SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 19
Personal Study
Project
Unit 12 Specialist study in creative media production
Schedule
Date w/c Task[s]
Summer Choose your focus topic and basic research of theories
12/09 Research all 4 theories (4 sources minimum)
19/09 Research theory (2 sources minimum)
26/09 Research product/person/studio (secondary research) (3 sources minimum)
03/10 Research product/person/studio (secondary research) (3 sources minimum)
10/10 Analyse a product/scene/specific pages/photographs/levels etc.
17/10 Final additions and upload to PERSONAL STUDY area of website. Start essay.
Half term
CHOSEN TOPIC
Male Gaze
Theories
Auteur Theory
Author Andre Bazin
Book Title "De La Politique des Auteurs"
Page Reference(s) https://filmlifestyle.com/auteur-theory/
Summary of Theory
• The belief that the director of a film is
the ‘author’ of the film.
• Argues that a film is a reflection of the
director’s vision which leads to the
filmmaker having recognizable, recurring
themes – visual cues that inform the
audience who the director is.
• Embodies a consistent artistic identity of
the director throughout their
filmography.
• The term “auteur theory” is credited to
the critics of the French film Cahiers du
cinema.
Quotes"
“I always argued against the auteur theory;
films are a collaborative art form. I’ve had
some fantastically good people help me
make the movies.” – Alan Parker
“On auteur theory: never has a critical
movement so thoroughly ignored the one-hit
wonders of its artform. Imagine music
without these gems—half of pop rock would
be gone and musicologists would have
nothing to dig up!” – Anthony Marais
“No term is more treasured than “auteur” as
a director in film and video. Many producers
and directors strive to be auteurs, but only
true geniuses can walk the path.”
Reception Theory
Author Stuart Hall
Book Title Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse
Page Reference(s) https://www.communicationtheory.org/reception-theory/
Summary of Theory
• The reception theory concept points out
that, a movie, book, or game events
though it has none/some inherent
meaning, the audience who watch them
or experience it make a meaning.
• The encoded messages usually contains
shared rules and symbols common with
other people. So the (encoder) sender
has to think how the receiver will
perceive the message.
• Decoding would be a successful
deliver only if the message sent by the
encoder is understood completely to
its content as it was intended.
Quotes
• “It is unnecessary that the audience
will decode the message encoded by
the author just the same.” – Stuart
Hall
• “Ideas are never a mere reception of
presumed realities, but they are
constructions of possibilities; therefore
they are pure bits of imagination, or
fine ideas of our own” — Jose Ortega
Y Gasset
Hypodermic Needle Model
Author Jason Gordon
Book Title Hypodermic Needle Theory - Explained
Page Reference(s) https://thebusinessprofessor.com/en_US/communications-
negotiations/hypodermic-needle-theory-explained
Summary of Theory
• a linear communication theory which
suggests that media messages are injected
directly into the brains of a passive
audience. It suggests that we’re all the
same and we all respond to media
messages in the same way.
• Based on an assumption derived from
behavioural psychology - when a person is
hit by a message he will behave in a
uniform and automated.
• It was developed in the 1920s and 1930s
after researchers observed the effect of
propaganda during World War I and
incidents such as Orson Welles’ War of the
Worlds broadcast
Quotes
• “For me, to be able to try to make big
films that reach a lot of people, and
that hopefully have something to say,
is a lofty goal, but that's my goal.” -
David Brooks
• “A man who cannot work without his
hypodermic needle is a poor doctor.” -
Martin H. Fischer
The Male Gaze
Author Laura Mulvey
Book Title Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.
Page Reference(s) https://www.filminquiry.com/film-theory-basics-laura-mulvey-
male-gaze-theory/
Summary of Theory
• The “male gaze” invokes the sexual
politics of the gaze and suggests a
sexualised way of looking that
empowers men and objectifies
women.
• The idea that women are visually
positioned as an “object” of
heterosexual male desire.
• Introduced by scholar and
filmmaker Laura Mulvey in her now
famous 1975 essay, Visual Pleasure
and Narrative Cinema.
Quotes
• “There’s something different about
when a female directs versus a male.
The level of maturity, mutual respect,
and energy that you get from a female
director is so different.” – Rowan
Blanchard
• “It seems to be generally acknowledged
that sexism is far from defeated,
flourishing through religions and other
reactionary ideologies, which would
definitely and gladly erase the concept
of feminism.” – Laura Mulvey
CHOSEN THEORY
The Male Gaze
The Male Gaze
Summary of Theory
• Media portrayals of female bodies, in
particular, are often problematic and
merely serve the purpose of showing
women as objects to be consumed and
looked at by men.
• Hollywood cinema reproduces and upholds
a patriarchal society and renders women
passive and men active.
• Through media representations and direct
experience, both women and girls learn
their appearance is social currency and
begin to take the male gazer’s perspective
Quotes
• “The male gaze has long been
associated with a neutral perspective
because the vast majority of films are
produced by men who watch women.
It must be said that this gaze has an
origin and is linked with male
