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OPERATING SYSTEM
CONCEPTS
BCA V SEMESTER
UNIT 01
OPERATING SYSTEM INTRODUCTION
• An operating system acts as an intermediary between the user of a
computer and computer hardware.
• An operating system is a program that controls the execution of
application programs and acts as an interface between the user of a
computer and the computer hardware.
• An operating system is concerned with the allocation of resources and
services, such as memory, processors, devices, and information.
• Some popular Operating Systems include Linux Operating System,
Windows Operating System, VMS, OS/400, AIX, z/OS, etc.
OPERATING SYSTEM INTRODUCTION
IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF AN OPERATING
SYSTEM.
• Memory Management
• Processor Management
• Device Management
• File Management
• Security
• Control over system performance
• Job accounting
• Error detecting aids
• Coordination between other software and users
APPLICATIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM
• Security − By means of password and similar other techniques, it
prevents unauthorized access to programs and data.
• Control over system performance − Recording delays between
request for a service and response from the system.
• Job accounting − Keeping track of time and resources used by
various jobs and users.
• Error detecting aids − Production of dumps, traces, error
messages, and other debugging and error detecting aids.
• Coordination between other software and users − Coordination
and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other
software to the various users of the computer systems.
MEMORY MANAGEMENT
Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main
Memory. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or
byte has its own address.
• Main memory provides a fast storage that can be accessed directly by the
CPU. For a program to be executed, it must in the main memory. An
Operating System does the following activities for memory management −
• Keeps tracks of primary memory, i.e., what part of it are in use by whom,
what part are not in use.
• In multiprogramming, the OS decides which process will get memory when
and how much.
• Allocates the memory when a process requests it to do so.
• De-allocates the memory when a process no longer needs it or has been
PROCESS MANAGEMENT
In multiprogramming environment, the OS decides which process
gets the processor when and for how much time. This function is
called process scheduling. An Operating System does the
following activities for processor management −
• Keeps tracks of processor and status of process. The program
responsible for this task is known as traffic controller.
• Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process.
• De-allocates processor when a process is no longer required.
DEVICE MANAGEMENT
An Operating System manages device communication via their
respective drivers. It does the following activities for device
management −
• Keeps tracks of all devices. Program responsible for this task is
known as the I/O controller.
• Decides which process gets the device when and for how much
time.
• Allocates the device in the efficient way.
• De-allocates devices.
FILE MANAGEMENT
A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation
and usage. These directories may contain files and other directions.
• An Operating System does the following activities for file management
−
• Keeps track of information, location, uses, status etc. The collective
facilities are often known as file system.
• Decides who gets the resources.
• Allocates the resources.
• De-allocates the resources.
OTHER IMPORTANT ACTIVITIES
Following are some of the important activities that an Operating System
performs −
• Security − By means of password and similar other techniques, it prevents
unauthorized access to programs and data.
• Control over system performance − Recording delays between request for a
service and response from the system.
• Job accounting − Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs
and users.
• Error detecting aids − Production of dumps, traces, error messages, and
other debugging and error detecting aids.
• Coordination between other software and users − Coordination and
MULTITASKING
Multitasking is when multiple jobs are executed by the CPU simultaneously
by switching between them. Switches occur so frequently that the users may
interact with each program while it is running. An OS does the following
activities related to multitasking −
• The user gives instructions to the operating system or to a program
directly, and receives an immediate response.
• The OS handles multitasking in the way that it can handle multiple
operations/executes multiple programs at a time.
• Multitasking Operating Systems are also known as Time-sharing systems.
• These Operating Systems were developed to provide interactive use of a
computer system at a reasonable cost.
• A time-shared operating system uses the concept of CPU scheduling and
multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of a time-
shared CPU.
MULTITASKING
MULTITASKING
• A program that is loaded into memory and is executing is commonly
referred to as a process.
• When a process executes, it typically executes for only a very short
time before it either finishes or needs to perform I/O.
• Since interactive I/O typically runs at slower speeds, it may take a
long time to complete. During this time, a CPU can be utilized by
another process.
