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Reflection as an Educational Strategy
in Nursing Professional Development
An Integrative Review
Robbin Miraglia, MSN, RN ƒ Marilyn E. Asselin, PhD, RN-BC
Reflection is a critical component of professional nursing
practice and a strategy for learning through practice. This
integrative review synthesizes the literature addressing the
use of reflection as an educational strategy and reports
outcomes from the use of reflective strategies. Reflection
education is primarily nested in programs to meet specific
clinical goals, structured with group facilitation. Findings
suggest that reflective strategies stimulate learning in
practice, enhance readiness to apply new knowledge,
and promote practice change.
INTRODUCTION
In recent years, reflection has gained increased recognition
as a critical component of professional nursing practice and
as an educational strategy to acquire knowledge and learn
through practice (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Kim, 1999; Perry,
2000). Although there is no agreed upon definition, reflec-
tion is generally understood as the deliberate process of
critically thinking about a clinical experience, which leads
to development of insights for potential practice change
(Asselin & Fain, 2013). Scholars contend that reflection of-
fers nurses the opportunity to build on existing knowledge
through clinical experiences (Johns, 1995; Kuiper & Pesut,
2004; Perry, 2000), develop clinical judgment (Nielsen,
Stragnell, & Jester, 2007; Tanner, 2006), promote strong
communication skills, build collaborative practice, and im-
prove patient care (Horton-Deutsch, 2012; Peden-McAlpine,
Tomlinson, Forneris, Genck, & Meiers, 2005).
Although it is generally assumed that nurses know how
to reflect, findings from recent studies suggest that nurses’
reflective thinking may be prolonged by pauses and they
may need assistance in systematically moving insights to
practice change (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Asselin, Schwartz-
Barcott, & Osterman, 2013). Consequently, continuing ed-
ucation on reflection and reflective practice is viewed as a
vehicle to enhance professional practice, promote evidence-
based practice, and potentially improve patient outcomes.
As an educational strategy, reflection allows nurses to ex-
plore clinical experiences and the thoughts and feelings
associated with the experience, allowing for a change in
beliefs and assumptions, emergence of new knowledge,
and a transformation of clinical practice (Asselin & Fain,
2013; Dube & Ducharme, 2014; Horton-Deutsch, 2012;
Johns, 1995; Perry, 2000). Although numerous articles have
been published exploring the concept of reflection and the
use of reflection as an educational strategy, there has been
no attempt to synthesize existing literature presenting the
use of reflection as an educational strategy in nursing pro-
fessional development (NPD). This article provides an
integrative review of the literature addressing the use of re-
flection as an educational strategy for nurses. The review is
focused on ways that reflection has been used as an edu-
cational strategy in NPD and reported outcomes from the
use of reflective education strategies.
BACKGROUND
The concept of reflection is not new to education; it has
long been appreciated as a means to develop knowledge,
beginning with the ancient philosophers Aristotle and Soc-
rates. Modern day understanding of reflection has been
informed by the works of philosopher and educator John
Dewey. Dewey (1933) believed that learning took place as
a result of experiences and that reflecting on experiences
allowed connections to be made between thoughts, beliefs,
and actions. The work of Donald Schön (1983) extended the
work of Dewey, focusing the concept of reflection on pro-
fessional practice and further expanding the understanding
of how professionals think and develop insights as a result of
reflecting on experience. Schön also introduced the notions
of reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action. Reflection-
in-action is defined as the thought process that occurs as
an experience unfolds, guiding action with the experience
(Schön, 1983). Reflection-on-action is defined as the process
of thinking back on an experience to gain new knowledge
or come to a new understanding (Schön, 1983). Reflective
Robbin Miraglia, MSN, RN, is Doctoral Student, College of
Nursing,
University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, and
Clinical
Educator, Beverly Hospital, Massachusetts.
Marilyn E. Asselin, PhD, RN-BC, is Associate Professor,
College of
Nursing, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North
Dartmouth.
The authors have disclosed that they have no significant
relationship with,
or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to
this article.
ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE: Robbin Miraglia, MSN,
RN, 292
Putnam Street, Danvers, MA 01923 (e<mail: [email protected]).
DOI: 10.1097/NND.0000000000000151
2.5 ANCC
Contact
Hours
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JNPD Journal for Nurses in Professional Development &
Volume 31, Number 2, 62Y72 & Copyright B 2015 Wolters
Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights
reserved.
teaching strategies utilize the concept of reflection-on-action
or thinking back to structure new knowledge and under-
standings and to gain insights for practice change.
Reflection is the cornerstone of professional nursing
practice. Through reflection, nurses are able to make mean-
ing of experience (Hartrick, 2000), connect theoretical
knowledge to the context of clinical practice (Jenkins,
2007), develop fresh insights, and modify clinical practice
(Bailey & Graham, 2007). There is a limited number of em-
pirical studies that explore the use of reflection as an
educational strategy in the NPD setting. The paucity of em-
pirical evidence warrants a closer examination of how we
are currently using reflection in NPD and what outcomes
are being reported.
PURPOSE/AIM
The purpose of this integrative review is to explore the
literature on the use of reflection as an educational strategy
in the postlicensure nursing population. The following two
questions guided the review: (a) In what ways has reflec-
tion been used as an educational strategy in NPD? (b) What
outcomes are reported for reflective educational strategies?
METHODS
The integrative review method outlined by Whittemore and
Knafl (2005) was used to synthesize the literature on reflec-
tion. This method allows for exploration of both empirical
and theoretical literature and has the potential to inform
evidence-based nursing practice and direct future research.
Steps in the integrative review include problem identifica-
tion, literature search, data evaluation, and data analysis
(Whittemore & Knafl, 2005). As stated earlier, there is a
need to identify the ways in which reflection has been used
as an educational strategy, explore the outcomes of reflec-
tive educational strategies, and identify recommendations
for future research.
Search Strategy
Literature published between 1985 and December 2013
was reviewed using the Cumulative Index to Nursing and
Allied Health (CINAHL), Education Resources Information
Center (ERIC), and MEDLINE databases. The search terms
‘‘reflection,’’ ‘‘professional development,’’ ‘‘staff develop-
ment,’’ and ‘‘nursing’’ were used. Hand searching of the
Journal for Nurses in Professional (Staff) Development
and Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing was also
done. Ancestry searching was completed from the refer-
ence lists of identified key articles.
Search findings were reviewed for primary empirical
studies exploring the use of reflection as an educational
strategy in NPD and publications that discussed the use
of reflection as a defined process and a deliberate educa-
tional strategy in the clinical practice setting. Gray literature
(conference proceedings and dissertations) was not
reviewed for inclusion. Simulation literature was not in-
cluded in the review; although the debriefing component
has threads of reflection, reflection is often not described as
a defined and deliberate process within the debriefing. In-
clusion criteria for published works included (a) works in
English and (b) empirical and nonempirical works that ex-
plored the application of a reflective educational strategy
with postlicensure nurses in a clinical setting. Publications
were excluded that (a) focused on the use of reflection in
the student nurse population; (b) described personal reflec-
tive exemplars; and (c) discussed the process of reflection,
without application of reflection as an educational strategy
in a clinical setting.
Five hundred fifty-three articles were reviewed using
the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria; 179 records
were excluded after a review of titles and abstracts. The first
author assessed 326 full-text articles for eligibility, consult-
ing with the second author when there was a question about
eligibility; 301 full-text articles were excluded. Twenty-five
articles subsequently met inclusion criteria, serving as the
sample to address the research questions (see Table 1 for
a summary of articles included in the review).
Quality Appraisal
The quality of the empirical data was evaluated using a tool
developed by Hawker, Payne, Kerr, Hardey, and Powell
(2002). The revised appraisal tool scored nine methodolog-
ical criteria as ‘‘good,’’ ‘‘fair,’’ ‘‘poor,’’ or ‘‘very poor’’ with
the authors attributing numerical scores of 1 (very poor)
to 4 (good). The scores from this tool were converted to
‘‘high’’ (4.0Y3.0) or ‘‘low’’ (2.9Y1.0). The nonempirical arti-
cles were evaluated on their relevance in answering the
questions guiding the search and analysis and were classi-
fied as ‘‘high’’ or ‘‘low.’’ The first and second authors
independently rated one third of the articles and compared
scores; high interrater reliability was established. The first
author then independently evaluated the remainder of
the articles, consulting the second author if there was a
question about the quality or relevance of an article.
The range of quality scores for the empirical studies was
3.33Y4.0, and the range of relevance scores for the non-
empirical studies was 2Y4. None of the reviewed studies
were excluded from the review because of rank. Articles
scoring ‘‘high’’ were used to develop the main themes
throughout the analysis; articles scoring ‘‘low’’ were used
to support and further develop the themes to answer the
questions.
DATA ANALYSIS
The first author read each article separately, noting patterns
and themes addressing identified questions, and recorded
data in a matrix format. The second author was consulted
with emerging themes and asked to validate content and
synthesis of themes. Articles that ranked low in relevance
Journal for Nurses in Professional Development
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TABLE 1 Summary of Articles Included in Integrative Review
Author/s (Year), Country Sample Setting Reflective Strategy
Outcome
1. Asselin and Fain (2013),
United States
Twenty RNs from two acute
care community hospitals in
Northeastern United States
& Three-part reflective practice
CE program
& Structured reflection increases
nurses’ engagement in
self-reflection and enhanced
reflective thinking
in practice.
& Structured reflective narratives
& Researcher-facilitated group
discussions
2. Bailey and Graham
(2007), Ireland
Eight palliative care nurses
(only seven completed)
& Eight 2.5-hour sessions to
introduce, facilitate, and
evaluate guided reflective
practice
& Guided reflection allowed
staff to meet away from the
clinical environment and
work together to ‘‘find fresh
insights to inform practice.’’
