Maturity on ment, Personality Disintegration, and Lack of Inde- five dimensions namely, Emotional Unstability, Emo- pendence Pessimists scored significantly higher mean tional Regression, Social Maladjustment, Personality values than optimists. Disintegration and Lack of Independence. Table 2 represents Mean, SD and‘t’ values among *Depression Scale (DEP) - Constructed and stan- optimist and pessimist adolescents on Total Depres- dardized by Dr. Shamim Karim and Dr. Rama Tiwari sion and its dimensions. Optimist adolescent scored (1986) was used to check the depression level of sub- higher mean values on Total Depression and its di- jects. It measures Depression on twelve dimensions mensions namely, Apathy, Pessimism, Fatigability, Ir- namely, Apathy, Sleep Disturbance, Pessimism, Fati- ritability, Social Withdrawal and Self Centeredness, Self gability, Irritability, Social Withdrawal & Self Dislike, Self Harm, Social Reoccupation and Indeci- Centeredness, Dejected or Sadness, Self Dislike, Self siveness, ’t’ values on these dimensions were also Acquisition, Self Harm, Social Reoccupation, Indeci- found to be significant, whereas insignificant t values siveness. were found between Optimist and Pessimist on Sleep *Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WAYSS) - con- Disturbance, Dejected or Sadness, and Self Acquisi- structed and standardized by Folkman and Lazarus tion. Table 3 shows the Mean, SD and ‘t’ values among (1985) was used to measure the coping strategies of optimist and pessimist adolescents on Coping Strate- the subjects. Different Coping Strategies measured by gies and its dimensions. On Total Coping Strategies the scale are Confrontive Coping, Distancing, Self- and its dimensions namely, Planful Problem Solving Control, Seeking Social Support, Accepting Respon- and Positive Reappraisal Optimists obtained higher sibility, Escape Avoidance, Planful Problem Solving, mean values than Pessimists and ‘t’ values on these and Positive Reappraisal. dimensions were also observed to be significant Sample whereas on other dimensions namely, Confrontive The sample consisted of 144 adolescents (86 op- Coping, Distancing, Self Control, Seeking Social Sup- timists and 58 pessimists). Subjects were selected from port, Accepting Responsibility and Escape Avoidance K.V. Schools of Dehradun using quota random sam- t values emerged to be insignificant between Optimists pling technique. All the subject were matched on their and Pessimists.. socio economic status and educational level. The age Discussion range of subjects was 13-17 yrs. Optimist/Pessimist and Emotional Maturity Procedure The obtained t value on total Emotional Maturity The respondents were contacted individually and (Table 1) was found to be significant at .01 levels. It data was collected through structured questionnaire. shows that Optimists and Pessimists differ from each After establishing good rapport with the subjects all other on total Emotional Maturity level. Observation the four questionnaires were administered. Individual of mean values revealed that Pessimists obtained scores were obtained with the help of respective manu- higher mean scores on total Emotional Maturity. On all als and processed further using computerized statisti- its dimensions namely; Emotional Unstability, Emo- cal techniques namely; Means, SDs and t test. tional Regression, Social Maladjustment, Personality Results Disintegration and Lack of Independence Pessimists The present study has tried to explore the differ- obtained significantly higher mean scores than Opti- ences among optimist and pessimist adolescents on mists. It means that the level of Emotional Immaturity Emotional Maturity, Depression and Coping Strate- is significantly more among Pessimists as compared gies. Table 1 showed the Mean SD and‘t’ values of to Optimists. It can be said that Pessimists possessed 44
  • 4. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 low level of Emotional Maturity or it can be said that demic stress or depression while greater academic Optimists have high level of Emotional Maturity than stress was experienced by the Pessimistic students. Pessimists. Pessimists were found to have significantly Gillhan Jane. E Revich (2001) also reported that Opti- higher level of Emotional Unstability, Emotional Re- mism builds resilience to depression. And Optimist gression, Social Maladjustment, Personality Disinte- group are less affected by the depression than pessi- gration and Lack of Independence as compared to mists. Optimists. Therefore, the proposed hypothesis was Optimist/Pessimist and Coping Strategies accepted claiming that Optimists are more Emotionally