• The operating system allows the users to share the computer
simultaneously. Since each action or command in a time-shared
system tends to be short, only a little CPU time is needed for each
user.
• As the system switches CPU rapidly from one user/program to the
next, each user is given the impression that he/she has his/her own
CPU, whereas actually one CPU is being shared among many users.
MULTIPROGRAMMING
Sharing the processor, when two or more programs reside in memory
at the same time, is referred as multiprogramming. Multiprogramming
assumes a single shared processor. Multiprogramming increases CPU
utilization by organizing jobs so that the CPU always has one to
execute.
An OS does the following activities related to multiprogramming.
• The operating system keeps several jobs in memory at a time.
• This set of jobs is a subset of the jobs kept in the job pool.
• The operating system picks and begins to execute one of the jobs in
the memory.
• Multiprogramming operating systems monitor the state of all active
programs and system resources using memory management
MULTIPROGRAMMING
Advantages
• High and efficient CPU utilization.
• User feels that many programs are allotted CPU almost
simultaneously.
Disadvantages
• CPU scheduling is required.
• To accommodate many jobs in memory, memory management
is required.
TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
• Batch operating system
• Time-sharing operating systems
• Distributed operating System
• Network operating System
• Real Time operating System
BATCH OPERATING SYSTEM
The users of a batch operating system do not interact with the computer
directly. Each user prepares his job on an off-line device like punch cards and
submits it to the computer operator. To speed up processing, jobs with
similar needs are batched together and run as a group. The programmers
leave their programs with the operator and the operator then sorts the
programs with similar requirements into batches.
• The problems with Batch Systems are as follows −
• Lack of interaction between the user and the job.
• CPU is often idle, because the speed of the mechanical I/O devices is slower
than the CPU.
• Difficult to provide the desired priority.
BATCH OPERATING SYSTEM
TIME-SHARING OPERATING SYSTEMS
Time-sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at
various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time.
Time-sharing or multitasking is a logical extension of multiprogramming.
Processor's time which is shared among multiple users simultaneously is
termed as time-sharing.
• Advantages of Timesharing operating systems are as follows −
• Provides the advantage of quick response.
• Avoids duplication of software.
• Reduces CPU idle time.
• Disadvantages of Time-sharing operating systems are as follows −
• Problem of reliability.
• Question of security and integrity of user programs and data.
• Problem of data communication.
DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM
• Distributed systems use multiple central processors to serve
multiple real-time applications and multiple users. Data
processing jobs are distributed among the processors
accordingly.
• The processors communicate with one another through various
communication lines (such as high-speed buses or telephone
lines). These are referred as loosely coupled systems or
distributed systems. Processors in a distributed system may
vary in size and function. These processors are referred as
sites, nodes, computers, and so on.
THE ADVANTAGES OF DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
ARE AS FOLLOWS −
• With resource sharing facility, a user at one site may be able to use
the resources available at another.
• Speedup the exchange of data with one another via electronic mail.
• If one site fails in a distributed system, the remaining sites can
potentially continue operating.
• Better service to the customers.
• Reduction of the load on the host computer.
• Reduction of delays in data processing.
NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM
• A Network Operating System runs on a server and provides the server
the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications,
and other networking functions. The primary purpose of the network
operating system is to allow shared file and printer access among
multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN),
a private network or to other networks.
• Examples of network operating systems include Microsoft Windows
Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X,
Novell NetWare, and BSD.
The advantages of network operating systems are as follows −
• Centralized servers are highly stable.
• Security is server managed.
• Upgrades to new technologies and hardware can be easily
integrated into the system.
• Remote access to servers is possible from different locations and
types of systems.
The disadvantages of network operating systems are as follows −
• High cost of buying and running a server.
• Dependency on a central location for most operations.
REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM
• A real-time system is defined as a data processing system in
which the time interval required to process and respond to
inputs is so small that it controls the environment. The time
taken by the system to respond to an input and display of
required updated information is termed as the response time.
So in this method, the response time is very less as compared
to online processing.