& Structured reflective diary
keeping
& Supporting reflective practice
is a strategy to support
palliative care nurses.
& Educator-facilitated group
reflection
3. Curry, Middleton, and
Brown (2009), Ireland
Four nurses and eight care
assistants in two
nursing homes
& Four modules based on
palliative care, communication,
pain and symptom management,
and bereavement care
& This project has enhanced
provision of palliative care
to residents.
& Staff reported increased
confidence in their roles;
increased knowledge about
palliative care; improved
morale and motivation; and
change inawareness regarding
value of knowing residents,
importance of listening, value
of building relationships with
families, and importance of
a person-centered approach
in palliative care.
& Facilitated reflective learning
groups
4. Dube and Ducharme
(2014), Canada
Twenty-one nurses at five
medical/surgical care units
at university hospital
& Eight workshops with content
on reflective practice and
interventions relating to
medication, mobilization, and
discharge planning of
older adults
& Experimental group had
significantly more positive
attitudes regarding older
adults after reflective
practice intervention.
& Experimental group
significantly improved
knowledge of older adults
without a significant change
in the control group.
& Structured reflective journal
assignments
5. Edwards, Holroyd,
Rowley, Taylor, and
Unwin (2005), Australia
Four RNs 30Y45 years old,
10Y15 years of clinical
nursing experience
& Embedded into action
research project
& Action research and reflection
are practice processes for
nurses to examine their
practice issues and improve
nursing care. An action plan
was generated for improving
assertiveness at work.
& Written journal reflections of
practice experiences (using
participant observation)
& Researcher-facilitated group
discussions
Continued
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TABLE 1 Summary of Articles Included in Integrative Review,
Continued
Author/s (Year), Country Sample Setting Reflective Strategy
Outcome
6. FornerisandPeden-McAlpine
(2007), United States
Six novice nurseYpreceptor
dyads
& Embedded into contextual
learning intervention
& Three themes were
developed to describe the
novice nurses’ development
of critical thinking. Contextual
learning can be a model of
clinical learning in nursing
education that develops
components of critical
thinking.
& Structured reflective journaling
& Facilitated discussion groups
7. Gamble (2001),
United Kingdom
Nurses from a large medical
units (medical assessment
unit, cardiac care unit, and
eight medical wards)
& Structured debriefings after a
cardiac arrest
& Debriefing gives nurses the
ability to acknowledge their
emotional response to the
experience and identify
learning needs.
8. Gustafsson and Fagerberg
(2004), Sweden
Four female nurses from
diverse clinical areas
(psychiatry, nephrology,
intestinal surgery, and
vascular surgery)
& Structured interviews focused
on the implications of the
nurses’ reflections
& Reflection may promote
nursing professional
development and develop
nursing care.
9. Hart et al. (2000), Australia Ninety-five RNs at six
different hospitals, 74 nurses
successfully finished one of
the programs
& 14-week program & Participants showed
improvements in their
empathetic responses to
patients, their sense of
hope, and some aspects of
their work environment.
& Peer consultation
& Group discussions
10. Hart, Yates, Clinton, and
Winsor (1998), Australia
Registered nurses working
with terminally ill patients
& Written practice incidents
using reflective framework
& Shared and collaborative
approaches to the planning,
implementation, and
evaluation of nursing care
were emphasized.
& Group discussion & Creative solutions and
collective actions were
developed to address
complex organizational
issues.
11. Hartrick (2000), Canada Multidisciplinary team of
pediatric healthcare
practitioners
& Embedded within four
educational activities
& Team members were able to
make meaning of their
experiences and theoretical
ideals of health promotion
and begin to transform their
understandings and actions.
& Structured questionnaires
and journaling
& Reflective group dialogues
12. Holdsworth, Belshaw,
and Murray (2001),
United Kingdom
Thirteen nurses working in
four A&E departments, two
minor injury units, and two
MAUs
& Embedded within five half-day
workshops
& Increased knowledge and
skill related to the assessment
of an immediate management
of deliberate self-harm.
& Participants completed
‘‘Summary Diary Sheets’’ with
information about patient,
triage, and outcomes where
analyzed.
& Decreased level of
work-related stress
Continued
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TABLE 1 Summary of Articles Included in Integrative Review,
Continued
Author/s (Year), Country Sample Setting Reflective Strategy
Outcome
13. Jenkins (2007),
United Kingdom
A nurse lecturer and a team
of district nurses
& Embedded within cooperative
inquiry
& Participants linked theory
and practice, made sense of
experience, and improved
work dynamically.& Facilitated, structured group
reflections
14. Kemp (2009),
United Kingdom
Thirteen and 5 staff nurses
from two adjacent acute
inpatient wards
& Embedded within workshop
with multiple sessions
& Increased team identity,
increased time spent with
service users (patients)
& Reflective diaries & Participants reported feeling
more assertive, increased
level of confidence, and
gaining more effective skills
that allowed them to be
more supportive for patients.
& Facilitated group reflection
15. Kuiper (2002),
United States
Thirty-two new graduate
nurses on clinical units
& Structured, reflective journals & Using self-regulation
reflective
strategies would encourage
metacognitive strategies and
implies a benefit for learning
flexibility and adaptability.
16. McDonald, Jackson,
Wilkes, and Vickers
(2012), Australia
Fourteen nurses and
midwives
& Embedded within six
structured workshops
& Outcomes included closer
group dynamics, more
supportive communication,
and assertiveness and
confidence in the
clinical setting.
& Facilitated group discussion & Analysisalsosuggestedgrowth
in participants’ knowledge of
personal resilience and
willingness and ability to
monitor and maintain resilience
strategies for themselves and
their colleagues.
17. Oyamada (2012), Japan Fourteen midcareer nurses
employed in three hospitals in
Japan(5Y15yearsofexperience)
& Structured reflective narratives & A change in frame of
reference was noted in
two participants.
& Facilitated group discussions & Ten participants reported a
change in practice.
18. Peden-McAlpine,
Tomlinson, Forneris,
Genck, and Meiers
(2005), United States
Eight pediatric critical care
nurses in two children’s
hospitals in the Midwest
& Embedded within reflective
practice intervention
& Stimulated a change in
attitudes about family,
enhanced communication
with families, and an
integration of family care
into nursing practice
& Written narratives
& Reflective discussions
19. Peterson, Hakendorf, and
Guscott (1999), Australia
Fifteen nurses from 10 health
units in rural settings
& Embedded within a six-module,
problem-based course
& Nurses developed a holistic
view of aged care. Journaling
enabled participants in
reflecting on their practice.
Nurses were motivated to
make changes in their
workplace.
& Structured journals
Continued
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were then read and analyzed; data from these articles were
used to support themes developed from the articles rank-
ing high in relevance and rigor. Key patterns identified in
the literature were clustered as appropriate and summa-
rized in narrative format.
FINDINGS
The final sample of articles represented the use of reflec-
tion in eight countries: United Kingdom (n = 6); Australia
(n = 6); United States (n = 5); Canada (n = 3); Ireland (n =
2); and one each from Japan, Sweden, and Switzerland.
The population of nurses described had clinical nursing ex-
perience spanning a broad range of years. Most articles had
no purposeful sampling of defined years of experience;
however, several articles explored reflection in specific
nursing populations from the new graduate level (Kuiper,
2002), to novice nurses with less than 6 months of experience
(Forneris & Peden-McAlpine, 2007; Rosenal, 1995), to
midcareer nurses with 5Y15 years of experience (Oyamada,
2012).
Eleven articles highlighted the use of reflective educa-
tional strategies across diverse clinical practice settings,
TABLE 1 Summary of Articles Included in Integrative Review,
Continued
Author/s (Year), Country Sample Setting Reflective Strategy
Outcome
20. Rittman (1995),
United States
Nurses working in a hospital
setting; no stated numbers
& Narratives and group
interpretive analysis
& Narratives and interpretive
analysis proved a powerful
staff development approach
as recognition is given to
the expertise and meaning
within clinical nursing
practice.
21. Rosenal (1995), Canada Novice nurses with less than
6 months of experience
& Structured, reflective narratives & Critical incident
methodology
can be used in nursing
education to foster
self-reflection,informeducators
of the reality and impact of
nurses’ experiences, conduct
learning needs assessments,
and gather exemplars for
teaching purposes.
Twenty-five nurses who
served as preceptors
Both populations were
employed in a pediatric
health center.
22. Sewell et al. (2006),
United Kingdom
Two diabetes nursing teams
in two secondary care trusts
in the United Kingdom
& Combined with collaborative
partnership and mentoring
& Regular, critical evaluation
of critical care is important
in care delivery, service
development, and
professional development.
& Structured reflection
23. Turner (2009),
United Kingdom
Twelve psychiatric nurses & Embedded within action research
& An audit showed that
children’s needs were
considered and information
was appropriately shared
to safeguard children.
& Reflective sessions
24. von Klitzing (1999),
Switzerland
Seven female nurses on one unit & Nested within Baliant group
& Nurses selected terminally ill
patients for group discussions,
reflective functions increased
throughout the year, and
nurses’ reflections about self
declined significantly
over time.
& Group discussion
25. Walker, Cooke, Henderson,
and Creedy (2013);
Australia
Fifty-six nurses, 33 students,
and 1 clinical supervisor in
two acute care hospital
wards
& Embedded within concept of
learning circles
& Learning circles provided
participants the sense of
security enabling them to
voice concerns around
10 identified personal
and professional practice
themes.
& Facilitated, structured group
discussion
Note. RNs = registered nurses; CE = continuing education; A&E
= accident and emergency; MAUs = medical admissions units.
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from acute care hospital-based units to clinical office prac-
tices. Four articles explored the use of reflection to address
the needs of nurses working in palliative care or with ter-
minallyillpatients.Threearticlesaddressedtheuseofreflective
strategies within the setting of mental health/psychiatric care.