Significant t value for total Coping Strategies and Mature than Pessimists. The obtained findings stands its dimensions namely Planful Problem Solving and in line with the earlier findings of Joshi,Gupta and Positive Reappraisal (Table 3) indicated that Optimists Tomar, (2009) who also reported that Optimists are more and Pessimists differ from each other on this variable. emotionally matured than Pessimists. Aspinwall and Mean values revealed that Optimists obtained higher Taylor (1992) also found that Optimistic group has high mean scores than Pessimists on these dimensions of level of maturity and low level of depression than Pes- Coping Strategies denoting that Optimists possess a simistic group. tendency of using Planful Problem Solving and Posi- Optimist/Pessimist and Depression tive Reappraisal more as compared to Pessimists. On On total Depression and its dimensions namely, other dimensions namely, Confrontive Coping. Dis- Apathy, Pessimism, Fatigability, Irritability, Social With- tancing, Self Control, Seeking Social Support ,Accept- drawal, Self Dislike, Self- Acquistion, Self Harm, Social ing Responsibility and Escape Avoidance Optimists Reoccupation, Indeciciveness the calculated t also obtained higher mean values but it was not found value(Table-2) was found to be significant at .01 lev- to be significant. It denoted that tendency of using els. It showed that Optimists and Pessimists differ from Confrontive Coping. Distancing, Self Control, Seek- each other on the level of Depression. Pessimists were ing Social Support ,Accepting Responsibility and Es- found to have higher level of Depression as compared cape Avoidance Coping Strategies are similar among to Optimists. The level of Apathy, Pessimism, tendency Optimist and Pessimists. It can be said that Optimists of Fatgability, Irritability, Social Withdrawal, Self Dis- when in stressful situations use Planful Problem Solv- like, Self- Acquistion, Self Harm, Social Reoccupation ing and Positive Reappraisal more to cope up as com- and Indeciciveness was higher among Pessimist ado- pared to Pessimists. The obtained findings stands in lescents as compared to Optimists. It can be said that line with the earlier findings of Scheier and Carver (1985) Optimists possessed low level of Depression and who reported that optimism helped students to cope lower tendency of Apathy, Pessimism, Fatgability, Irri- more effectively with stress. Students who are reported tability, Social Withdrawal, Self Dislike, Self- themselves as Optimists at the start of semester were Acquistion, Self Harm, Social Reoccupation, and less likely to bother by stress related symptoms by Indeciciveness. Optimists and Pessimists showed no the end of semester than those who are reported them- significant difference on Sleep Disturbance and the selves to be less Optimistic initially. Cruess, Stacy feeling of Dejected or Sadness. On the basis of ob- Antoni, Michale et al (2001) also found the differences tained findings the proposed hypothesis was partially on coping strategies among Optimists and Pessimists accepted claiming that Optimist adolescents possess and revealed that Optimists Coping Strategies are ef- low level of Depression and its dimensions except fective than Pessimists. Finally it can be concluded Sleep Disturbance and the feeling of Sadness. that Optimist adolescents are more emotionally ma- Findings support the earlier findings of Joshi, ture and experience significantly lesser degree of De- Gupta and Tomar (2006) , who also found that Optimist pression than Pessimist adolescents. Optimists and are less vulnerable to depression as compared to Pes- Pessimists did not differ on Sleep Disturbance and the simist. Viven S. Husen et al (2006) also reported that feeling of Sadness. Optimists were found to possess a Optimistic students were likely to perceive less aca- tendency of using Planful Problem Solving and Posi- tive Reappraisal more as compared to Pessimists when çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ in a stressful situation. 45