domination.”
Product research – The Male Gaze in Fashion
‘State of emergency’ for Vogue Italia by Steve Meisel
Meisel has been known for sparking controversy
through his artistic depictions of women in fashion
and it comes to no surprise. The pose in which the
models are placed in for his photoshoots perfectly
display how the Male Gaze is very prominent in not
only film and advertising but editorials also.
The vulnerable and submissive way in which the models
are characterised in the first two images lead on the
ideology that men overpower women and when
challenging a man’s power, the woman is left
defenceless and humiliated.
The first image shows a woman being arrested and
handled inappropriately up her dress by a police
officer. She is in a position where she is held down
and pushed against the police vehicle with her legs
spread in a situation where she cannot escape –
completely defenceless and overly sexualised.
The second image again shows a woman in a humiliating
where she seems to be pressured to strip and her face
she is uncomfortable doing so.
The third image illustrates a woman playing the role
of a what I assume to be a spy/assassin but once
again, in comparison to the two male spies laid next
to her, she is positioned in a provocative position
and not even working like here male peers.
TOPIC
Topic Research 1
Author Katherine Bell
Source TURNING DREAMS TO SHAME: SUSAN BOYLE’S LES
MIZ
Page Reference(s) https://ethics.journalism.wisc.edu/2009/07/27/turnin
g-dreams-to-shame-susan-boyles-les-miz/
Details about topic/Quotes
Susan Boyle was treated badly by media outlets during her time on Britain's Got Talent because
she did not adhere to the male gaze standards of the 'ideal woman'.
"The media have described Susan Boyle as frumpy, dumpy, hirsute, homely, plain, a virgin, a
spinster, and a church volunteer who lives alone with her cat and has never been kissed. Her
intelligence and her mental health have been the subject of intense speculation"
This proves how essentially different 'types' of women are treated different by society as a result
of what men perceive as 'beautiful'.
The male gaze still infiltrates celebrity culture and mainstream media – even if it is subconscious.
"What responsibility do the media have to the audience, to the public sphere generally, and to
people like Boyle who enter the spotlight or find themselves caught in its glare? Where do
human dignity and personal feelings enter the picture?" - People become careless and use
people who are not conventially attractive as laughingstock, leading to self-esteem issues for
others who may relate to that person.
Topic Research 2
Author Erin Heger
Source The sneaky ways social media can sabotage your body
image — and 3 easy tips to help you break the cycle
Page Reference(s) https://www.insider.com/guides/health/mental-
health/how-social-media-affects-body-image
Details about topic/Quotes
Social media has over 3.6 billion users worldwide.
Social media is filled with people presenting themselves in their best light, so therefore it is
difficult to avoid images and messages that might make others feel negatively about their body.
A negative body image can cause unrealistic expectations of how people’s body should look and
could lead to unhealthy behaviours, like disordered eating. A 2018 study found a correlation
between time spent on social media, negative body image, and disordered eating. A
2015 study found that female-identifying college students who spent more time on Facebook
had poorer body image. The researchers concluded that "young women who spend more time
on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their
appearance to others (especially to peers).”. "Photoshop and filters present people and things in
their best light," Jill M. Emanuele, PHD, says. "It creates a distorted fantasy world and raises the
bar on what people perceive is 'the best' way to be."
Fitspiration and thinspiration — otherwise known as "fitspo" and "thinspo" — are terms that
describe social media accounts and images that encourage users to be fit and thin. This has a
further detrimental effect on body image issues.
Topic Research 3
Author Iris Goldsztajn
Source Kim Kardashian Lost 16 Pounds to Fit Into Marilyn
Monroe's Dress, and We Are All Unimpressed
Page Reference(s) https://www.marieclaire.com/celebrity/kim-
kardashian-crash-diet-marilyn-monroe-dress/
Details about topic/Quotes
Kim Kardashian, Marylin Monroe Met Gala diet:
"I tried it on, and it didn't fit me, and so I looked at them and I said, 'give me like three weeks,’”
Kim said. "And I had to lose 16 pounds down today to be able to fit this, but it was such a
challenge, it was like a roll. I was determined. I was determined to fit it.“
With such a high following on all social media platforms, openly admitting to essentially starving
herself in order to fit into an image is extremely damaging as she has such an influence on many
of her fans.
Marylin Monroe was a sex symbol for her time, some may argue that Kim Kardashian has
stepped into Marylin’s shoes and is the sex symbol of modern day. She is the standard of beauty
as she had the ideal ‘hourglass’ body shape according to males. Since Kim Kardashian’s rise to
fame, many influential women have undergone surgeries such as liposuction and a Brazilian butt
lift in order to have a similar body type to Kim Kardashian – another way in which women may
feel influence to fit into the Male Gaze image.
How the Male Gaze Infiltrates Society and Alters
the Way We View Ourselves
• Person or Studio Focus – Kim Kardashian