In addition, the use of reflective strategies has been reported
in elder care (Dube & Ducharme, 2014; Peterson et al., 1999),
family practice (Hartrick, 2000), and maternity/pediatric
settings (McDonald et al., 2012; Peden-McAlpine et al., 2005).
Reflection as an Educational Strategy in NPD
Two themes emerged from the synthesis process related to
the goal or intent of the reflective educational strategies:
using a reflective strategy to meet a specific clinical practice
goal and teaching nurses how to reflect to enhance individ-
ual reflective practice. Seventeen articles described using a
reflective strategy as a means to meet a specific clinical
practice goal. For example, Turner (2009) developed a man-
datory training program that included a reflective strategy
to enhance healthcare providers’ ability to meet patients’
mental health needs. Kemp (2009) developed a work-
based initiative that included reflective diaries to enhance
therapeutic communication with service users in acute
mental health settings.
Six articles described the process of teaching nurses
how to reflect to promote reflective practice, insight, and
reflective thinking (Asselin & Fain, 2013); explore the ben-
efit of reflective programs for midcareer nurses (Oyamada,
2012); promote reflective practice through group-guided
reflection (Bailey & Graham, 2007); gain deeper levels of
reflection on clinical practice (Edwards et al., 2005); explore
the impact of reflective journaling on the metacognitive
process (Kuiper, 2002); and describe the experience of re-
flection in relation to nursing and understand how nurses
reflect (Gustafsson & Fagerberg, 2004).
Three themes emerged regarding the way in which re-
flection was used as an educational strategy: reflection
nested into multifaceted educational programs, individual-
versus group-facilitated reflection, and structured versus
unstructured reflection. Although one may argue these are
not mutually exclusive in each reflective strategy, they rep-
resented three delivery approaches worthy of discussion.
Nested reflective strategies
Of the articles that addressed the use of reflection to meet a
specific clinical practice concern or to impact individual re-
flectivepractice(n=19),most(n=12)describedmultifaceted
educational programs that nested a reflective teaching strat-
egy in the program to meet a program goal. In these programs,
information pertinent to the clinical practice setting and edu-
cational goals of the project were presented to participants
and paired with a reflective educational strategy. Although
not all authors explicitly stated why reflective strategies
were added to multifaceted programs, pairing a reflective
strategy with the presentation of new knowledge, mentor-
ing, and other educational strategies were used to stimulate
learning in practice and develop tactic knowledge (Turner,
2009), result in a change in behavior, enhance readiness for
application of new knowledge (Hartrick, 2000; Sewell
et al., 2006), prepare nurses to ‘‘tackle problems in the real
world’’ (Curry et al., 2009, p. 21), and implement practice
solutions (Edwards, Holroyd, Rowley, Taylor, & Unwin,
2005). In addition, Kemp (2009) stated that participants
highly valued reflection on practice experiences to further
enhance learning.
The remaining seven articles explored the impact of
reflection as a stand-alone educational strategy to meet
an educational goal or improve individual reflective prac-
tice (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Bailey & Graham, 2007; Gustafsson
& Fagerberg, 2004; Hart et al., 1998; Kuiper, 2002; Oyamada,
2012; Walker et al., 2013).
Individual versus group reflection
Twenty articles discussed the use of group dialogues or dis-
cussions as the foundation of reflective educational strategies.
In roughly half of the 20 articles presenting the use of group
discussions (n = 11), participants were first asked to write a
reflective narrative on a clinical situation about which they
had given considerable thought; the written narrative was
then discussed in a group setting. In the remaining articles
presenting the use of group discussions (n = 9), partici-
pants reflected on clinical stories or experiences supplied
by the educator or researcher. The remaining three articles
presented reflective interventions focused on individual
written narratives designed to explore a clinical experience
(Kuiper, 2002; Rittman, 1995; Rosenal, 1995). The reflective
narratives were only shared with the researcher or educa-
tor and resulted in learning or expanded understanding for
the individual who contributed the narrative.
An additional notion within the theme of reflective
group discussions was the use of a facilitator to guide
and direct the reflective dialogue. Twelve articles discussed
the use of facilitators to guide, direct, and expand the re-
flective exploration of shared narratives in the group
setting. Of these 12 articles, one used participants from
within the peer group to serve as facilitators, rotating the
role of the facilitator among group members (Jenkins,
2007). In four articles, educators (n = 3) or nurse leaders
(n = 1) served as facilitators. Four articles discussed the role
of the facilitator being filled by nurse researcher (n = 3) or
external clinical nurse specialist (n = 1). The remaining
three articles did not clearly describe who served in the role
of facilitator for the group dialogues.
Structured versus unstructured reflection
Prescriptive models or frameworks, including structured
questions cues, can be used to provide guidance and struc-
ture to the reflection exercise. Of the articles that asked
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participants to reflect on a clinical narrative (n = 24), nine of
the articles described the reflective strategy without men-
tion of a guiding reflective framework or model. Most (n
= 15) articles described the use of a reflective model or
structured questions to provide guidance with the explora-
tion of a clinical experience.
Nine articles described researcher- or educator-developed
questions created to guide the reflective process. For exam-
ple, Oyamada (2012) developed structured reflective
questions aimed at encouraging midcareer nurses in Japan
to uncover the validity of their own values and assump-
tions. Peterson et al. (1999) developed questions to focus
on issues and concerns embedded within the context of
their clinical practice. Gustafsson and Fagerberg (2004) de-
veloped guiding questions based on findings from nursing
literature and critical thinking attributes to prompt novice
nurses in reflective journaling.
Six articles described educational interventions shaped
around existing reflective frameworks or models. Bailey
and Graham (2007) and Dube and Ducharme (2014) uti-
lized Johns’ (2006) model for structured reflection as the
guiding framework for reflective narratives. Sewell et al.
(2006) and Hart et al. (2000) each presented reflective pro-
cesses that were informed by the work of Boud, Keogh,
and Walker (1985). Asselin and Fain (2013) developed
their reflective intervention based on the Critical Reflective
Inquiry Model (Kim, Lauzon Clabo, Burbank, Leveille, &
Martins, 2010). Finally, Walker et al. (2013) adapted and
relabeled the four-step model of critical reflection (Noble,
Macfarlane, & Cartmel, 2005) and used it as a framework for
reflection in group discussions.
What Outcomes are Reported From Reflective
Educational Strategies?
Outcomes of the reflection education were reported in
11 research-based articles and 14 articles describing re-
flection education. Authors of four articles, one quantitative
and three mixed methods research, reported the use of mea-
surement tools that captured the outcome data needed to
explore the impact of reflection on the identified research
question (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Dube & Ducharme, 2014;
Hart et al., 2000; von Klitzing, 1999). One secondary analysis
developed qualitative themes using research study field
notes (Walker et al., 2013). The six qualitative articles
reported thematic outcomes developed and synthesized
fromqualitativedata provided bystudyparticipants (Edwards
et al., 2005; Forneris & Peden-McAlpine, 2007; Gustafsson &
Fagerberg, 2004; Kuiper, 2002; Oyamada, 2012; Peden-
McAlpine et al., 2005).
The outcomes reported in the 14 articles describing re-
flection education were most often linked to the goals of
the education and frequently gathered through program
evaluation questionnaires and self-report measures. Find-
ings from this review highlighted an increase in knowledge
and two additional themes within the reported outcomes of
reflective strategies: the role of reflection in changed attitudes,
values,beliefs,andassumptionsofindividualparticipantsand
the potential for group reflective strategies to make a mean-
ingful impact at the organizational level.
All of the articles within the final sample reported out-
comes at the individual participant level; the use of reflective
strategies resulted inincreased knowledge(Bailey& Graham,
2007; Curry et al., 2009; Dube & Ducharme, 2014; Peterson
et al., 1999; Rosenal, 1995; Sewell et al., 2006); enhanced
clinical skills (Curry et al., 2009; Dube & Ducharme, 2014;
Holdsworth et al., 2001; Kemp, 2009; Peterson et al., 1999;
Turner, 2009); and/or changed attitudes, beliefs, or assump-
tions (Hart et al., 2000, Hartrick, 2000; McDonald et al.,
2012; 1998).
Beyond the transfer of knowledge and the enhance-
ment of clinical practice, reflection allows participants the
time and space to explore the values, beliefs, and assump-
tions that drive clinical action. Twelve of the articles discussed
the impact that the educational intervention had on the par-
ticipant’s values, beliefs, and assumptions. Hartrick (2000)
found that reflection education supported the develop-
ment of health promoting family practice. Authors reported
that critical reflection allowed practitioners to explore the per-
sonal biases they carried into practice and the ways in which
these biases impacted their practice of providing family-
centered care. The transformed understandings led to trans-
formed practice.
Authors reported that, when reflection occurred as a
group process, there was the potential to enhance team-
workandimpactorganizational-levelpractice.Inasupportive,
collaborative practice environment, group reflection aided in
exploration of practice issues and concerns and empowered
staff to own individual practice and drive practice change
(Curry et al., 2009). Hart et al. (1998) presented the belief
that group reflective discussions about practice contribute
to the collective culture of nursing care and that the outcome
of reflection has the most organizational impact when
shared experiences, rather than individual experiences,
are the focus of reflection.
DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
FOR NPD
As noted in the findings, reflection is often nested in mul-
tifaceted educational programs making it a challenge to
identify key articles through database searches. Despite
reviewing an extensive number of articles for inclusion, it is
possible that key articles addressing the research questions
were not identified through utilized search methods.
The findings from this integrative review offer several
important implications for NPD specialists. Nurses reported
positive impact from participating in reflective education
(Bailey & Graham, 2007; Kemp, 2009; Rittman, 1995); how-
ever, not all nurses are equally skilled in reflection (Asselin &
Journal for Nurses in Professional Development
www.jnpdonline.com 69
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights
reserved.
