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Define Terms
By:
Outline
• Introduction
• Types of tumor
• Definitions:
o Anaplasia
o Pleomorphism
o Loss of polarity
o Dysplasia
o Carcinoma-in-situ
• Summary
• References
Introduction
• Cancer is a disease in which cells, almost anywhere in
the body, begin to divide uncontrollably and has the
ability to spread.
• A tumor is when this uncontrolled growth occurs in solid
tissue such as an organ, muscle, or bone.
Types of tumor
• There are two types of solid tumors: malignant
(cancerous) and benign (noncancerous).
• Cancerous tumors can invade nearby tissues in the body
and may travel to other places (metastases).
Anaplasia
• Anaplasia used to describe cells that have lost the
unique characteristics that define them as a certain
tissue type.
• the word means “to form backwards” in the sense that
normal cells become more specialized with each
division.
Anaplasia
• Anaplasia can be explained as when a cell ‘reverts’ to a
more stem-cell like state, one that is often distorted.
• Often seen in cancer cells, the cell no longer functions
as part of the tissue that surrounds it.
Pleomorphism
• Pleomorphism is a term used in histology and
cytopathology to describe variability in the size, shape
and staining of cells and/or their nuclei.
• Therefore, cellular and nuclear pleomorphism is one of
the earliest hallmarks of cancer progression.
Loss of polarity
• Cell polarity is a fundamental feature of many types of
cells. Epithelial cells are one example of a polarized cell
type, featuring distinct 'apical', 'lateral' and 'basal' plasma
membrane domains
Loss of polarity
• Loss of cell polarity and subsequent tissue
disorganization is a hallmark of cancer.
• Recent evidence supports that disruption of cell-polarity
mechanisms plays a causal role in tumor initiation.
Dysplasia
• Before cancer cells form in tissues, the cells go through
abnormal changes hyperplasia and dysplasia.
• In hyperplasia, there is an increase in the number of
cells but appear normal under a microscope.
• In dysplasia, the cells look abnormal under a microscope
but are not cancer. Hyperplasia and dysplasia may or
may not become cancer.
Carcinoma-in-situ
• A group of abnormal cells that remain in the place where
they first formed. They have not spread. These abnormal
cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal
tissue. Also called stage 0 disease.
Summary
• A cancer is an abnormal growth of cells (usually derived from a single
abnormal cell). The cells have lost normal control mechanisms and thus are
able to multiply continuously, invade nearby tissues, migrate to distant parts
of the body, and promote the growth of new blood vessels from which the
cells derive nutrients. Cancerous (malignant) cells can develop from any
tissue within the body.
• The term tumor refers to an abnormal growth or mass. Tumors can be
cancerous or noncancerous. Cancerous cells from the primary (initial) site
can spread throughout the body (metastasize).
References
1. "Definition of dysplasia". Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved 2019-09-09
2. Chang, Alfred (2007). Oncology: An Evidence-Based Approach. Springer. p. 162
3. Allred, DC (2010). "Ductal carcinoma in situ: terminology, classification, and natural
history". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs. 2010 (41): 134–8
4. Kumar, Vinay, Abul Abbas, Nelson Fausto, and Richard Mitchell. Robbins Basic
Pathology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2007. 176-177.
5. Schmoller, Kurt M.; Skotheim, Jan M. (December 2015). "The Biosynthetic Basis of Cell
Size Control". Trends Cell Biol. 25 (12): 793–802.
6. Ramanathan, Subramanian P.; Krajnc, Matej; Gibson, Matthew C. (October 2019). "Cell-
Size Pleomorphism Drives Aberrant Clone Dispersal in Proliferating Epithelia".
Developmental Cell. 51 (1): 49–61
7. Aranda, V., Haire, T., Nolan, M. E., Calarco, J. P., Rosenberg, A. Z., Fawcett, J. P.,
Pawson, T. and Muthuswamy, S. K. (2006). Par6-aPKC uncouples ErbB2 induced
disruption of polarized epithelial organization from proliferation control. Nat. Cell Biol. 8,
1235-1245
8. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2010. Atlanta: American Cancer
Society; 2010
9. Devita VT Jr, Rosenberg SA. Two Hundred Years of Cancer Research. N Engl J Med.
2012;366(23):2207-2214.