Kim Kardashian has built a career on presenting herself as a certain image.
Since her rise to fame she has ultimately convert the Male Gaze standards
from “extra slim American blondie” to more bottom-heavy women with an
“hourglass” figure. I am going to explore how Kim Kardashian advocates the
‘fitness culture’ which is very prominent online and shapeware and the
effects it had on her fanbase. -
• Specific Product Focus – Social Media
Social media can be harsh as it gives users the freedom to leave anonymous
hate comments on posts, more often than not, these internet ‘trolls’ can
recognise insecurities and comment on physical features. People often put on
a ‘front’ on their social media profiles, presenting themselves in the best light
in order to receive praise and acclaim so that they feel validated. This can
cause even further problems since it causes unrealistic standards of
ourselves.
Essay Plan
1. Introduction to your topic (~100 words)
– I have researched Susan Boyle for my introduction as her story represents the way in which the media holds
unrealistic standards for women in terms of appearance. This links to the main topic of my essay, the Male Gaze,
as it states how the press media and social media are still hold their morals on account on what men perceive as
‘beauty’ and how feelings are completely disregarded when criticising appearance.
– Introduction to your theory (~100 words)
– The male gaze was originated by feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey in her essay ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative
Cinema’. The male gaze essentially hypersexualises women by reducing them to objects of aesthetic value only –
for the benefit of the heterosexual male.
– Macro analysis (400+ words)
– Kim Kardashian - Known her using her hyper-sexuality to climb her career ladder and ultimately live a successful
lavish life. She can be recognised as the epitome of modern beauty – full breasts, large bum, small waist. She
endorses the idea that we should essentially look like her as she advertises waist trainers and shapewear on her
social media accounts. This can have a negative effect on body image to her fan base as they are sold the idea
that in order to appear beautiful like her, we should have the same body shape as her, which can be very difficult
to achieve
– Micro analysis (400+ words)
– Kim Kardashian attending the met gala in 2022 in Marylin Monroe’s JFK Birthday dress. She underwent three
weeks of ‘crash-dieting’ meaning she cut out all carbs and ‘junk food’ and did intense workout every day. She
spoke openly about it on her show ‘The Kardashians’ and received a lot of backlash as it has led people to worry
that the Y2K super-skinny, ‘heroin chic’ body type is trending again. In the early 2000s eating disorders were
glamourised and praised despite the terrible health side effects.
2. Application of Theory (400+ words)
– Survey on men’s preferred body type analysis and how that has changed the mindset of women today and the
financial and physical costs.
3. Your own work [~200 words]
– I will talk about the many businesses in which the Kardashians have succeeded in creating and how I will create a
brand of my own which will be similar in the sense that my brand will be a cosmetics brand which the
Kardashians are notoriously known for. My makeup brand will embrace the natural features we are born with as
we should learn to ‘ditch the face filters’ to try and subvert the ideology that women should look plastic and
have porcelain smooth kin in order to be deemed as beautiful.
4. Conclusion (100 words)
– Tie back to the theory which I have been questioning throughout the essay.
– Final line: Women ask themselves in the mirror, “how can I please society today?”
Bibliography
Reference list
• Bell, K. (2009). Turning Dreams to Shame: Susan Boyle’s Les Miz. Thesis.
• Communication Theory (2019). Reception Theory. [online] Communication Theory. Available at:
https://www.communicationtheory.org/reception-theory/.
• Gordon, J. (2022). Hypodermic Needle Theory - Explained. [online] The Business Professor, LLC. Available at:
https://thebusinessprofessor.com/en_US/communications-negotiations/hypodermic-needle-theory-explained.
• Heger, E. (2022). The sneaky ways social media can sabotage your body image — and 3 easy tips to help you break
the cycle. [online] Insider. Available at: https://www.insider.com/guides/health/mental-health/how-social-media-
affects-body-image.
• Matt (2021). Auteur Theory: The Definitive Guide • Filmmaking Lifestyle. [online] Filmmaking Lifestyle. Available at:
https://filmlifestyle.com/auteur-theory/.
• Meisel, S. (2006). Art + Commerce - Artists - Photographers - Steven Meisel - State of Emergency. [online]
www.artandcommerce.com. Available at: https://www.artandcommerce.com/artists/photographers/steven-
meisel/State-of-Emergency [Accessed 2 Feb. 2023].
• published, I.G. (2022). Kim Kardashian Lost 16 Pounds to Fit Into Marilyn Monroe’s Dress, and We Are All
Unimpressed. [online] Marie Claire Magazine. Available at: https://www.marieclaire.com/celebrity/kim-
kardashian-crash-diet-marilyn-monroe-dress/.
• Rachael Sampson (2015). Film Theory 101 - Laura Mulvey: The Male Gaze Theory | Film Inquiry. [online] Film
Inquiry. Available at: https://www.filminquiry.com/film-theory-basics-laura-mulvey-male-gaze-theory/.
Academic Media Theories
• You should make specific reference to at least
one of the following media theories:
1. Auteur Theory
2. Reception Theory
3. The Hypodermic Needle Model
4. The Male Gaze