Fain, 2013; Clark, 2009; Perry, 2000; Rosenal, 1995). Many of
the articles within the final data set explored a reflective
component withinaneducationalprogramwithoutteaching
nurses about reflection or how to reflect on clinical experi-
ences. Perhaps, it has been assumed that reflection is an
intuitive process. To achieve intended outcomes from re-
flective strategies, it may be beneficial to expose nurses
to content focusing on the process and benefits of reflection
before expecting them to engage in reflective learning
(Walker et al., 2013). NPD specialists should consider in-
cluding education on reflection in orientation, preceptor/
team leader training (Asselin & Fain, 2013), new graduate
nurse programs, and educational programs that contain re-
flective strategies.
NPD specialists may find that providing nurses with a
guiding reflective framework, or model, will facilitate a re-
flective process that can be incorporated in practice and
ultimately result in enhanced learning, improved profes-
sional practice, and better patient outcomes (Asselin &
Fain, 2013; Johns, 1995; Peterson et al., 1999). In addition
to providing a guiding structure for exploring a clinical ex-
perience, a reflective model or framework may prevent
nurses from getting stuck in the reflective process (Asselin
et al., 2013; Jenkins, 2007). In the absence of a formal re-
flective framework, providing individuals with guiding
questions or prompts may assist in the development of
higher level thinking (Kuiper, 2002).
Group reflective discussions have been found to assist
individuals in reaching a deeper level of exploration (Asselin
& Fain, 2013; Hart et al., 2000; Jenkins, 2007). Although there
is some risk in sharing personal experiences in a group set-
ting (Holdsworth et al., 2001), findings from this review
highlighted the belief that group reflection in a safe and se-
cure setting (Jenkins, 2007; Peterson et al., 1999; Walker
et al., 2013) can validate (Jenkins, 2007) and empower
(Hart et al., 2000) nurses. Group reflection can also lead to
individuals uncovering more objective truths (Jenkins, 2007).
Hart et al. (1998) suggest that group reflection on practice
contributes to a culture of nursing care, with the potential
for eventual organizational change.
In the reviewed articles, authors noted that the support
of a facilitator was valuable in reflective group discussions
(Bailey & Graham, 2007). To create the safe and supportive
environment necessary to encourage open and engaged
learning in a group setting, it is critical that the facilitator
be skilled and sensitive (Kemp, 2009). The role of facilitator
was filled by a broad range of individuals, including peers,
nurse researchers, and clinical educators. Whereas Jenkins
(2007) found that peer facilitation was valued by the group,
others found that the role of the facilitator would be best
filled by an outsider (Kemp, 2009). Facilitators who are per-
ceived to have power or authority over the group may impact
comfort level of the group and may hinder the openness and
sharing that occurs during reflective discussions (Bailey &
Graham, 2007). The role of facilitator is critical in develop-
ing the safe and secure environment necessary to engage
staffinatransparentexplorationofself.Inselectingafacilitator,
it will be important to consider the skill, training, and per-
ceived power of the individual chosen (Bailey & Graham,
2007; Gamble, 2001; Kemp, 2009; McDonald et al., 2012).
Including reflective strategies within educational programs
may assist staff to make meaning of experience (Hartrick,
2000), gain fresh insights, and inform practice (Bailey &
Graham, 2007). As a nested strategy, reflection enables
nurses to link new knowledge to the context of clinical
practice and facilitate practice change (Peterson et al.,
1999). Reflection enables individuals to explore and chal-
lenge the beliefs, assumptions, and values that guide their
clinical practice (Hart et al., 2000, Hartrick, 2000; McDonald
et al., 2012; 1998). Ultimately, it is this transformed aware-
ness that leads to fresh insights and informed practice
(Bailey & Graham, 2007).
IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
Although it is generally understood that reflection offers
nurses the ability to learn from their clinical experiences,
there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support the use
of reflection as an educational strategy. There is a need for
rigorous, well-designed empirical studies exploring the im-
pact of reflection on individual professional practice, or-
ganizational change, and patient outcomes. This integrative
review illuminated some questions that could be explored
more thoroughly. Examples include such questions as fol-
lows: Does individual reflection promote the same level
and depth of reflection as group reflection? What is the role
of the facilitator in guided reflection? What role is most ef-
fective for NPD specialists in assisting staff to gain skill in
reflective practice? What is the role of reflective models in
framing the clinical experience? What reflective frameworks
or models are most effective in transforming a clinical expe-
rience into a learning event? In what ways can reflection
enhance patient safety or nurse sensitive outcomes? Does
interprofessional reflection enhance team communication
and collaboration? Is interprofessional reflection more ef-
fective than discipline-specific reflection in achieving
patient outcomes? In what ways can reflection impact
organizational change?
There is also a need to develop a measurement tool to
assess reflection. Developing tools that effectively measure
the impact of reflective educational strategies would enable
findings to be generalizable beyond the specific setting and
educational goal explored.
CONCLUSION
Reflection is a deliberate process of critically thinking about
a clinical experience to develop new insights and transform
clinical practice. Frequently nested within a multifaceted
educational program, reflective educational strategies paired
70 www.jnpdonline.com March/April 2015
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights
reserved.
with presentation of clinically relevant knowledge, mentor-
ing, and other educational strategies stimulate learning in
practice and enhance readiness for application of new
knowledge into the clinical setting. Structured reflection
and facilitated group reflective dialogues offer nurses the
opportunity to reach a deeper level of exploration and
arrive at a higher level of thinking.
Reported outcomes suggest that reflection impacts clin-
ical practice at both the individual and organizational level.
At the individual level, reflection enhances knowledge;
transforms assumptions, values, and beliefs; and informs
clinical practice. At the organizational level, reflection em-
powersnursestoexplorepracticeconcernsanddrivepractice
change. Although reflection is appreciated as a way to learn
through practice, more empirical evidence is needed to sup-
port the use of reflection as an educational strategy. As stated,
future nursing research could focus on developing rigorous
studies to explore the design, impact, and utility of reflective
learning strategies within the context of NPD and interdisci-
plinary patient care.
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72 www.jnpdonline.com March/April 2015
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights
reserved.
http://NursingCenter.comCE
Lab 1 - Assessment Worksheet
Analyzing Protocols with Wireshark
Course Name and Number:
_____________________________________________________
___________
Student Name:
_____________________________________________________
___________
Instructor Name:
_____________________________________________________
___________
Lab Due Date:
_____________________________________________________
___________
Lab Assessment Questions
1. What are some causes of the number of bytes on the wire
exceeding the number
of bytes being captured?
2. What are the source and destination MAC address in Frame
546?
3. What is the manufacturer’s specific ID for Intel Core?
4. What is the MAC address used for IPv4 multicast?
5. What version of IP is present in Frame 546? What is the
source IP address?
6. At what times do the various steps of the Google three-step
TCP handshake
occur?
7. A DNS query failure is referred to a higher level Domain
Name Server under what
condition?
8. The descriptive text that accompanies the packet analysis is
provided by
Wireshark. True or False?
Course Name andNumber: StudentName: Instructor Name: Lab
Due Date: q1: q2: q3: q4: q5: q6: q7: q8:
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  • 1. Reflection as an Educational Strategy in Nursing Professional Development An Integrative Review Robbin Miraglia, MSN, RN ƒ Marilyn E. Asselin, PhD, RN-BC Reflection is a critical component of professional nursing practice and a strategy for learning through practice. This integrative review synthesizes the literature addressing the use of reflection as an educational strategy and reports outcomes from the use of reflective strategies. Reflection education is primarily nested in programs to meet specific clinical goals, structured with group facilitation. Findings suggest that reflective strategies stimulate learning in practice, enhance readiness to apply new knowledge, and promote practice change. INTRODUCTION In recent years, reflection has gained increased recognition as a critical component of professional nursing practice and as an educational strategy to acquire knowledge and learn through practice (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Kim, 1999; Perry, 2000). Although there is no agreed upon definition, reflec-
  • 2. tion is generally understood as the deliberate process of critically thinking about a clinical experience, which leads to development of insights for potential practice change (Asselin & Fain, 2013). Scholars contend that reflection of- fers nurses the opportunity to build on existing knowledge through clinical experiences (Johns, 1995; Kuiper & Pesut, 2004; Perry, 2000), develop clinical judgment (Nielsen, Stragnell, & Jester, 2007; Tanner, 2006), promote strong communication skills, build collaborative practice, and im- prove patient care (Horton-Deutsch, 2012; Peden-McAlpine, Tomlinson, Forneris, Genck, & Meiers, 2005). Although it is generally assumed that nurses know how to reflect, findings from recent studies suggest that nurses’ reflective thinking may be prolonged by pauses and they may need assistance in systematically moving insights to practice change (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Asselin, Schwartz- Barcott, & Osterman, 2013). Consequently, continuing ed- ucation on reflection and reflective practice is viewed as a vehicle to enhance professional practice, promote evidence- based practice, and potentially improve patient outcomes. As an educational strategy, reflection allows nurses to ex- plore clinical experiences and the thoughts and feelings associated with the experience, allowing for a change in beliefs and assumptions, emergence of new knowledge, and a transformation of clinical practice (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Dube & Ducharme, 2014; Horton-Deutsch, 2012; Johns, 1995; Perry, 2000). Although numerous articles have been published exploring the concept of reflection and the use of reflection as an educational strategy, there has been no attempt to synthesize existing literature presenting the use of reflection as an educational strategy in nursing pro- fessional development (NPD). This article provides an integrative review of the literature addressing the use of re- flection as an educational strategy for nurses. The review is
  • 3. focused on ways that reflection has been used as an edu- cational strategy in NPD and reported outcomes from the use of reflective education strategies. BACKGROUND The concept of reflection is not new to education; it has long been appreciated as a means to develop knowledge, beginning with the ancient philosophers Aristotle and Soc- rates. Modern day understanding of reflection has been informed by the works of philosopher and educator John Dewey. Dewey (1933) believed that learning took place as a result of experiences and that reflecting on experiences allowed connections to be made between thoughts, beliefs, and actions. The work of Donald Schön (1983) extended the work of Dewey, focusing the concept of reflection on pro- fessional practice and further expanding the understanding of how professionals think and develop insights as a result of reflecting on experience. Schön also introduced the notions of reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action. Reflection- in-action is defined as the thought process that occurs as an experience unfolds, guiding action with the experience (Schön, 1983). Reflection-on-action is defined as the process of thinking back on an experience to gain new knowledge or come to a new understanding (Schön, 1983). Reflective Robbin Miraglia, MSN, RN, is Doctoral Student, College of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, and Clinical Educator, Beverly Hospital, Massachusetts. Marilyn E. Asselin, PhD, RN-BC, is Associate Professor, College of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth.