Thank You

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عبدالله صالح.pptx

  • 2. Outline • Introduction • Types of tumor • Definitions: o Anaplasia o Pleomorphism o Loss of polarity o Dysplasia o Carcinoma-in-situ • Summary • References
  • 3. Introduction • Cancer is a disease in which cells, almost anywhere in the body, begin to divide uncontrollably and has the ability to spread. • A tumor is when this uncontrolled growth occurs in solid tissue such as an organ, muscle, or bone.
  • 4. Types of tumor • There are two types of solid tumors: malignant (cancerous) and benign (noncancerous). • Cancerous tumors can invade nearby tissues in the body and may travel to other places (metastases).
  • 5. Anaplasia • Anaplasia used to describe cells that have lost the unique characteristics that define them as a certain tissue type. • the word means “to form backwards” in the sense that normal cells become more specialized with each division.
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  • 7. Anaplasia • Anaplasia can be explained as when a cell ‘reverts’ to a more stem-cell like state, one that is often distorted. • Often seen in cancer cells, the cell no longer functions as part of the tissue that surrounds it.
  • 8. Pleomorphism • Pleomorphism is a term used in histology and cytopathology to describe variability in the size, shape and staining of cells and/or their nuclei. • Therefore, cellular and nuclear pleomorphism is one of the earliest hallmarks of cancer progression.
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  • 10. Loss of polarity • Cell polarity is a fundamental feature of many types of cells. Epithelial cells are one example of a polarized cell type, featuring distinct 'apical', 'lateral' and 'basal' plasma membrane domains
  • 11. Loss of polarity • Loss of cell polarity and subsequent tissue disorganization is a hallmark of cancer. • Recent evidence supports that disruption of cell-polarity mechanisms plays a causal role in tumor initiation.
  • 12. Dysplasia • Before cancer cells form in tissues, the cells go through abnormal changes hyperplasia and dysplasia. • In hyperplasia, there is an increase in the number of cells but appear normal under a microscope. • In dysplasia, the cells look abnormal under a microscope but are not cancer. Hyperplasia and dysplasia may or may not become cancer.
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  • 14. Carcinoma-in-situ • A group of abnormal cells that remain in the place where they first formed. They have not spread. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called stage 0 disease.
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  • 16. Summary • A cancer is an abnormal growth of cells (usually derived from a single abnormal cell). The cells have lost normal control mechanisms and thus are able to multiply continuously, invade nearby tissues, migrate to distant parts of the body, and promote the growth of new blood vessels from which the cells derive nutrients. Cancerous (malignant) cells can develop from any tissue within the body. • The term tumor refers to an abnormal growth or mass. Tumors can be cancerous or noncancerous. Cancerous cells from the primary (initial) site can spread throughout the body (metastasize).
  • 17. References 1. "Definition of dysplasia". Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved 2019-09-09 2. Chang, Alfred (2007). Oncology: An Evidence-Based Approach. Springer. p. 162 3. Allred, DC (2010). "Ductal carcinoma in situ: terminology, classification, and natural history". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs. 2010 (41): 134–8 4. Kumar, Vinay, Abul Abbas, Nelson Fausto, and Richard Mitchell. Robbins Basic Pathology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2007. 176-177. 5. Schmoller, Kurt M.; Skotheim, Jan M. (December 2015). "The Biosynthetic Basis of Cell Size Control". Trends Cell Biol. 25 (12): 793–802. 6. Ramanathan, Subramanian P.; Krajnc, Matej; Gibson, Matthew C. (October 2019). "Cell- Size Pleomorphism Drives Aberrant Clone Dispersal in Proliferating Epithelia". Developmental Cell. 51 (1): 49–61 7. Aranda, V., Haire, T., Nolan, M. E., Calarco, J. P., Rosenberg, A. Z., Fawcett, J. P., Pawson, T. and Muthuswamy, S. K. (2006). Par6-aPKC uncouples ErbB2 induced disruption of polarized epithelial organization from proliferation control. Nat. Cell Biol. 8, 1235-1245 8. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2010. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2010 9. Devita VT Jr, Rosenberg SA. Two Hundred Years of Cancer Research. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(23):2207-2214.