  • 5. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 Table 1: Comparison of Optimist and Pessimist Adolescents on Emotional Maturity and its Dimensions. Variable / Dimension Optimist (n=86) Pessimist (n=58) ‘t’ value Mean SD Mean SD Emotional Unstability 20.4 4.83 25.31 7.42 4.58** Emotional Regression 19.26 5.86 22.92 6.17 2.11* Social Maladjustment 19.57 4.88 23.46 8.19 3.75** Personality Disintegration 18.82 4.22 23.46 7.60 6.10** Lack of Independence 14.96 4.59 23.46 3.93 5.66** Emotional Maturity (Total) 105.03 19.12 117.42 29.06 7.69** * significant at 0.05 level; ** significant at 0.01 level Table 2: Comparison of Optimist and Pessimist Adolescents on Depression and its Dimensions. Variable / Dimension Optimist (n=86) Pessimist (n=58) ‘t’ value Mean SD Mean SD Apathy 7.85 10.59 12.14 4.52 22.03** Sleep Disturbance 8.33 4.62 10.5 4.57 1.91NS Pessimism 5.58 3.85 12.46 3.03 5.88** Fatigability 5.79 3.66 11.85 4.90 5.66** Irritability 6.93 4.71 13.62 3.39 4.82** SocialWithdrawal & Self enteredness 7.7 4.61 12.07 4.75 4.80** Dejected or Sadness 9.94 4.38 12.46 4.45 1.93NS Self Dislike 6.69 4.25 13.85 4.92 5.51** Self Acquisition 8.07 4.72 10.85 5.19 1.98* Self Harm 6.05 3.99 11.69 5.37 4.59** Social Reoccupation 6.22 4.11 13.62 5.82 6.21** Indecisiveness 6.75 4.01 13.23 3.79 5.43** Social Withdrawal & Self Centeredness 7.7 4.61 12.07 4.75 4.80** Dejected or Sadness 9.94 4.38 12.46 4.45 1.93 Self Dislike 6.69 4.25 13.85 4.92 5.51** Self Acquisition 8.07 4.72 10.85 5.19 1.98* Self Harm 6.05 3.99 11.69 5.37 4.59** Social Reoccupation 6.22 4.11 13.62 5.82 6.21** Indecisiveness 6.75 4.01 13.23 3.79 5.43** Depression (Total) 116.06 35.30 147.00 36.64 9.13** * significant at 0.05 level; ** significant at 0.01 level 46
  • 6. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 Table3: Comparison of Optimist and Pessimist Adolescents on Coping Strategies and its Dimensions. Variable / Dimension Optimist (n=86) Pessimist (n=58) ‘t’ value Mean SD Mean SD Confrontive Coping 9.23 3.10 9.76 2.73 1.63NS Distancing 9.93 3.32 9.92 4.51 0.01NS Self- Control 11.12 3.54 10.54 4.28 1.52NS Seeking Social Support 9.39 3.48 9.23 2.28 0.16NS Accepting Responsibility 7.69 3.90 7.28 2.76 0.83NS Escape Avoidance 11.06 3.82 11.42 4.76 1.62NS Planful Problem Solving 13.37 4.34 10.57 3.50 4.23** Positive Reappraisal 14.83 4.83 11.07 4.81 4.05** Coping Strategies (Total) 82.64 16.35 74.75 19.22 16.46** * significant at 0.05 level; ** significant at 0.01 level R E F E R E N C E * Alexopoulous, G. (2001). Pharmacotherapy of depressive disorder in older patient. Mc Graw –Hill Healthcare Informa- tion, Minneapolis,USA. * Aspinwall, L.G. & Taylor, S.E. (1992). Modeling Cognitive adaptation: A longitudinal differences and coping on college adjustment and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 63: 989-1003.* Chang, E .C. (1996). Cultural difference in optimism, pessimism and coping: Predictors of subsequent adjustment in Asian American and Caucasian American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 43:113-123.* Cruess Stacy, Antoni Michael, Kilbourn, Kristin-Gall & Klimas, Nancy, Fletcher-Marry, Ann Back, Andy & Schneider man Neil (2001). “Optimism distress and immunologic status in HIV-infected gay man following hurricanes Andrew. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol. 7 (2): 160-182.* Gillham, Jane E. (2001).” The science of optimism and hope”. Research essay in honor of Martin Seligman. Templeton Foundation Press, Philaduphia, US. pp 445. * Folkman, Susan and Lazarus, S. Richard. (1988). Construct and standardized “Ways of coping questionnaire (WAYSS).* Joshi, R; Gupta, N and Tomar, S. (2006). Depression in relation to optimistic and pessimistic Attitude among Adolescent Boys and Girls. Behavorial Scientist , Vol 7(1): 47-50.* Joshi, R; Gupta, N. & Tomar, S. (2009). Emotional maturity in relation to optimism – pessimism among adolescents. Indian Psychological Review. Vol. 72(1): 11-14.* Morgan, C.T; King, R. A ; Weisz , J. R. & Schopler, J. (1986). Introduction to Psychology, 7 th Edition Mc Graw Hill Book Company. Singapore.* Seligman, M.E.P(1991). Learned Optimism. New York, Knoff.* Prasar, D.S. (1998). Optimistic-pessimistic attitude Scale Arohi Manovigyan Kendra 168/13, Near Head Post Office, South Civil lines Jabalpur 482001. *Scheier, M. F. & Carver, C.S. (1992). Effect of Optimism of Psychological and Physical well being. In Theoretical overview and empirical up deal Cognitive. Theory or reader Vol. 16 Page No. 201-202.*Scheier, M.F. & Carver, G.S. (1985). Optimism coping strategies Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 4: 219-247.*Shamim, Karim and Rama, Tiwari (1986). Construct and standardized “A Depression Scale. Agra Research Cell. *Singh Yashvir and Bhargava Mahesh (1980).mannual for Emotional Maturity Construct and standardized “Emotional Maturity Sca Scale ”. National Psychological Corporation, 4/230, Kachari gate, Agra , India.*Viven S. Husen et al (2006). Ccomparative study of optimistic students on depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.65: 375- 390.*Watson, D; Clark, L.A. & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measure of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 54 :1063-1070. çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 47