More Related Content

Similar to Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma - Copy.pptx

Personal essay project
Personal essay projectPersonal essay project
Personal essay projectLily809411
 
Personal essay project (1)
Personal essay project (1)Personal essay project (1)
Personal essay project (1)Lily809411
 
Audience investigation
Audience investigationAudience investigation
Audience investigationkatscott69
 
Uses&Gratifications
Uses&GratificationsUses&Gratifications
Uses&Gratificationsjaymelouise_
 
Uses and gratifications
Uses and gratificationsUses and gratifications
Uses and gratificationsjaymelouise_
 
Liam Metcalfe - Unit 4: theorists and theories
Liam Metcalfe - Unit 4: theorists and theories Liam Metcalfe - Unit 4: theorists and theories
Liam Metcalfe - Unit 4: theorists and theories LiamMetcalfe2
 
Laura Mulvey_The_Male_Gaze
Laura Mulvey_The_Male_GazeLaura Mulvey_The_Male_Gaze
Laura Mulvey_The_Male_GazeJHk
 
Representation of women in magazine
Representation of women in magazineRepresentation of women in magazine
Representation of women in magazinerooneys27
 
Music video theory
Music video theoryMusic video theory
Music video theoryellyshakular
 
Ideas of representation
Ideas of representationIdeas of representation
Ideas of representationMoven1
 
Ideas of representation
Ideas of representationIdeas of representation
Ideas of representationMoven1
 
Media Representation and Audience Theory
Media Representation  and Audience TheoryMedia Representation  and Audience Theory
Media Representation and Audience Theoryelliotdaniela2
 
002 Essay Example Samplefirstpagemla Heade
002 Essay Example Samplefirstpagemla Heade002 Essay Example Samplefirstpagemla Heade
002 Essay Example Samplefirstpagemla HeadeScott Faria
 
Theoretical research
Theoretical researchTheoretical research
Theoretical researchChloeMateides
 
Theoretical research
Theoretical researchTheoretical research
Theoretical researchChloeMateides
 
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptx
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptxPersonal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptx
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptxHannahWilkinson23
 
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptx
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptxPersonal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptx
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptxBLACKSTARSHINIGAMI
 
Theory applicable to magazine production
Theory applicable to magazine productionTheory applicable to magazine production
Theory applicable to magazine productionLynley Sykes
 

Similar to Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma - Copy.pptx (20)

Personal essay project
Personal essay projectPersonal essay project
Personal essay project
 
Personal essay project (1)
Personal essay project (1)Personal essay project (1)
Personal essay project (1)
 
Audience investigation
Audience investigationAudience investigation
Audience investigation
 
Uses&Gratifications
Uses&GratificationsUses&Gratifications
Uses&Gratifications
 
Uses and gratifications
Uses and gratificationsUses and gratifications
Uses and gratifications
 
Liam Metcalfe - Unit 4: theorists and theories
Liam Metcalfe - Unit 4: theorists and theories Liam Metcalfe - Unit 4: theorists and theories
Liam Metcalfe - Unit 4: theorists and theories
 
Laura Mulvey_The_Male_Gaze
Laura Mulvey_The_Male_GazeLaura Mulvey_The_Male_Gaze
Laura Mulvey_The_Male_Gaze
 
Representation of women in magazine
Representation of women in magazineRepresentation of women in magazine
Representation of women in magazine
 
Music video theory
Music video theoryMusic video theory
Music video theory
 
Ideas of representation
Ideas of representationIdeas of representation
Ideas of representation
 
Theory project
Theory projectTheory project
Theory project
 
Ideas of representation
Ideas of representationIdeas of representation
Ideas of representation
 
Media Representation and Audience Theory
Media Representation  and Audience TheoryMedia Representation  and Audience Theory
Media Representation and Audience Theory
 
002 Essay Example Samplefirstpagemla Heade
002 Essay Example Samplefirstpagemla Heade002 Essay Example Samplefirstpagemla Heade
002 Essay Example Samplefirstpagemla Heade
 
Theoretical research
Theoretical researchTheoretical research
Theoretical research
 
Theoretical research
Theoretical researchTheoretical research
Theoretical research
 
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptx
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptxPersonal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptx
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptx
 
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptx
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptxPersonal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptx
Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma.pptx
 
Academic media theories
Academic media theoriesAcademic media theories
Academic media theories
 
Theory applicable to magazine production
Theory applicable to magazine productionTheory applicable to magazine production
Theory applicable to magazine production
 

More from OliviaDay7

Task 7 Presenting Work pro forma.pdf
Task 7 Presenting Work pro forma.pdfTask 7 Presenting Work pro forma.pdf
Task 7 Presenting Work pro forma.pdfOliviaDay7
 
UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2023 [Auto-saved].pptx
UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2023 [Auto-saved].pptxUAL Progression Pro-Forma 2023 [Auto-saved].pptx
UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2023 [Auto-saved].pptxOliviaDay7
 
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptxL3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptxOliviaDay7
 
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptxL3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptxOliviaDay7
 
Contextual Statement.pptx
Contextual Statement.pptxContextual Statement.pptx
Contextual Statement.pptxOliviaDay7
 
context - photos.pptx
context - photos.pptxcontext - photos.pptx
context - photos.pptxOliviaDay7
 
4. Pre-Production.pdf
4. Pre-Production.pdf4. Pre-Production.pdf
4. Pre-Production.pdfOliviaDay7
 
1. Context.pdf
1. Context.pdf1. Context.pdf
1. Context.pdfOliviaDay7
 
FMP - Research.pptx
FMP - Research.pptxFMP - Research.pptx
FMP - Research.pptxOliviaDay7
 
FMP pre proposal 2023.docx
FMP pre proposal 2023.docxFMP pre proposal 2023.docx
FMP pre proposal 2023.docxOliviaDay7
 
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template Fanzine.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template Fanzine.pptxL3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template Fanzine.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template Fanzine.pptxOliviaDay7
 