  • 4. The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationship with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE: Robbin Miraglia, MSN, RN, 292 Putnam Street, Danvers, MA 01923 (e<mail: [email protected]). DOI: 10.1097/NND.0000000000000151 2.5 ANCC Contact Hours 62 www.jnpdonline.com March/April 2015 JNPD Journal for Nurses in Professional Development & Volume 31, Number 2, 62Y72 & Copyright B 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. teaching strategies utilize the concept of reflection-on-action or thinking back to structure new knowledge and under- standings and to gain insights for practice change. Reflection is the cornerstone of professional nursing practice. Through reflection, nurses are able to make mean- ing of experience (Hartrick, 2000), connect theoretical knowledge to the context of clinical practice (Jenkins, 2007), develop fresh insights, and modify clinical practice (Bailey & Graham, 2007). There is a limited number of em-
  • 5. pirical studies that explore the use of reflection as an educational strategy in the NPD setting. The paucity of em- pirical evidence warrants a closer examination of how we are currently using reflection in NPD and what outcomes are being reported. PURPOSE/AIM The purpose of this integrative review is to explore the literature on the use of reflection as an educational strategy in the postlicensure nursing population. The following two questions guided the review: (a) In what ways has reflec- tion been used as an educational strategy in NPD? (b) What outcomes are reported for reflective educational strategies? METHODS The integrative review method outlined by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) was used to synthesize the literature on reflec- tion. This method allows for exploration of both empirical and theoretical literature and has the potential to inform evidence-based nursing practice and direct future research. Steps in the integrative review include problem identifica- tion, literature search, data evaluation, and data analysis (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005). As stated earlier, there is a need to identify the ways in which reflection has been used as an educational strategy, explore the outcomes of reflec- tive educational strategies, and identify recommendations for future research. Search Strategy Literature published between 1985 and December 2013 was reviewed using the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), and MEDLINE databases. The search terms ‘‘reflection,’’ ‘‘professional development,’’ ‘‘staff develop- ment,’’ and ‘‘nursing’’ were used. Hand searching of the Journal for Nurses in Professional (Staff) Development
  • 6. and Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing was also done. Ancestry searching was completed from the refer- ence lists of identified key articles. Search findings were reviewed for primary empirical studies exploring the use of reflection as an educational strategy in NPD and publications that discussed the use of reflection as a defined process and a deliberate educa- tional strategy in the clinical practice setting. Gray literature (conference proceedings and dissertations) was not reviewed for inclusion. Simulation literature was not in- cluded in the review; although the debriefing component has threads of reflection, reflection is often not described as a defined and deliberate process within the debriefing. In- clusion criteria for published works included (a) works in English and (b) empirical and nonempirical works that ex- plored the application of a reflective educational strategy with postlicensure nurses in a clinical setting. Publications were excluded that (a) focused on the use of reflection in the student nurse population; (b) described personal reflec- tive exemplars; and (c) discussed the process of reflection, without application of reflection as an educational strategy in a clinical setting. Five hundred fifty-three articles were reviewed using the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria; 179 records were excluded after a review of titles and abstracts. The first author assessed 326 full-text articles for eligibility, consult- ing with the second author when there was a question about eligibility; 301 full-text articles were excluded. Twenty-five articles subsequently met inclusion criteria, serving as the sample to address the research questions (see Table 1 for a summary of articles included in the review). Quality Appraisal
  • 7. The quality of the empirical data was evaluated using a tool developed by Hawker, Payne, Kerr, Hardey, and Powell (2002). The revised appraisal tool scored nine methodolog- ical criteria as ‘‘good,’’ ‘‘fair,’’ ‘‘poor,’’ or ‘‘very poor’’ with the authors attributing numerical scores of 1 (very poor) to 4 (good). The scores from this tool were converted to ‘‘high’’ (4.0Y3.0) or ‘‘low’’ (2.9Y1.0). The nonempirical arti- cles were evaluated on their relevance in answering the questions guiding the search and analysis and were classi- fied as ‘‘high’’ or ‘‘low.’’ The first and second authors independently rated one third of the articles and compared scores; high interrater reliability was established. The first author then independently evaluated the remainder of the articles, consulting the second author if there was a question about the quality or relevance of an article. The range of quality scores for the empirical studies was 3.33Y4.0, and the range of relevance scores for the non- empirical studies was 2Y4. None of the reviewed studies were excluded from the review because of rank. Articles scoring ‘‘high’’ were used to develop the main themes throughout the analysis; articles scoring ‘‘low’’ were used to support and further develop the themes to answer the questions. DATA ANALYSIS The first author read each article separately, noting patterns and themes addressing identified questions, and recorded data in a matrix format. The second author was consulted with emerging themes and asked to validate content and synthesis of themes. Articles that ranked low in relevance Journal for Nurses in Professional Development www.jnpdonline.com 63 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights
  • 8. reserved. TABLE 1 Summary of Articles Included in Integrative Review Author/s (Year), Country Sample Setting Reflective Strategy Outcome 1. Asselin and Fain (2013), United States Twenty RNs from two acute care community hospitals in Northeastern United States & Three-part reflective practice CE program & Structured reflection increases nurses’ engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. & Structured reflective narratives & Researcher-facilitated group discussions 2. Bailey and Graham (2007), Ireland Eight palliative care nurses (only seven completed) & Eight 2.5-hour sessions to introduce, facilitate, and
  • 9. evaluate guided reflective practice & Guided reflection allowed staff to meet away from the clinical environment and work together to ‘‘find fresh insights to inform practice.’’ & Structured reflective diary keeping & Supporting reflective practice is a strategy to support palliative care nurses. & Educator-facilitated group reflection 3. Curry, Middleton, and Brown (2009), Ireland Four nurses and eight care assistants in two nursing homes & Four modules based on palliative care, communication, pain and symptom management, and bereavement care & This project has enhanced provision of palliative care to residents. & Staff reported increased
  • 10. confidence in their roles; increased knowledge about palliative care; improved morale and motivation; and change inawareness regarding value of knowing residents, importance of listening, value of building relationships with families, and importance of a person-centered approach in palliative care. & Facilitated reflective learning groups 4. Dube and Ducharme (2014), Canada Twenty-one nurses at five medical/surgical care units at university hospital & Eight workshops with content on reflective practice and interventions relating to medication, mobilization, and discharge planning of older adults & Experimental group had significantly more positive attitudes regarding older adults after reflective practice intervention. & Experimental group
  • 11. significantly improved knowledge of older adults without a significant change in the control group. & Structured reflective journal assignments 5. Edwards, Holroyd, Rowley, Taylor, and Unwin (2005), Australia Four RNs 30Y45 years old, 10Y15 years of clinical nursing experience & Embedded into action research project & Action research and reflection are practice processes for nurses to examine their practice issues and improve nursing care. An action plan was generated for improving assertiveness at work. & Written journal reflections of practice experiences (using participant observation) & Researcher-facilitated group discussions Continued
  • 12. 64 www.jnpdonline.com March/April 2015 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. TABLE 1 Summary of Articles Included in Integrative Review, Continued Author/s (Year), Country Sample Setting Reflective Strategy Outcome 6. FornerisandPeden-McAlpine (2007), United States Six novice nurseYpreceptor dyads & Embedded into contextual learning intervention & Three themes were developed to describe the novice nurses’ development of critical thinking. Contextual learning can be a model of clinical learning in nursing education that develops components of critical thinking. & Structured reflective journaling & Facilitated discussion groups 7. Gamble (2001), United Kingdom
  • 13. Nurses from a large medical units (medical assessment unit, cardiac care unit, and eight medical wards) & Structured debriefings after a cardiac arrest & Debriefing gives nurses the ability to acknowledge their emotional response to the experience and identify learning needs. 8. Gustafsson and Fagerberg (2004), Sweden Four female nurses from diverse clinical areas (psychiatry, nephrology, intestinal surgery, and vascular surgery) & Structured interviews focused on the implications of the nurses’ reflections & Reflection may promote nursing professional development and develop nursing care. 9. Hart et al. (2000), Australia Ninety-five RNs at six different hospitals, 74 nurses successfully finished one of
  • 14. the programs & 14-week program & Participants showed improvements in their empathetic responses to patients, their sense of hope, and some aspects of their work environment. & Peer consultation & Group discussions 10. Hart, Yates, Clinton, and Winsor (1998), Australia Registered nurses working with terminally ill patients & Written practice incidents using reflective framework & Shared and collaborative approaches to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of nursing care were emphasized. & Group discussion & Creative solutions and collective actions were developed to address complex organizational issues. 11. Hartrick (2000), Canada Multidisciplinary team of pediatric healthcare
  • 15. practitioners & Embedded within four educational activities & Team members were able to make meaning of their experiences and theoretical ideals of health promotion and begin to transform their understandings and actions. & Structured questionnaires and journaling & Reflective group dialogues 12. Holdsworth, Belshaw, and Murray (2001), United Kingdom Thirteen nurses working in four A&E departments, two minor injury units, and two MAUs & Embedded within five half-day workshops & Increased knowledge and skill related to the assessment of an immediate management of deliberate self-harm. & Participants completed ‘‘Summary Diary Sheets’’ with
  • 16. information about patient, triage, and outcomes where analyzed. & Decreased level of work-related stress Continued Journal for Nurses in Professional Development www.jnpdonline.com 65 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. TABLE 1 Summary of Articles Included in Integrative Review, Continued Author/s (Year), Country Sample Setting Reflective Strategy Outcome 13. Jenkins (2007), United Kingdom A nurse lecturer and a team of district nurses & Embedded within cooperative inquiry & Participants linked theory and practice, made sense of experience, and improved work dynamically.& Facilitated, structured group reflections
  • 17. 14. Kemp (2009), United Kingdom Thirteen and 5 staff nurses from two adjacent acute inpatient wards & Embedded within workshop with multiple sessions & Increased team identity, increased time spent with service users (patients) & Reflective diaries & Participants reported feeling more assertive, increased level of confidence, and gaining more effective skills that allowed them to be more supportive for patients. & Facilitated group reflection 15. Kuiper (2002), United States Thirty-two new graduate nurses on clinical units & Structured, reflective journals & Using self-regulation reflective strategies would encourage metacognitive strategies and implies a benefit for learning flexibility and adaptability.
