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Photo:  Steve Hendrix Pollinator Conservation: Opportunities for Public Gardens Scott Hoffman Black Executive Director The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation   The Xerces Society is an international nonprofit that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat. 4828 SE Hawthorne Boulevard Portland, OR 97215 503-232 6639 www.xerces.org Photo: Larry Orzak
The Xerces Society Conservation, policy, advocacy, education, and research for invertebrates and their habitat. Photos: Paul Jepson; Matthew Shepherd; Heidi Ballard
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Importance of Pollinators Photo:  USDA-ARS/Peggy Greb
Importance of Pollinators Fruits and seeds are a major part of the diet of about 25% of birds, and of many mammals Photo:  NRCS
Photo: Dawn Nichols/iStockphoto Importance of Pollinators Pollinators and the diverse insects associated with good pollinator habitat are food for wildlife
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Photo:  USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Honey Bees
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Photo:  USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Honey Bees: Colony Collapse Disorder
Photos: Mace Vaughan; Jeff Adams; Dana Ross; Bruce Newhouse Main Groups of Pollinators
Bees: The Most Important Pollinators   Photo:  Rollin Coville ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
North America: 4,000 species Native Bee Diversity Photo:  Mace Vaughan
Photo:  Stephen L. Buchmann Native Bee Diversity
Photos:  James Cane; Steve Javorek (Ag Canada); Edward S. Ross Honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) Bumble bee ( Bombus edwardsii ) Leafcutter bee ( Megachile  sp.) Polyester bee (Colletes sp) Native Bee Diversity
Photos:  Bruce Newhouse; Edward S. Ross; Mace Vaughan; USDA-ARS/Jack Dykinga Metallic sweat bee ( Agapostemon  sp.) Yellow-faced bee ( Hylaeus  sp.) Mason bee ( Osmia  sp.) Sweat bee ( Halictus  sp.) Native Bee Diversity
Photos:  Dennis Briggs Recognize Habitat: Solitary Bees Mining bee ( Andrena  sp.); a year in its underground nest as egg, larva, and pupa before emerging to spend a few weeks as an adult.
Photo: Matthew Shepherd. Drawings:  Stephen, Bohart, and Torchio, 1967 Pollinator Habitat: Ground Nesting ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Photos:  Edward S. Ross; Mike Carter; Matthew Shepherd Pollinator Habitat: Tunnel Nesting
Photos: Elaine Evans ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Pollinator Habitat: Bumble bees
Some native bees in decline: Four sister species of bumble bees Native Bees in Decline   Yellowbanded Franklin’s Rusty patched Western Photos:  Jodi DeLong; Peter L. Schroeder; Johanna James-Heinz; Derrick Ditchburn
Native Bees in Decline
Pollinator Conservation Provide floral resources. Provide for nesting sites. Avoid pesticides. Photo: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University; bugwood.org
Pollinator Habitat: Foraging Needs Photos: Elaine Haug/NRCS, Matthew Shepherd; Mace Vaughan, Eric Mader, Jeff McMillan/NRCS, Berry Botanic Garden
Pollinator Habitat:   Nesting needs Photos:  Matthew Shepherd; Eric Mader; Sydney A. Cameron Bumble bees (social) Tunnel-nesting bees (solitary) Ground-nesting bees (solitary)
Pollinator Habitat: Butterflies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Photo:  Dana Ross
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Pollinator Habitat: Pesticides
Photo:  Rollin Coville Opportunities for Public Gardens Education and outreach Demonstration sites Propagation of native plants Research
Building connections between pollinators and local food systems Master gardeners, native plant societies, urban planners, land managers, and agency staff Photo: Matthew Shepherd Opportunities: Education and Outreach
Opportunities: Demonstration Sites 4-6 blooming species for each season Clump plantings Warm-season bunch grasses At least 45% forbs Photo:  Jessa Guisse
Photo:  Eric Eldrige/NRCS Opportunities: Plant Propagation Focus on high-value species not currently commercially available Research and documentation of species with unknown propagation requirements Butterfly host plants Xerces/Monarch Joint Venture Milkweed Seed Increase Project
Photo:  Logan Lauvray Opportunities: Research Plant-pollinator relationships Propagation requirements of rare species Restoration of habitats
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Xerces Society Resources
[object Object],[object Object],Xerces Society Resources
Xerces Society Resources
Speakers Pollinator scientists Photo: Paul Jepson Xerces Society Resources
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Thanks to our Funders Photo:  Piotr Naskrecki

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Pollinators in the Garden: Forging Partnerships for Native Insect Conservation Black