Factual Research pro forma.pptx
Factual Research pro forma.pptxFactual Research pro forma.pptx
Factual Research pro forma.pptxOliviaDay7
 
Factual development and planning pro forma.pptx
Factual development and planning pro forma.pptxFactual development and planning pro forma.pptx
Factual development and planning pro forma.pptxOliviaDay7
 
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template (1) (1).pdf
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template (1) (1).pdfL3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template (1) (1).pdf
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template (1) (1).pdfOliviaDay7
 
Planning Guide - GENERIC (1) (1).pptx
Planning Guide - GENERIC (1) (1).pptxPlanning Guide - GENERIC (1) (1).pptx
Planning Guide - GENERIC (1) (1).pptxOliviaDay7
 
2. Ideas and planning.pptx
2. Ideas and planning.pptx2. Ideas and planning.pptx
2. Ideas and planning.pptxOliviaDay7
 
1. Research.pptx
1. Research.pptx1. Research.pptx
1. Research.pptxOliviaDay7
 
Olivia Day - UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2022-23
Olivia Day - UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2022-23Olivia Day - UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2022-23
Olivia Day - UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2022-23OliviaDay7
 
2. Research.pptx
2. Research.pptx2. Research.pptx
2. Research.pptxOliviaDay7
 

More from OliviaDay7 (20)

Task 7 Presenting Work pro forma.pdf
Task 7 Presenting Work pro forma.pdfTask 7 Presenting Work pro forma.pdf
Task 7 Presenting Work pro forma.pdf
 
UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2023 [Auto-saved].pptx
UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2023 [Auto-saved].pptxUAL Progression Pro-Forma 2023 [Auto-saved].pptx
UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2023 [Auto-saved].pptx
 
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptxL3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptx
 
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptxL3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template.pptx
 
Contextual Statement.pptx
Contextual Statement.pptxContextual Statement.pptx
Contextual Statement.pptx
 
context - photos.pptx
context - photos.pptxcontext - photos.pptx
context - photos.pptx
 
4. Pre-Production.pdf
4. Pre-Production.pdf4. Pre-Production.pdf
4. Pre-Production.pdf
 
1. Context.pdf
1. Context.pdf1. Context.pdf
1. Context.pdf
 
FMP - Research.pptx
FMP - Research.pptxFMP - Research.pptx
FMP - Research.pptx
 
FMP pre proposal 2023.docx
FMP pre proposal 2023.docxFMP pre proposal 2023.docx
FMP pre proposal 2023.docx
 
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template Fanzine.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template Fanzine.pptxL3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template Fanzine.pptx
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template Fanzine.pptx
 
Factual Research pro forma.pptx
Factual Research pro forma.pptxFactual Research pro forma.pptx
Factual Research pro forma.pptx
 
Factual development and planning pro forma.pptx
Factual development and planning pro forma.pptxFactual development and planning pro forma.pptx
Factual development and planning pro forma.pptx
 
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template (1) (1).pdf
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template (1) (1).pdfL3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template (1) (1).pdf
L3 CMPT Y2 Evaluation Template (1) (1).pdf
 
Planning Guide - GENERIC (1) (1).pptx
Planning Guide - GENERIC (1) (1).pptxPlanning Guide - GENERIC (1) (1).pptx
Planning Guide - GENERIC (1) (1).pptx
 
2. Ideas and planning.pptx
2. Ideas and planning.pptx2. Ideas and planning.pptx
2. Ideas and planning.pptx
 
1. Research
1. Research1. Research
1. Research
 
1. Research.pptx
1. Research.pptx1. Research.pptx
1. Research.pptx
 
Olivia Day - UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2022-23
Olivia Day - UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2022-23Olivia Day - UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2022-23
Olivia Day - UAL Progression Pro-Forma 2022-23
 
2. Research.pptx
2. Research.pptx2. Research.pptx
2. Research.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Artificial_General_Intelligence__storm_gen_article.pdf
Artificial_General_Intelligence__storm_gen_article.pdfArtificial_General_Intelligence__storm_gen_article.pdf
Artificial_General_Intelligence__storm_gen_article.pdfscitechtalktv
 
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflictSupply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflictJack Cole
 
The Significance of Transliteration Enhancing
The Significance of Transliteration EnhancingThe Significance of Transliteration Enhancing
The Significance of Transliteration Enhancingmohamed Elzalabany
 
basics of data science with application areas.pdf
basics of data science with application areas.pdfbasics of data science with application areas.pdf
basics of data science with application areas.pdfvyankatesh1
 
Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)
Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)
Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)Jon Hansen
 
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...Valters Lauzums
 
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdf
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdfAI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdf
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdfMichaelSenkow
 
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理cyebo
 
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理pyhepag
 
Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertaintyFuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertaintyRafigAliyev2
 
Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...
Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...
Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...ssuserf63bd7
 
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理pyhepag
 
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group MeetingAlison Pitt
 
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Calllward7
 
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdfFormulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdfRobertoOcampo24
 
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptxPre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptxStephen266013
 
社内勉強会資料  Mamba - A new era or ephemeral
社内勉強会資料   Mamba - A new era or ephemeral社内勉強会資料   Mamba - A new era or ephemeral
社内勉強会資料  Mamba - A new era or ephemeralNABLAS株式会社
 