  • 18. 16. McDonald, Jackson, Wilkes, and Vickers (2012), Australia Fourteen nurses and midwives & Embedded within six structured workshops & Outcomes included closer group dynamics, more supportive communication, and assertiveness and confidence in the clinical setting. & Facilitated group discussion & Analysisalsosuggestedgrowth in participants’ knowledge of personal resilience and willingness and ability to monitor and maintain resilience strategies for themselves and their colleagues. 17. Oyamada (2012), Japan Fourteen midcareer nurses employed in three hospitals in Japan(5Y15yearsofexperience) & Structured reflective narratives & A change in frame of reference was noted in two participants. & Facilitated group discussions & Ten participants reported a change in practice.
  • 19. 18. Peden-McAlpine, Tomlinson, Forneris, Genck, and Meiers (2005), United States Eight pediatric critical care nurses in two children’s hospitals in the Midwest & Embedded within reflective practice intervention & Stimulated a change in attitudes about family, enhanced communication with families, and an integration of family care into nursing practice & Written narratives & Reflective discussions 19. Peterson, Hakendorf, and Guscott (1999), Australia Fifteen nurses from 10 health units in rural settings & Embedded within a six-module, problem-based course & Nurses developed a holistic view of aged care. Journaling enabled participants in
  • 20. reflecting on their practice. Nurses were motivated to make changes in their workplace. & Structured journals Continued 66 www.jnpdonline.com March/April 2015 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. were then read and analyzed; data from these articles were used to support themes developed from the articles rank- ing high in relevance and rigor. Key patterns identified in the literature were clustered as appropriate and summa- rized in narrative format. FINDINGS The final sample of articles represented the use of reflec- tion in eight countries: United Kingdom (n = 6); Australia (n = 6); United States (n = 5); Canada (n = 3); Ireland (n = 2); and one each from Japan, Sweden, and Switzerland. The population of nurses described had clinical nursing ex- perience spanning a broad range of years. Most articles had no purposeful sampling of defined years of experience; however, several articles explored reflection in specific nursing populations from the new graduate level (Kuiper, 2002), to novice nurses with less than 6 months of experience (Forneris & Peden-McAlpine, 2007; Rosenal, 1995), to midcareer nurses with 5Y15 years of experience (Oyamada,
  • 21. 2012). Eleven articles highlighted the use of reflective educa- tional strategies across diverse clinical practice settings, TABLE 1 Summary of Articles Included in Integrative Review, Continued Author/s (Year), Country Sample Setting Reflective Strategy Outcome 20. Rittman (1995), United States Nurses working in a hospital setting; no stated numbers & Narratives and group interpretive analysis & Narratives and interpretive analysis proved a powerful staff development approach as recognition is given to the expertise and meaning within clinical nursing practice. 21. Rosenal (1995), Canada Novice nurses with less than 6 months of experience & Structured, reflective narratives & Critical incident methodology can be used in nursing education to foster self-reflection,informeducators of the reality and impact of nurses’ experiences, conduct
  • 22. learning needs assessments, and gather exemplars for teaching purposes. Twenty-five nurses who served as preceptors Both populations were employed in a pediatric health center. 22. Sewell et al. (2006), United Kingdom Two diabetes nursing teams in two secondary care trusts in the United Kingdom & Combined with collaborative partnership and mentoring & Regular, critical evaluation of critical care is important in care delivery, service development, and professional development. & Structured reflection 23. Turner (2009), United Kingdom Twelve psychiatric nurses & Embedded within action research & An audit showed that children’s needs were considered and information
  • 23. was appropriately shared to safeguard children. & Reflective sessions 24. von Klitzing (1999), Switzerland Seven female nurses on one unit & Nested within Baliant group & Nurses selected terminally ill patients for group discussions, reflective functions increased throughout the year, and nurses’ reflections about self declined significantly over time. & Group discussion 25. Walker, Cooke, Henderson, and Creedy (2013); Australia Fifty-six nurses, 33 students, and 1 clinical supervisor in two acute care hospital wards & Embedded within concept of learning circles & Learning circles provided participants the sense of security enabling them to voice concerns around 10 identified personal
  • 24. and professional practice themes. & Facilitated, structured group discussion Note. RNs = registered nurses; CE = continuing education; A&E = accident and emergency; MAUs = medical admissions units. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development www.jnpdonline.com 67 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. from acute care hospital-based units to clinical office prac- tices. Four articles explored the use of reflection to address the needs of nurses working in palliative care or with ter- minallyillpatients.Threearticlesaddressedtheuseofreflective strategies within the setting of mental health/psychiatric care. In addition, the use of reflective strategies has been reported in elder care (Dube & Ducharme, 2014; Peterson et al., 1999), family practice (Hartrick, 2000), and maternity/pediatric settings (McDonald et al., 2012; Peden-McAlpine et al., 2005). Reflection as an Educational Strategy in NPD Two themes emerged from the synthesis process related to the goal or intent of the reflective educational strategies: using a reflective strategy to meet a specific clinical practice goal and teaching nurses how to reflect to enhance individ- ual reflective practice. Seventeen articles described using a reflective strategy as a means to meet a specific clinical practice goal. For example, Turner (2009) developed a man- datory training program that included a reflective strategy
  • 25. to enhance healthcare providers’ ability to meet patients’ mental health needs. Kemp (2009) developed a work- based initiative that included reflective diaries to enhance therapeutic communication with service users in acute mental health settings. Six articles described the process of teaching nurses how to reflect to promote reflective practice, insight, and reflective thinking (Asselin & Fain, 2013); explore the ben- efit of reflective programs for midcareer nurses (Oyamada, 2012); promote reflective practice through group-guided reflection (Bailey & Graham, 2007); gain deeper levels of reflection on clinical practice (Edwards et al., 2005); explore the impact of reflective journaling on the metacognitive process (Kuiper, 2002); and describe the experience of re- flection in relation to nursing and understand how nurses reflect (Gustafsson & Fagerberg, 2004). Three themes emerged regarding the way in which re- flection was used as an educational strategy: reflection nested into multifaceted educational programs, individual- versus group-facilitated reflection, and structured versus unstructured reflection. Although one may argue these are not mutually exclusive in each reflective strategy, they rep- resented three delivery approaches worthy of discussion. Nested reflective strategies Of the articles that addressed the use of reflection to meet a specific clinical practice concern or to impact individual re- flectivepractice(n=19),most(n=12)describedmultifaceted educational programs that nested a reflective teaching strat- egy in the program to meet a program goal. In these programs, information pertinent to the clinical practice setting and edu- cational goals of the project were presented to participants and paired with a reflective educational strategy. Although not all authors explicitly stated why reflective strategies
  • 26. were added to multifaceted programs, pairing a reflective strategy with the presentation of new knowledge, mentor- ing, and other educational strategies were used to stimulate learning in practice and develop tactic knowledge (Turner, 2009), result in a change in behavior, enhance readiness for application of new knowledge (Hartrick, 2000; Sewell et al., 2006), prepare nurses to ‘‘tackle problems in the real world’’ (Curry et al., 2009, p. 21), and implement practice solutions (Edwards, Holroyd, Rowley, Taylor, & Unwin, 2005). In addition, Kemp (2009) stated that participants highly valued reflection on practice experiences to further enhance learning. The remaining seven articles explored the impact of reflection as a stand-alone educational strategy to meet an educational goal or improve individual reflective prac- tice (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Bailey & Graham, 2007; Gustafsson & Fagerberg, 2004; Hart et al., 1998; Kuiper, 2002; Oyamada, 2012; Walker et al., 2013). Individual versus group reflection Twenty articles discussed the use of group dialogues or dis- cussions as the foundation of reflective educational strategies. In roughly half of the 20 articles presenting the use of group discussions (n = 11), participants were first asked to write a reflective narrative on a clinical situation about which they had given considerable thought; the written narrative was then discussed in a group setting. In the remaining articles presenting the use of group discussions (n = 9), partici- pants reflected on clinical stories or experiences supplied by the educator or researcher. The remaining three articles presented reflective interventions focused on individual written narratives designed to explore a clinical experience (Kuiper, 2002; Rittman, 1995; Rosenal, 1995). The reflective narratives were only shared with the researcher or educa-
  • 27. tor and resulted in learning or expanded understanding for the individual who contributed the narrative. An additional notion within the theme of reflective group discussions was the use of a facilitator to guide and direct the reflective dialogue. Twelve articles discussed the use of facilitators to guide, direct, and expand the re- flective exploration of shared narratives in the group setting. Of these 12 articles, one used participants from within the peer group to serve as facilitators, rotating the role of the facilitator among group members (Jenkins, 2007). In four articles, educators (n = 3) or nurse leaders (n = 1) served as facilitators. Four articles discussed the role of the facilitator being filled by nurse researcher (n = 3) or external clinical nurse specialist (n = 1). The remaining three articles did not clearly describe who served in the role of facilitator for the group dialogues. Structured versus unstructured reflection Prescriptive models or frameworks, including structured questions cues, can be used to provide guidance and struc- ture to the reflection exercise. Of the articles that asked 68 www.jnpdonline.com March/April 2015 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. participants to reflect on a clinical narrative (n = 24), nine of the articles described the reflective strategy without men- tion of a guiding reflective framework or model. Most (n = 15) articles described the use of a reflective model or structured questions to provide guidance with the explora- tion of a clinical experience.