  • 1. Photo: Steve Hendrix Pollinator Conservation: Opportunities for Public Gardens Scott Hoffman Black Executive Director The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
  • 2. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation The Xerces Society is an international nonprofit that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat. 4828 SE Hawthorne Boulevard Portland, OR 97215 503-232 6639 www.xerces.org Photo: Larry Orzak
  • 3. The Xerces Society Conservation, policy, advocacy, education, and research for invertebrates and their habitat. Photos: Paul Jepson; Matthew Shepherd; Heidi Ballard
  • 4.
  • 5. Importance of Pollinators Fruits and seeds are a major part of the diet of about 25% of birds, and of many mammals Photo: NRCS
  • 6. Photo: Dawn Nichols/iStockphoto Importance of Pollinators Pollinators and the diverse insects associated with good pollinator habitat are food for wildlife
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Photos: Mace Vaughan; Jeff Adams; Dana Ross; Bruce Newhouse Main Groups of Pollinators
  • 10.
  • 11. North America: 4,000 species Native Bee Diversity Photo: Mace Vaughan
  • 12. Photo: Stephen L. Buchmann Native Bee Diversity
  • 13. Photos: James Cane; Steve Javorek (Ag Canada); Edward S. Ross Honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) Bumble bee ( Bombus edwardsii ) Leafcutter bee ( Megachile sp.) Polyester bee (Colletes sp) Native Bee Diversity
  • 14. Photos: Bruce Newhouse; Edward S. Ross; Mace Vaughan; USDA-ARS/Jack Dykinga Metallic sweat bee ( Agapostemon sp.) Yellow-faced bee ( Hylaeus sp.) Mason bee ( Osmia sp.) Sweat bee ( Halictus sp.) Native Bee Diversity
  • 15. Photos: Dennis Briggs Recognize Habitat: Solitary Bees Mining bee ( Andrena sp.); a year in its underground nest as egg, larva, and pupa before emerging to spend a few weeks as an adult.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. Some native bees in decline: Four sister species of bumble bees Native Bees in Decline Yellowbanded Franklin’s Rusty patched Western Photos: Jodi DeLong; Peter L. Schroeder; Johanna James-Heinz; Derrick Ditchburn
  • 20. Native Bees in Decline
  • 21. Pollinator Conservation Provide floral resources. Provide for nesting sites. Avoid pesticides. Photo: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University; bugwood.org
  • 22. Pollinator Habitat: Foraging Needs Photos: Elaine Haug/NRCS, Matthew Shepherd; Mace Vaughan, Eric Mader, Jeff McMillan/NRCS, Berry Botanic Garden
  • 23. Pollinator Habitat: Nesting needs Photos: Matthew Shepherd; Eric Mader; Sydney A. Cameron Bumble bees (social) Tunnel-nesting bees (solitary) Ground-nesting bees (solitary)
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. Photo: Rollin Coville Opportunities for Public Gardens Education and outreach Demonstration sites Propagation of native plants Research
  • 27. Building connections between pollinators and local food systems Master gardeners, native plant societies, urban planners, land managers, and agency staff Photo: Matthew Shepherd Opportunities: Education and Outreach
  • 28. Opportunities: Demonstration Sites 4-6 blooming species for each season Clump plantings Warm-season bunch grasses At least 45% forbs Photo: Jessa Guisse
  • 29. Photo: Eric Eldrige/NRCS Opportunities: Plant Propagation Focus on high-value species not currently commercially available Research and documentation of species with unknown propagation requirements Butterfly host plants Xerces/Monarch Joint Venture Milkweed Seed Increase Project
  • 30. Photo: Logan Lauvray Opportunities: Research Plant-pollinator relationships Propagation requirements of rare species Restoration of habitats
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 34. Speakers Pollinator scientists Photo: Paul Jepson Xerces Society Resources
  • 35.

Editor's Notes

  1. Pollinators are a “keystone” group of animals—they are an essential link in the food web upon which other animals depend. Fruits and seeds are important for a wide range of mammals, from voles to grizzly bears. Photos: bobwhite quail, grizzly bear, and “cactus bee”.
  2. Pollinators are a “keystone” group of animals—they are an essential link in the food web upon which other animals depend. Fruits and seeds are important for a wide range of mammals, from voles to grizzly bears. Photos: bobwhite quail, grizzly bear, and “cactus bee”.
  3. May not have noticed a shortage this year because of bees being shipped in from Australia.
  4. We are familiar with Nosema apis (Fall/Winter), but new Nosema = N. ceranea (seems to hit in the summer and acts faster)
  5. Beginning in the upper left hand corner is our non-native European honey bees, but our native bees come in a wide range of colors and sizes, here are some contrasting examples…
  6. Note that bees are not always yellow with black stripes, but they are sometimes also metallic blue or green, and they come in sizes as small as a mosquito, such as these species on the left to…
  7. About 30% of our native bees nest as solitary individuals in wood tunnels, usually hollow stems, or the abandoned beetle borer holes found in dead trees, or stumps.
  8. Bumble bees are the only native social bees in the United States. They typically nest in existing cavities such as old rodent burrows and build abstract wax combs to hold small amounts of pollen, nectar, and developing brood.
  9. Many of our native bees are also in decline. Of particular importance are members of the subgenus Bombus. This is a closely related group of “sister species” that range across the country. Once they accounted for some of the most common bees in their range, now they are nearly impossible to find, especially in agricultural areas.
  10. For this reason, it is important that pollinator habitat contains a diversity of native plants that provide a succession of bloom throughout the growing season.
  11. Our native bees can be divided into three broad categories: solitary ground-nesting, and wood or tunnel-nesting bees, and our one group of native social bees, the bumble bees.
  12. Some organic-approved pesticides should be completely avoided wherever pollinators are a concern. Others are relatively safe, as long as they do not directly contact pollinators.