Easy and simple project file on mp online
Easy and simple project file on mp onlineEasy and simple project file on mp online
Easy and simple project file on mp onlinebalibahu1313
 
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理pyhepag
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Artificial_General_Intelligence__storm_gen_article.pdf
Artificial_General_Intelligence__storm_gen_article.pdfArtificial_General_Intelligence__storm_gen_article.pdf
Artificial_General_Intelligence__storm_gen_article.pdf
 
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflictSupply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
 
The Significance of Transliteration Enhancing
The Significance of Transliteration EnhancingThe Significance of Transliteration Enhancing
The Significance of Transliteration Enhancing
 
basics of data science with application areas.pdf
basics of data science with application areas.pdfbasics of data science with application areas.pdf
basics of data science with application areas.pdf
 
Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)
Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)
Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)
 
Slip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp Claims
Slip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp ClaimsSlip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp Claims
Slip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp Claims
 
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
 
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdf
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdfAI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdf
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdf
 
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertaintyFuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
 
Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...
Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...
Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...
 
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
 
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
 
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdfFormulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
 
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptxPre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
 
社内勉強会資料  Mamba - A new era or ephemeral
社内勉強会資料   Mamba - A new era or ephemeral社内勉強会資料   Mamba - A new era or ephemeral
社内勉強会資料  Mamba - A new era or ephemeral
 
Easy and simple project file on mp online
Easy and simple project file on mp onlineEasy and simple project file on mp online
Easy and simple project file on mp online
 
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
 

Personal Study Essay Research Document Pro Forma - Copy.pptx

  • 1. Personal Study Project Unit 12 Specialist study in creative media production
  • 2. Schedule Date w/c Task[s] Summer Choose your focus topic and basic research of theories 12/09 Research all 4 theories (4 sources minimum) 19/09 Research theory (2 sources minimum) 26/09 Research product/person/studio (secondary research) (3 sources minimum) 03/10 Research product/person/studio (secondary research) (3 sources minimum) 10/10 Analyse a product/scene/specific pages/photographs/levels etc. 17/10 Final additions and upload to PERSONAL STUDY area of website. Start essay. Half term
  • 5. Auteur Theory Author Andre Bazin Book Title "De La Politique des Auteurs" Page Reference(s) https://filmlifestyle.com/auteur-theory/ Summary of Theory • The belief that the director of a film is the ‘author’ of the film. • Argues that a film is a reflection of the director’s vision which leads to the filmmaker having recognizable, recurring themes – visual cues that inform the audience who the director is. • Embodies a consistent artistic identity of the director throughout their filmography. • The term “auteur theory” is credited to the critics of the French film Cahiers du cinema. Quotes" “I always argued against the auteur theory; films are a collaborative art form. I’ve had some fantastically good people help me make the movies.” – Alan Parker “On auteur theory: never has a critical movement so thoroughly ignored the one-hit wonders of its artform. Imagine music without these gems—half of pop rock would be gone and musicologists would have nothing to dig up!” – Anthony Marais “No term is more treasured than “auteur” as a director in film and video. Many producers and directors strive to be auteurs, but only true geniuses can walk the path.”
  • 6. Reception Theory Author Stuart Hall Book Title Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse Page Reference(s) https://www.communicationtheory.org/reception-theory/ Summary of Theory • The reception theory concept points out that, a movie, book, or game events though it has none/some inherent meaning, the audience who watch them or experience it make a meaning. • The encoded messages usually contains shared rules and symbols common with other people. So the (encoder) sender has to think how the receiver will perceive the message. • Decoding would be a successful deliver only if the message sent by the encoder is understood completely to its content as it was intended. Quotes • “It is unnecessary that the audience will decode the message encoded by the author just the same.” – Stuart Hall • “Ideas are never a mere reception of presumed realities, but they are constructions of possibilities; therefore they are pure bits of imagination, or fine ideas of our own” — Jose Ortega Y Gasset
  • 7. Hypodermic Needle Model Author Jason Gordon Book Title Hypodermic Needle Theory - Explained Page Reference(s) https://thebusinessprofessor.com/en_US/communications- negotiations/hypodermic-needle-theory-explained Summary of Theory • a linear communication theory which suggests that media messages are injected directly into the brains of a passive audience. It suggests that we’re all the same and we all respond to media messages in the same way. • Based on an assumption derived from behavioural psychology - when a person is hit by a message he will behave in a uniform and automated. • It was developed in the 1920s and 1930s after researchers observed the effect of propaganda during World War I and incidents such as Orson Welles’ War of the Worlds broadcast Quotes • “For me, to be able to try to make big films that reach a lot of people, and that hopefully have something to say, is a lofty goal, but that's my goal.” - David Brooks • “A man who cannot work without his hypodermic needle is a poor doctor.” - Martin H. Fischer
  • 8. The Male Gaze Author Laura Mulvey Book Title Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Page Reference(s) https://www.filminquiry.com/film-theory-basics-laura-mulvey- male-gaze-theory/ Summary of Theory • The “male gaze” invokes the sexual politics of the gaze and suggests a sexualised way of looking that empowers men and objectifies women. • The idea that women are visually positioned as an “object” of heterosexual male desire. • Introduced by scholar and filmmaker Laura Mulvey in her now famous 1975 essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Quotes • “There’s something different about when a female directs versus a male. The level of maturity, mutual respect, and energy that you get from a female director is so different.” – Rowan Blanchard • “It seems to be generally acknowledged that sexism is far from defeated, flourishing through religions and other reactionary ideologies, which would definitely and gladly erase the concept of feminism.” – Laura Mulvey
  • 10. The Male Gaze Summary of Theory • Media portrayals of female bodies, in particular, are often problematic and merely serve the purpose of showing women as objects to be consumed and looked at by men. • Hollywood cinema reproduces and upholds a patriarchal society and renders women passive and men active. • Through media representations and direct experience, both women and girls learn their appearance is social currency and begin to take the male gazer’s perspective Quotes • “The male gaze has long been associated with a neutral perspective because the vast majority of films are produced by men who watch women. It must be said that this gaze has an origin and is linked with male domination.”
  • 11. Product research – The Male Gaze in Fashion ‘State of emergency’ for Vogue Italia by Steve Meisel Meisel has been known for sparking controversy through his artistic depictions of women in fashion and it comes to no surprise. The pose in which the models are placed in for his photoshoots perfectly display how the Male Gaze is very prominent in not only film and advertising but editorials also. The vulnerable and submissive way in which the models are characterised in the first two images lead on the ideology that men overpower women and when challenging a man’s power, the woman is left defenceless and humiliated. The first image shows a woman being arrested and handled inappropriately up her dress by a police officer. She is in a position where she is held down and pushed against the police vehicle with her legs spread in a situation where she cannot escape – completely defenceless and overly sexualised. The second image again shows a woman in a humiliating where she seems to be pressured to strip and her face she is uncomfortable doing so. The third image illustrates a woman playing the role of a what I assume to be a spy/assassin but once again, in comparison to the two male spies laid next to her, she is positioned in a provocative position and not even working like here male peers.
  • 12. TOPIC
  • 13. Topic Research 1 Author Katherine Bell Source TURNING DREAMS TO SHAME: SUSAN BOYLE’S LES MIZ Page Reference(s) https://ethics.journalism.wisc.edu/2009/07/27/turnin g-dreams-to-shame-susan-boyles-les-miz/ Details about topic/Quotes Susan Boyle was treated badly by media outlets during her time on Britain's Got Talent because she did not adhere to the male gaze standards of the 'ideal woman'. "The media have described Susan Boyle as frumpy, dumpy, hirsute, homely, plain, a virgin, a spinster, and a church volunteer who lives alone with her cat and has never been kissed. Her intelligence and her mental health have been the subject of intense speculation" This proves how essentially different 'types' of women are treated different by society as a result of what men perceive as 'beautiful'. The male gaze still infiltrates celebrity culture and mainstream media – even if it is subconscious. "What responsibility do the media have to the audience, to the public sphere generally, and to people like Boyle who enter the spotlight or find themselves caught in its glare? Where do human dignity and personal feelings enter the picture?" - People become careless and use people who are not conventially attractive as laughingstock, leading to self-esteem issues for others who may relate to that person.
  • 14. Topic Research 2 Author Erin Heger Source The sneaky ways social media can sabotage your body image — and 3 easy tips to help you break the cycle Page Reference(s) https://www.insider.com/guides/health/mental- health/how-social-media-affects-body-image Details about topic/Quotes Social media has over 3.6 billion users worldwide. Social media is filled with people presenting themselves in their best light, so therefore it is difficult to avoid images and messages that might make others feel negatively about their body. A negative body image can cause unrealistic expectations of how people’s body should look and could lead to unhealthy behaviours, like disordered eating. A 2018 study found a correlation between time spent on social media, negative body image, and disordered eating. A 2015 study found that female-identifying college students who spent more time on Facebook had poorer body image. The researchers concluded that "young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers).”. "Photoshop and filters present people and things in their best light," Jill M. Emanuele, PHD, says. "It creates a distorted fantasy world and raises the bar on what people perceive is 'the best' way to be." Fitspiration and thinspiration — otherwise known as "fitspo" and "thinspo" — are terms that describe social media accounts and images that encourage users to be fit and thin. This has a further detrimental effect on body image issues.
  • 15. Topic Research 3 Author Iris Goldsztajn Source Kim Kardashian Lost 16 Pounds to Fit Into Marilyn Monroe's Dress, and We Are All Unimpressed Page Reference(s) https://www.marieclaire.com/celebrity/kim- kardashian-crash-diet-marilyn-monroe-dress/ Details about topic/Quotes Kim Kardashian, Marylin Monroe Met Gala diet: "I tried it on, and it didn't fit me, and so I looked at them and I said, 'give me like three weeks,’” Kim said. "And I had to lose 16 pounds down today to be able to fit this, but it was such a challenge, it was like a roll. I was determined. I was determined to fit it.“ With such a high following on all social media platforms, openly admitting to essentially starving herself in order to fit into an image is extremely damaging as she has such an influence on many of her fans. Marylin Monroe was a sex symbol for her time, some may argue that Kim Kardashian has stepped into Marylin’s shoes and is the sex symbol of modern day. She is the standard of beauty as she had the ideal ‘hourglass’ body shape according to males. Since Kim Kardashian’s rise to fame, many influential women have undergone surgeries such as liposuction and a Brazilian butt lift in order to have a similar body type to Kim Kardashian – another way in which women may feel influence to fit into the Male Gaze image.
  • 16. How the Male Gaze Infiltrates Society and Alters the Way We View Ourselves • Person or Studio Focus – Kim Kardashian Kim Kardashian has built a career on presenting herself as a certain image. Since her rise to fame she has ultimately convert the Male Gaze standards from “extra slim American blondie” to more bottom-heavy women with an “hourglass” figure. I am going to explore how Kim Kardashian advocates the ‘fitness culture’ which is very prominent online and shapeware and the effects it had on her fanbase. - • Specific Product Focus – Social Media Social media can be harsh as it gives users the freedom to leave anonymous hate comments on posts, more often than not, these internet ‘trolls’ can recognise insecurities and comment on physical features. People often put on a ‘front’ on their social media profiles, presenting themselves in the best light in order to receive praise and acclaim so that they feel validated. This can cause even further problems since it causes unrealistic standards of ourselves.
  • 17. Essay Plan 1. Introduction to your topic (~100 words) – I have researched Susan Boyle for my introduction as her story represents the way in which the media holds unrealistic standards for women in terms of appearance. This links to the main topic of my essay, the Male Gaze, as it states how the press media and social media are still hold their morals on account on what men perceive as ‘beauty’ and how feelings are completely disregarded when criticising appearance. – Introduction to your theory (~100 words) – The male gaze was originated by feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey in her essay ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’. The male gaze essentially hypersexualises women by reducing them to objects of aesthetic value only – for the benefit of the heterosexual male. – Macro analysis (400+ words) – Kim Kardashian - Known her using her hyper-sexuality to climb her career ladder and ultimately live a successful lavish life. She can be recognised as the epitome of modern beauty – full breasts, large bum, small waist. She endorses the idea that we should essentially look like her as she advertises waist trainers and shapewear on her social media accounts. This can have a negative effect on body image to her fan base as they are sold the idea that in order to appear beautiful like her, we should have the same body shape as her, which can be very difficult to achieve – Micro analysis (400+ words) – Kim Kardashian attending the met gala in 2022 in Marylin Monroe’s JFK Birthday dress. She underwent three weeks of ‘crash-dieting’ meaning she cut out all carbs and ‘junk food’ and did intense workout every day. She spoke openly about it on her show ‘The Kardashians’ and received a lot of backlash as it has led people to worry that the Y2K super-skinny, ‘heroin chic’ body type is trending again. In the early 2000s eating disorders were glamourised and praised despite the terrible health side effects. 2. Application of Theory (400+ words) – Survey on men’s preferred body type analysis and how that has changed the mindset of women today and the financial and physical costs. 3. Your own work [~200 words] – I will talk about the many businesses in which the Kardashians have succeeded in creating and how I will create a brand of my own which will be similar in the sense that my brand will be a cosmetics brand which the Kardashians are notoriously known for. My makeup brand will embrace the natural features we are born with as we should learn to ‘ditch the face filters’ to try and subvert the ideology that women should look plastic and have porcelain smooth kin in order to be deemed as beautiful. 4. Conclusion (100 words) – Tie back to the theory which I have been questioning throughout the essay. – Final line: Women ask themselves in the mirror, “how can I please society today?”
  • 18. Bibliography Reference list • Bell, K. (2009). Turning Dreams to Shame: Susan Boyle’s Les Miz. Thesis. • Communication Theory (2019). Reception Theory. [online] Communication Theory. Available at: https://www.communicationtheory.org/reception-theory/. • Gordon, J. (2022). Hypodermic Needle Theory - Explained. [online] The Business Professor, LLC. Available at: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/en_US/communications-negotiations/hypodermic-needle-theory-explained. • Heger, E. (2022). The sneaky ways social media can sabotage your body image — and 3 easy tips to help you break the cycle. [online] Insider. Available at: https://www.insider.com/guides/health/mental-health/how-social-media- affects-body-image. • Matt (2021). Auteur Theory: The Definitive Guide • Filmmaking Lifestyle. [online] Filmmaking Lifestyle. Available at: https://filmlifestyle.com/auteur-theory/. • Meisel, S. (2006). Art + Commerce - Artists - Photographers - Steven Meisel - State of Emergency. [online] www.artandcommerce.com. Available at: https://www.artandcommerce.com/artists/photographers/steven- meisel/State-of-Emergency [Accessed 2 Feb. 2023]. • published, I.G. (2022). Kim Kardashian Lost 16 Pounds to Fit Into Marilyn Monroe’s Dress, and We Are All Unimpressed. [online] Marie Claire Magazine. Available at: https://www.marieclaire.com/celebrity/kim- kardashian-crash-diet-marilyn-monroe-dress/. • Rachael Sampson (2015). Film Theory 101 - Laura Mulvey: The Male Gaze Theory | Film Inquiry. [online] Film Inquiry. Available at: https://www.filminquiry.com/film-theory-basics-laura-mulvey-male-gaze-theory/.
  • 19. Academic Media Theories • You should make specific reference to at least one of the following media theories: 1. Auteur Theory 2. Reception Theory 3. The Hypodermic Needle Model 4. The Male Gaze