  • 28. Nine articles described researcher- or educator-developed questions created to guide the reflective process. For exam- ple, Oyamada (2012) developed structured reflective questions aimed at encouraging midcareer nurses in Japan to uncover the validity of their own values and assump- tions. Peterson et al. (1999) developed questions to focus on issues and concerns embedded within the context of their clinical practice. Gustafsson and Fagerberg (2004) de- veloped guiding questions based on findings from nursing literature and critical thinking attributes to prompt novice nurses in reflective journaling. Six articles described educational interventions shaped around existing reflective frameworks or models. Bailey and Graham (2007) and Dube and Ducharme (2014) uti- lized Johns’ (2006) model for structured reflection as the guiding framework for reflective narratives. Sewell et al. (2006) and Hart et al. (2000) each presented reflective pro- cesses that were informed by the work of Boud, Keogh, and Walker (1985). Asselin and Fain (2013) developed their reflective intervention based on the Critical Reflective Inquiry Model (Kim, Lauzon Clabo, Burbank, Leveille, & Martins, 2010). Finally, Walker et al. (2013) adapted and relabeled the four-step model of critical reflection (Noble, Macfarlane, & Cartmel, 2005) and used it as a framework for reflection in group discussions. What Outcomes are Reported From Reflective Educational Strategies? Outcomes of the reflection education were reported in 11 research-based articles and 14 articles describing re- flection education. Authors of four articles, one quantitative and three mixed methods research, reported the use of mea- surement tools that captured the outcome data needed to explore the impact of reflection on the identified research
  • 29. question (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Dube & Ducharme, 2014; Hart et al., 2000; von Klitzing, 1999). One secondary analysis developed qualitative themes using research study field notes (Walker et al., 2013). The six qualitative articles reported thematic outcomes developed and synthesized fromqualitativedata provided bystudyparticipants (Edwards et al., 2005; Forneris & Peden-McAlpine, 2007; Gustafsson & Fagerberg, 2004; Kuiper, 2002; Oyamada, 2012; Peden- McAlpine et al., 2005). The outcomes reported in the 14 articles describing re- flection education were most often linked to the goals of the education and frequently gathered through program evaluation questionnaires and self-report measures. Find- ings from this review highlighted an increase in knowledge and two additional themes within the reported outcomes of reflective strategies: the role of reflection in changed attitudes, values,beliefs,andassumptionsofindividualparticipantsand the potential for group reflective strategies to make a mean- ingful impact at the organizational level. All of the articles within the final sample reported out- comes at the individual participant level; the use of reflective strategies resulted inincreased knowledge(Bailey& Graham, 2007; Curry et al., 2009; Dube & Ducharme, 2014; Peterson et al., 1999; Rosenal, 1995; Sewell et al., 2006); enhanced clinical skills (Curry et al., 2009; Dube & Ducharme, 2014; Holdsworth et al., 2001; Kemp, 2009; Peterson et al., 1999; Turner, 2009); and/or changed attitudes, beliefs, or assump- tions (Hart et al., 2000, Hartrick, 2000; McDonald et al., 2012; 1998). Beyond the transfer of knowledge and the enhance- ment of clinical practice, reflection allows participants the time and space to explore the values, beliefs, and assump-
  • 30. tions that drive clinical action. Twelve of the articles discussed the impact that the educational intervention had on the par- ticipant’s values, beliefs, and assumptions. Hartrick (2000) found that reflection education supported the develop- ment of health promoting family practice. Authors reported that critical reflection allowed practitioners to explore the per- sonal biases they carried into practice and the ways in which these biases impacted their practice of providing family- centered care. The transformed understandings led to trans- formed practice. Authors reported that, when reflection occurred as a group process, there was the potential to enhance team- workandimpactorganizational-levelpractice.Inasupportive, collaborative practice environment, group reflection aided in exploration of practice issues and concerns and empowered staff to own individual practice and drive practice change (Curry et al., 2009). Hart et al. (1998) presented the belief that group reflective discussions about practice contribute to the collective culture of nursing care and that the outcome of reflection has the most organizational impact when shared experiences, rather than individual experiences, are the focus of reflection. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NPD As noted in the findings, reflection is often nested in mul- tifaceted educational programs making it a challenge to identify key articles through database searches. Despite reviewing an extensive number of articles for inclusion, it is possible that key articles addressing the research questions were not identified through utilized search methods. The findings from this integrative review offer several important implications for NPD specialists. Nurses reported positive impact from participating in reflective education
  • 31. (Bailey & Graham, 2007; Kemp, 2009; Rittman, 1995); how- ever, not all nurses are equally skilled in reflection (Asselin & Journal for Nurses in Professional Development www.jnpdonline.com 69 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Fain, 2013; Clark, 2009; Perry, 2000; Rosenal, 1995). Many of the articles within the final data set explored a reflective component withinaneducationalprogramwithoutteaching nurses about reflection or how to reflect on clinical experi- ences. Perhaps, it has been assumed that reflection is an intuitive process. To achieve intended outcomes from re- flective strategies, it may be beneficial to expose nurses to content focusing on the process and benefits of reflection before expecting them to engage in reflective learning (Walker et al., 2013). NPD specialists should consider in- cluding education on reflection in orientation, preceptor/ team leader training (Asselin & Fain, 2013), new graduate nurse programs, and educational programs that contain re- flective strategies. NPD specialists may find that providing nurses with a guiding reflective framework, or model, will facilitate a re- flective process that can be incorporated in practice and ultimately result in enhanced learning, improved profes- sional practice, and better patient outcomes (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Johns, 1995; Peterson et al., 1999). In addition to providing a guiding structure for exploring a clinical ex- perience, a reflective model or framework may prevent nurses from getting stuck in the reflective process (Asselin et al., 2013; Jenkins, 2007). In the absence of a formal re-
  • 32. flective framework, providing individuals with guiding questions or prompts may assist in the development of higher level thinking (Kuiper, 2002). Group reflective discussions have been found to assist individuals in reaching a deeper level of exploration (Asselin & Fain, 2013; Hart et al., 2000; Jenkins, 2007). Although there is some risk in sharing personal experiences in a group set- ting (Holdsworth et al., 2001), findings from this review highlighted the belief that group reflection in a safe and se- cure setting (Jenkins, 2007; Peterson et al., 1999; Walker et al., 2013) can validate (Jenkins, 2007) and empower (Hart et al., 2000) nurses. Group reflection can also lead to individuals uncovering more objective truths (Jenkins, 2007). Hart et al. (1998) suggest that group reflection on practice contributes to a culture of nursing care, with the potential for eventual organizational change. In the reviewed articles, authors noted that the support of a facilitator was valuable in reflective group discussions (Bailey & Graham, 2007). To create the safe and supportive environment necessary to encourage open and engaged learning in a group setting, it is critical that the facilitator be skilled and sensitive (Kemp, 2009). The role of facilitator was filled by a broad range of individuals, including peers, nurse researchers, and clinical educators. Whereas Jenkins (2007) found that peer facilitation was valued by the group, others found that the role of the facilitator would be best filled by an outsider (Kemp, 2009). Facilitators who are per- ceived to have power or authority over the group may impact comfort level of the group and may hinder the openness and sharing that occurs during reflective discussions (Bailey & Graham, 2007). The role of facilitator is critical in develop- ing the safe and secure environment necessary to engage staffinatransparentexplorationofself.Inselectingafacilitator,
  • 33. it will be important to consider the skill, training, and per- ceived power of the individual chosen (Bailey & Graham, 2007; Gamble, 2001; Kemp, 2009; McDonald et al., 2012). Including reflective strategies within educational programs may assist staff to make meaning of experience (Hartrick, 2000), gain fresh insights, and inform practice (Bailey & Graham, 2007). As a nested strategy, reflection enables nurses to link new knowledge to the context of clinical practice and facilitate practice change (Peterson et al., 1999). Reflection enables individuals to explore and chal- lenge the beliefs, assumptions, and values that guide their clinical practice (Hart et al., 2000, Hartrick, 2000; McDonald et al., 2012; 1998). Ultimately, it is this transformed aware- ness that leads to fresh insights and informed practice (Bailey & Graham, 2007). IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Although it is generally understood that reflection offers nurses the ability to learn from their clinical experiences, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support the use of reflection as an educational strategy. There is a need for rigorous, well-designed empirical studies exploring the im- pact of reflection on individual professional practice, or- ganizational change, and patient outcomes. This integrative review illuminated some questions that could be explored more thoroughly. Examples include such questions as fol- lows: Does individual reflection promote the same level and depth of reflection as group reflection? What is the role of the facilitator in guided reflection? What role is most ef- fective for NPD specialists in assisting staff to gain skill in reflective practice? What is the role of reflective models in framing the clinical experience? What reflective frameworks or models are most effective in transforming a clinical expe- rience into a learning event? In what ways can reflection enhance patient safety or nurse sensitive outcomes? Does