• Hard real-time systems
• Hard real-time systems guarantee that critical tasks complete on time. In
hard real-time systems, secondary storage is limited or missing and the
data is stored in ROM. In these systems, virtual memory is almost never
found.
• Soft real-time systems
• Soft real-time systems are less restrictive. A critical real-time task gets
priority over other tasks and retains the priority until it completes. Soft
real-time systems have limited utility than hard real-time systems. For
example, multimedia, virtual reality, Advanced Scientific Projects like
undersea exploration and planetary rovers, etc.

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Operating system concepts

  • 2. OPERATING SYSTEM INTRODUCTION • An operating system acts as an intermediary between the user of a computer and computer hardware. • An operating system is a program that controls the execution of application programs and acts as an interface between the user of a computer and the computer hardware. • An operating system is concerned with the allocation of resources and services, such as memory, processors, devices, and information. • Some popular Operating Systems include Linux Operating System, Windows Operating System, VMS, OS/400, AIX, z/OS, etc.
  • 4. IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM. • Memory Management • Processor Management • Device Management • File Management • Security • Control over system performance • Job accounting • Error detecting aids • Coordination between other software and users
  • 5. APPLICATIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM • Security − By means of password and similar other techniques, it prevents unauthorized access to programs and data. • Control over system performance − Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system. • Job accounting − Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users. • Error detecting aids − Production of dumps, traces, error messages, and other debugging and error detecting aids. • Coordination between other software and users − Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.
  • 6. MEMORY MANAGEMENT Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main Memory. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its own address. • Main memory provides a fast storage that can be accessed directly by the CPU. For a program to be executed, it must in the main memory. An Operating System does the following activities for memory management − • Keeps tracks of primary memory, i.e., what part of it are in use by whom, what part are not in use. • In multiprogramming, the OS decides which process will get memory when and how much. • Allocates the memory when a process requests it to do so. • De-allocates the memory when a process no longer needs it or has been
  • 7. PROCESS MANAGEMENT In multiprogramming environment, the OS decides which process gets the processor when and for how much time. This function is called process scheduling. An Operating System does the following activities for processor management − • Keeps tracks of processor and status of process. The program responsible for this task is known as traffic controller. • Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process. • De-allocates processor when a process is no longer required.
  • 8. DEVICE MANAGEMENT An Operating System manages device communication via their respective drivers. It does the following activities for device management − • Keeps tracks of all devices. Program responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller. • Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time. • Allocates the device in the efficient way. • De-allocates devices.
  • 9. FILE MANAGEMENT A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain files and other directions. • An Operating System does the following activities for file management − • Keeps track of information, location, uses, status etc. The collective facilities are often known as file system. • Decides who gets the resources. • Allocates the resources. • De-allocates the resources.
  • 10. OTHER IMPORTANT ACTIVITIES Following are some of the important activities that an Operating System performs − • Security − By means of password and similar other techniques, it prevents unauthorized access to programs and data. • Control over system performance − Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system. • Job accounting − Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users. • Error detecting aids − Production of dumps, traces, error messages, and other debugging and error detecting aids. • Coordination between other software and users − Coordination and
  • 11. MULTITASKING Multitasking is when multiple jobs are executed by the CPU simultaneously by switching between them. Switches occur so frequently that the users may interact with each program while it is running. An OS does the following activities related to multitasking − • The user gives instructions to the operating system or to a program directly, and receives an immediate response. • The OS handles multitasking in the way that it can handle multiple operations/executes multiple programs at a time. • Multitasking Operating Systems are also known as Time-sharing systems. • These Operating Systems were developed to provide interactive use of a computer system at a reasonable cost. • A time-shared operating system uses the concept of CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of a time- shared CPU.
  • 13. MULTITASKING • A program that is loaded into memory and is executing is commonly referred to as a process. • When a process executes, it typically executes for only a very short time before it either finishes or needs to perform I/O. • Since interactive I/O typically runs at slower speeds, it may take a long time to complete. During this time, a CPU can be utilized by another process. • The operating system allows the users to share the computer simultaneously. Since each action or command in a time-shared system tends to be short, only a little CPU time is needed for each user. • As the system switches CPU rapidly from one user/program to the next, each user is given the impression that he/she has his/her own CPU, whereas actually one CPU is being shared among many users.
  • 14. MULTIPROGRAMMING Sharing the processor, when two or more programs reside in memory at the same time, is referred as multiprogramming. Multiprogramming assumes a single shared processor. Multiprogramming increases CPU utilization by organizing jobs so that the CPU always has one to execute. An OS does the following activities related to multiprogramming. • The operating system keeps several jobs in memory at a time. • This set of jobs is a subset of the jobs kept in the job pool. • The operating system picks and begins to execute one of the jobs in the memory. • Multiprogramming operating systems monitor the state of all active programs and system resources using memory management
  • 15. MULTIPROGRAMMING Advantages • High and efficient CPU utilization. • User feels that many programs are allotted CPU almost simultaneously. Disadvantages • CPU scheduling is required. • To accommodate many jobs in memory, memory management is required.
  • 16. TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS • Batch operating system • Time-sharing operating systems • Distributed operating System • Network operating System • Real Time operating System
  • 17. BATCH OPERATING SYSTEM The users of a batch operating system do not interact with the computer directly. Each user prepares his job on an off-line device like punch cards and submits it to the computer operator. To speed up processing, jobs with similar needs are batched together and run as a group. The programmers leave their programs with the operator and the operator then sorts the programs with similar requirements into batches. • The problems with Batch Systems are as follows − • Lack of interaction between the user and the job. • CPU is often idle, because the speed of the mechanical I/O devices is slower than the CPU. • Difficult to provide the desired priority.
  • 19. TIME-SHARING OPERATING SYSTEMS Time-sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time. Time-sharing or multitasking is a logical extension of multiprogramming. Processor's time which is shared among multiple users simultaneously is termed as time-sharing. • Advantages of Timesharing operating systems are as follows − • Provides the advantage of quick response. • Avoids duplication of software. • Reduces CPU idle time. • Disadvantages of Time-sharing operating systems are as follows − • Problem of reliability. • Question of security and integrity of user programs and data. • Problem of data communication.
  • 20. DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM • Distributed systems use multiple central processors to serve multiple real-time applications and multiple users. Data processing jobs are distributed among the processors accordingly. • The processors communicate with one another through various communication lines (such as high-speed buses or telephone lines). These are referred as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. Processors in a distributed system may vary in size and function. These processors are referred as sites, nodes, computers, and so on.
  • 21. THE ADVANTAGES OF DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS ARE AS FOLLOWS − • With resource sharing facility, a user at one site may be able to use the resources available at another. • Speedup the exchange of data with one another via electronic mail. • If one site fails in a distributed system, the remaining sites can potentially continue operating. • Better service to the customers. • Reduction of the load on the host computer. • Reduction of delays in data processing.
  • 22. NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM • A Network Operating System runs on a server and provides the server the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The primary purpose of the network operating system is to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), a private network or to other networks. • Examples of network operating systems include Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, and BSD.
  • 23. The advantages of network operating systems are as follows − • Centralized servers are highly stable. • Security is server managed. • Upgrades to new technologies and hardware can be easily integrated into the system. • Remote access to servers is possible from different locations and types of systems. The disadvantages of network operating systems are as follows − • High cost of buying and running a server. • Dependency on a central location for most operations.
  • 24. REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM • A real-time system is defined as a data processing system in which the time interval required to process and respond to inputs is so small that it controls the environment. The time taken by the system to respond to an input and display of required updated information is termed as the response time. So in this method, the response time is very less as compared to online processing.
  • 25. • Hard real-time systems • Hard real-time systems guarantee that critical tasks complete on time. In hard real-time systems, secondary storage is limited or missing and the data is stored in ROM. In these systems, virtual memory is almost never found. • Soft real-time systems • Soft real-time systems are less restrictive. A critical real-time task gets priority over other tasks and retains the priority until it completes. Soft real-time systems have limited utility than hard real-time systems. For example, multimedia, virtual reality, Advanced Scientific Projects like undersea exploration and planetary rovers, etc.