  • 34. interprofessional reflection enhance team communication and collaboration? Is interprofessional reflection more ef- fective than discipline-specific reflection in achieving patient outcomes? In what ways can reflection impact organizational change? There is also a need to develop a measurement tool to assess reflection. Developing tools that effectively measure the impact of reflective educational strategies would enable findings to be generalizable beyond the specific setting and educational goal explored. CONCLUSION Reflection is a deliberate process of critically thinking about a clinical experience to develop new insights and transform clinical practice. Frequently nested within a multifaceted educational program, reflective educational strategies paired 70 www.jnpdonline.com March/April 2015 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. with presentation of clinically relevant knowledge, mentor- ing, and other educational strategies stimulate learning in practice and enhance readiness for application of new knowledge into the clinical setting. Structured reflection and facilitated group reflective dialogues offer nurses the opportunity to reach a deeper level of exploration and arrive at a higher level of thinking. Reported outcomes suggest that reflection impacts clin- ical practice at both the individual and organizational level. At the individual level, reflection enhances knowledge;
  • 35. transforms assumptions, values, and beliefs; and informs clinical practice. At the organizational level, reflection em- powersnursestoexplorepracticeconcernsanddrivepractice change. Although reflection is appreciated as a way to learn through practice, more empirical evidence is needed to sup- port the use of reflection as an educational strategy. As stated, future nursing research could focus on developing rigorous studies to explore the design, impact, and utility of reflective learning strategies within the context of NPD and interdisci- plinary patient care. References Asselin, M. E., & Fain, J. A. (2013).Effect of reflective practice education on self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking among experienced nurses. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 29(3), 111Y119. doi:10.1097/nnd.0b013e318291c0cc Asselin, M. E., Schwartz-Barcott, D., & Osterman, P. (2013). Exploring reflection embedded in practice: A qualitative study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(4), 905Y914. doi:10.1111/j.1365- 2648.2012 .06082.x Bailey, M. E., & Graham, M. M. (2007). Introducing guided group reflective practice in an Irish palliative care unit. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 13(11), 555Y560. Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). Reflection: Turning experience into learning. London, England: Kogan Page. Clark, P. G. (2009). Reflecting on reflection in interprofessional
  • 36. education: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 23(3), 213Y223. doi:10.1080/13561820902877195 Curry, C., Middleton, H., & Brown, B. (2009). Palliative care training. Nursing Older People, 21(9), 18Y23. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educational process. Boston, MA: Heath. Dube, V., & Ducharme, F. (2014). Evaluation of a reflective practice intervention to enhance hospitalized elderly care. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 30(1), 34Y41. doi:10.1097/ nnd.0000000000000028 Edwards, P., Holroyd, B., Rowley, J., Taylor, B., & Unwin, A. (2005). Assertiveness in nursing practice: An action research and reflection project. Contemporary Nurse, 20(2), 234. Forneris, S. G., & Peden-McAlpine, C. (2007). Evaluation of a reflective learning intervention to improve critical thinking in novice nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 57(4), 410Y421. doi:10.1111/j.1365- 2648.2006.04120.x Gamble, M. (2001). A debriefing approach to dealing with the
  • 37. stress of CPR attempts. Professional Nurse, 17(3), 157Y160. Gustafsson, C., & Fagerberg, I. (2004). Reflection, the way to professional development? Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 271Y280. Hart, G., Clinton,M., Edwards, H., Evans, K., Lunney, P., Posner, N., I Ryan, Y. (2000). Accelerated professional development and peer consultation: Two strategies for continuing professional education for nurses. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 31(1), 28Y37. Hart, G., Yates, P., Clinton, M., & Windsor, C. (1998). Mediating conflict and control: Practice challenges for nurses working in palliative care. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 35, 252Y258. Hartrick, G. (2000). Developing health-promoting practice with families: One pedagogical experience. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(1), 27Y34. Hawker, S., Payne, S., Kerr, C., Hardey, M., & Powell, J. (2002). Appraising the evidence: Reviewing disparate data systematically. Qualitative Health Research, 12(9), 1284Y1299. doi:10.1177/ 1049732302238251 Holdsworth, N., Belshaw, D., & Murray, S. (2001). Developing A&E nursing responses to people who deliberate self-harm: The provision and evaluation of a series of reflective workshops.
  • 38. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 8, 449Y458. Horton-Deutsch, S. (2012). Learning through reflection and reflection on learning: Pedagogies in action. In G. D. Sherwood, & S. Horton- Deutsch (Eds.), Reflective practice: Transforming education and improving outcomes (pp. 104Y134). Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International. Jenkins, E. (2007). Using cooperative inquiry and clinical supervision to improve practice. British Journal ofCommunity Nursing, 12(2), 63Y69. Johns, C. (1995). Framing learning through reflection within Carper’s fundamental ways of knowing in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22, 226Y234. doi:10.1046/j.1365- 2648.1995.22020226.x Johns, C. (2006). Engaging reflection in practice: A narrative approach. Oxford, England: Blackwell. Kemp, P. (2009). Work-based learning with staff in an acute. Mental Health Practice, 12(10), 31Y35. Kim, H. S. (1999). Critical reflective inquiry for knowledge develop- ment in nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(5), 1205Y1212. Kim, H. S., Lauzon Clabo, L. M., Burbank, P., Leveille, M., & Martins, D.
  • 39. (2010). Application of critical reflective inquiry in nursing education. In N. Lyons (Ed.), Handbook of reflective inquiry: Mapping a way of knowing for professional reflective inquiry (pp. 159Y172). New York, NY: Springer. Kuiper, R. A. (2002). Enhancing metacognition through the reflective use of self-regulated learning strategies. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 33(2), 78Y87. Kuiper, R. A., & Pesut, D. J. (2004). Promoting cognitive and meta- cognitive reflective reasoning skills in nursing practice: Self- regulated learning theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(4), 381Y391. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02921.x McDonald, G., Jackson, D., Wilkes, L., & Vickers, M. H. (2012). A work-based educational intervention to support the development of personal resilience in nurses and midwives. Nurse Education Today, 32, 378Y384. Nielsen, A., Stragnell, S., & Jester, P. (2007). Guide for reflection: Using the clinical judgment model. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(11), 513Y516. Noble, K., Macfarlane, K., & Cartmel, J. (2005). Circles of change: Challenging orthodoxy in practitioner supervision. Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia: Pearson Education. Oyamada, K. (2012). Experiences of a critical reflection
  • 40. program for mid-career nurses. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 9, 9Y18. doi:10.1111/j.1742-7924.2011.00178.x Peden-McAlpine, C., Tomlinson, P. S., Forneris, S. G., Genck, G., & Meiers, S. J. (2005). Evaluation of a reflective practice intervention to enhance family care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(5), 494Y501. Perry, M. A. (2000). Reflections on intuition. Journal of ClinicalNursing, 9, 137Y145. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2702.2000.00326.x Peterson, R., Hakendorf, M., & Guscott, T. (1999). Improving aged care education for Australian rural nurses using problem-based learning. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 30(3), 120Y127. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development www.jnpdonline.com 71 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Rittman, M. R. (1995). Storytelling: An innovative approach to staff development. Journal of Nursing Staff Development, 11(1), 15Y19. Rosenal, L. (1995). Exploring the learner’s world: Critical incident
  • 41. methodology. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 26(3), 115Y118. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY: Basic Books. Sewell, J., Da Costa, S., Dempsey, C., McHoy, A., Turner, E., Wamae, D., & Williams, J. (2006). Creative partnerships in diabetes nursing: Promoting learning through collaborative practiceVA preliminary evaluation. European Diabetes Nursing, 3(2), 98Y101. Tanner, C. A. (2006). Thinkinglike a nurse: A research-based model of clinical judgment in nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(6), 204Y211. Turner, S. (2009). Safeguarding children training in adult mental health care. Mental Health Practice, 12(9), 28Y32. von Klitzing, W. (1999). Evaluation of reflective learning in a psy- chodynamic group of nurses caring for terminally ill patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(5), 1213Y1221. Walker, R., Cooke, M., Henderson, A., & Creedy, D. K. (2013). Using a critical reflection process to create an effective learning community in the workplace. Nurse Education Today, 33, 504Y511. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2012.03.001
  • 42. Whittemore, R., & Knafl, K. (2005). The integrative review: Updated methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52(5), 546Y553. For more than 24 additional continuing education articles related to professional development, go to NursingCenter.comCE. 72 www.jnpdonline.com March/April 2015 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. http://NursingCenter.comCE Lab 1 - Assessment Worksheet Analyzing Protocols with Wireshark Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ ___________ Student Name: _____________________________________________________ ___________ Instructor Name: _____________________________________________________ ___________ Lab Due Date: _____________________________________________________ ___________
  • 43. Lab Assessment Questions 1. What are some causes of the number of bytes on the wire exceeding the number of bytes being captured? 2. What are the source and destination MAC address in Frame 546? 3. What is the manufacturer’s specific ID for Intel Core? 4. What is the MAC address used for IPv4 multicast?
  • 44. 5. What version of IP is present in Frame 546? What is the source IP address? 6. At what times do the various steps of the Google three-step TCP handshake occur? 7. A DNS query failure is referred to a higher level Domain Name Server under what condition? 8. The descriptive text that accompanies the packet analysis is provided by Wireshark. True or False? Course Name andNumber: StudentName: Instructor Name: Lab Due Date: q1: q2: q3: q4: q5: q6: q7: q8: