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Jim Jagielski
@jimjag
Apache httpd v2.4:
It’s Not Your Daddy’s
Web Server!
About Me
➡ Apache Software Foundation
➡ Co-founder, Director Emeritus, Member and Developer
➡ Director Emeritus
➡ Outercurve, MARSEC-XL, OSSI, OSI (ex)…
➡ Developer
➡ Mega FOSS projects
➡ O’Reilly Open Source Award: 2013
➡ European Commission: Luminary Award
➡ Open Source Chef: ConsenSys
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Hold on a tic
➡ How do you define “new”??
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
httpd is sooo old school (aka
fud)
➡ Apache doesn’t scale (its SLOW)
➡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bzkRVzciAZg



➡ Apache is too generalized





➡ Apache is too complex (config file)
➡ really?
➡ Apache is too old

(yeah, just like Linux)
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
vs
It’s Squagels!
Apache httpd 2.4 - design drivers
➡ New features and improve old ones
➡ Support for async I/O w/o dropping support for older
systems
➡ Larger selection of usable MPMs: added Event, Motorz,
etc...
➡ Leverage higher-performant versions of APR
➡ Increase performance
➡ Reduce memory utilization
➡ The Cloud
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Currently at version 2.4.33 (2.4.1 went GA Feb 21, 2012)
What’s New: Apache httpd 2.4
➡ Configuration / Runtime Improvements
➡ New Modules / Capabilities
➡ Cloud / Proxy Enhancements
➡ Performance Increases
➡ HTTP/2
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Configuration - Runtime
➡ mod_macro
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
<Macro VHost $name $domain>
<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerName $domain
ServerAlias www.$domain
DocumentRoot /var/www/vhosts/$name
ErrorLog /var/log/httpd/$name.error_log
CustomLog /var/log/httpd/$name.access_log combined
</VirtualHost>
</Macro>
Use VHost example example.com
Use VHost myhost hostname.org
Use VHost apache apache.org
UndefMacro VHost
From my
ApacheCon 2000
Preso
Configuration - Runtime
➡ <If> supports per-request conditions
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
# Compare the host name to example.com and
# redirect to www.example.com if it matches
<If "%{HTTP_HOST} == 'example.com'">
Redirect permanent / http://www.example.com/
<ElseIf "%{HTTP_HOST} == ‘foobarfoo.com'">
Redirect permanent / http://www2.example.com/
</If>
Configuration - Runtime
➡ Simple config-file variables: <Define>
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
<IfDefine TEST>
Define servername test.example.com
</IfDefine>
<IfDefine !TEST>
Define servername www.example.com
Define SSL
</IfDefine>
DocumentRoot /var/www/${servername}/htdocs
Configuration - Runtime
➡ Finer control of timeouts, esp. during requests
➡ mod_reqtimeout
➡ KeepAliveTimout down to the millisecond
➡ Finer control over logging
➡ per module/per directory
➡ new logging levels (TRACE[1-8])
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
LogLevel info ssl:warn
<Directory "/usr/local/apache/htdocs/foo">
LogLevel debug
</Directory>
Configuration - Runtime
➡ Other stuff:
➡ No more NameVirtualHost
➡ General purpose expression parser (BNF compatible)
➡ AllowOverrideList





➡ Loadable MPM modules
➡ Recall that different MPMs have different config directives!
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
AllowOverride None
AllowOverrideList Redirect RedirectMatch Header
./configure —enable-mpms-shared=all
LoadModule mpm_event_module modules/mod_mpm_event.so
Configuration - Runtime
➡ Require
➡ Removes order deny/allow insanity!
➡ mod_access_compat for backwards combat
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
AuthType Basic
AuthName "Restricted Resource"
AuthBasicProvider file
AuthUserFile /web/users
AuthGroupFile /web/groups
Require group admin
<Directory /www/docs>
<RequireAll>
Require group alpha beta
Require not group reject
</RequireAll>
</Directory>
<Directory /www/docs2>
Require all granted
</Directory>
New Modules
➡ mod_lua
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
<Files *.lua>
SetHandler lua-script
</Files>
…
example.lua
require "string"
function handle(r)
r.content_type = "text/plain"
if r.method == 'GET' then
r:puts("Hello Lua World!n")
for k, v in pairs( r:parseargs() ) do
r:puts( string.format("%s: %sn", k, v) )
end
elseif r.method == 'POST' then
r:puts("Hello Lua World!n")
for k, v in pairs( r:parsebody() ) do
r:puts( string.format("%s: %sn", k, v) )
end
elseif r.method == 'PUT' then
r:puts("Unsupported HTTP method " .. r.method)
r.status = 405
return apache2.ok
else
return 501
end
return apache2.OK
end
New Modules
➡ mod_buffer
➡ buffer the i/o stacks w/i httpd
➡ mod_sed
➡ True sed functionality, alternate to mod_substitute









➡ mod_remoteip
➡ allow access to the real client IP address

➡ Also provides HA PROXY support
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
<Directory "/var/www/docs/status">
AddOutputFilter Sed html
OutputSed "s/complete/DONE/g"
OutputSed “s/in-progress/TODO/g"
</Directory>
RemoteIPHeader X-Client-IP
New Modules
➡ mod_session
➡ easily maintain application server state
➡ mod_auth_form
➡ Form-based auth can now be handled internally
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
<Location /dologin.html>
SetHandler form-login-handler
AuthFormLoginRequiredLocation http://example.com/login.html
AuthFormLoginSuccessLocation http://example.com/success.html
AuthFormProvider file
AuthUserFile conf/passwd
AuthType form
AuthName realm
Session On
SessionCookieName session path=/
SessionCryptoPassphrase secret
</Location>
New Modules
➡ mod_log_debug
➡ Add debug logging at any hook







➡ mod_ratelimit
➡ (basic) bandwidth limiting for clients
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
<Location /foo>
LogMessage “subreq to foo” hook=type_checker expr=%{IS_SUBREQ}
</Location>
<Location /downloads>
SetOutputFilter RATE_LIMIT
SetEnv rate-limit 400
</Location>
Even more!
➡ mod_cache
➡ Can serve stale data if required
➡ X-Cache-Header now supports HIT/MISS/
REVALIDATE
➡ Can cache HEAD
➡ htcacheclean improvements
➡ Redis and memcached (And Apache Geode)
➡ mod_socache / mod_slotmem
➡ Data object/blog storage mechanisms
➡ mod_brotli
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
New Modules
➡ mod_proxy submodules:
➡ mod_proxy_fcgi
➡ mod_proxy_scgi
➡ mod_proxy_uwsgi
➡ mod_proxy_wstunnel
➡ mod_proxy_html
➡ mod_proxy_express
➡ mod_proxy_hcheck
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Cloud and Performance
➡ The Cloud is a game changer for web servers
➡ Horizontal scalability is no longer as painful
➡ Concurrency is no longer the sole consideration
➡ ... or maybe even the primary one
➡ What’s important now? Transaction Time! (because it CAN be)
➡ Low latency
➡ Fast req/resp turnover
➡ Does density still matter? Of course!
➡ micro-services
➡ Are there environs where super-mega concurrency is the
bugaboo? You betcha! (but the cloud makes these more and more rare,
and you’re likely using a bad architecture anyway)
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Cloud and Dynamics
➡ The Cloud is a game changer for web servers
➡ The cloud is a dynamic place
➡ automated reconfiguration
➡ horizontal, not vertical scaling
➡ self-aware environments
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
OK, maybe not THAT self-aware
Why Dynamic Proxy Matters
➡ Apache httpd still the most frequently used front-end
➡ Proxy capabilities must be cloud friendly
➡ Front-end must be dynamic friendly
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Apache httpd 2.4 proxy
➡ Reverse Proxy Improvements
➡ Supports FastCGI, SCGI, Websockets in balancer
➡ Additional load balancing mechanisms
➡ Runtime changing of clusters w/o restarts
➡ Support for dynamic configuration
➡ mod_proxy_express
➡ mod_fcgid and fcgistarter
➡ Support for Unix Domain Sockets
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Backend Status
➡ Dynamic Health Checks !
➡ TCP/IP Ping
➡ OPTIONS
➡ HEAD
➡ GET
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
ProxyHCExpr ok234 {%{REQUEST_STATUS} =~ /^[234]/}
ProxyHCExpr gdown {%{REQUEST_STATUS} =~ /^[5]/}
ProxyHCExpr in_maint {hc('body') !~ /Under maintenance/}
<Proxy balancer://foo/>
BalancerMember http://www.example.com/ hcmethod=GET hcexpr=in_maint hcuri=/status.php
BalancerMember http://www2.example.com/ hcmethod=HEAD hcexpr=ok234 hcinterval=10
BalancerMember http://www3.example.com/ hcmethod=TCP hcinterval=5 hcpasses=2 hcfails=3
BalancerMember http://www4.example.com/
</Proxy>
ProxyPass "/" “balancer://foo/"
ProxyPassReverse "/" “balancer://foo/"
Mass Reverse Proxy
➡ Use the new mod_proxy_express module
➡ ProxyPass mapping obtained via db file
➡ Fast and efficient
➡ Still dynamic, with no config changes required
➡ micro-services? You betcha!
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
ProxyExpress map file
##

##express-map.db:

##



www1.example.com http://192.168.002.2:8080

www2.example.com http://192.168.002.12:8088

www3.example.com http://192.168.002.10
...
www6341.example.com http://192.168.211.26
httpd.conf file
ProxyExpressEnable On
ProxyExpressDBMFile express-map.db
Embedded Admin
➡ Allows for real-time
➡ Addition of new workers/nodes
➡ Change of LB methods
➡ Can be persistent!
➡ More RESTful
➡ Can be CLI-driven
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Easy setup
<Location /balancer-manager>
SetHandler balancer-manager
Require 192.168.2.22
</Location>
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
@jimjag
server-status aware
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
@jimjag
Performance
➡ From Nic Rosenthal Battle of the stacks

(http://www.slideshare.net/AllThingsOpen/battle-of-the-stacks)
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
HHVM + NGINX!
!
vs!
!
HHVM + Apache 2.4!
!
http://ldr.io/1ogvD7X
http://ldr.io/1ogD7b3
Response time: 76ms
Response time: 60ms
HHVM + NGINX
HHVM + Apache 2.4
Image by Articularnos.com https://www.flickr.com/photos/articularnos/
Champion of the !
Battle Of The Stacks
ATO Edition
HHVM + Apache 2.4
Performance
➡ From Bryan Call’s 2014 ApacheCon preso

(http://www.slideshare.net/bryan_call/choosing-a-proxy-server-apachecon-2014)
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
•  Squid&used&the&most&
CPU&again&
•  NGiNX&had&latency&
issues&
•  ATS&most&throughput& 0&
500&
1000&
1500&
2000&
2500&
ATS& NGiNX& Squid& Varnish& hBpd&
RPS$/$CPU$Usage$
0&
5000&
10000&
15000&
20000&
25000&
30000&
ATS& NGiNX& Squid& Varnish& hBpd&
Requests$Per$Second$
0&
5&
10&
15&
20&
25&
30&
35&
40&
ATS& NGiNX& Squid& Varnish& hBpd&
Latency$
Median&
95th&
Raw Performance
➡ Event MPM : no longer experimental
➡ non-blocking
➡ async
➡ Faster, more efficient APR
➡ Smaller memory footprint
➡ More efficient data structures (worker and event)
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Apache httpd vs nginx
➡ Why nginx? Everyone asks about it...
➡ Benchmark: local and reverse proxy transaction times
➡ Apache httpd 2.4.22-dev, nginx 1.8.1
➡ CentOS6, Dual Xeon 3.33GHz
➡ 4GB memory
➡ localhost loopback and external (no firewall)
➡ Double checked results: OSX 10.11.2 (8-core), Fedora 23 (4-
core)
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Setup
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
@jimjag
loopbackSetup 1:
Setup 2:
Setup 3:
Setup 3:
Considerations
➡ Multiple benchmarking systems:
➡ flood (50/250/5/2, 50/100/5/2, 50/5/5/2)
➡ httperf (num-conns=100->20000, numcalls=3,10,100)
➡ weighttp
➡ Full URL requests (www.example.com/index.html)
➡ Static local requests
➡ Static reverse proxy requests
➡ All Apache httpd MPMs
➡ No significant “tuning” efforts (mostly out of the box
configs)
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
nginx vs Event (typical)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
@jimjag
Apache - Event MPM
0
500
1000
1500
2000
nginx
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
Open Write Read Close
Increasing concurrency Increasing concurrency
Apache - Prefork MPM
0
500
1000
1500
2000
nginx vs Prefork (typical)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
@jimjag
nginx
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
Open Write Read Close
Increasing concurrency Increasing concurrency
Total req/resp time
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
@jimjag
Comparison - total transaction (close)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
Prefork Worker Event nginx
Increasing concurrency
Resp to Req. Bursts - httperf
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
@jimjag
100 ---> 20000
0.00
1.75
3.50
5.25
7.00
min avg max dev min avg max dev min avg max dev min avg max dev min avg max dev min avg max dev
prefork worker event nginx
Increasing concurrency
Independent benchmarks
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
@jimjag
Source: Ryosuke Matsumoto : http://blog.matsumoto-r.jp/?p=1812
#!/bin/sh
RESULT='./result.txt'
 
for port in 80 8080 8888
do
#for count in 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
9000 10000
#for count in 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000
18000 19000 20000
for count in 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000
28000 29000 30000
do
echo -n "$port $count " >> $RESULT
httperf --rate $count --num-conns 25000 --server
ipaddr --port $port 
--uri=/test.html | grep "Request rate:" >>
$RESULT.$port
sleep 60
done
done
Take-away
➡ Today, the web-server isn’t the slow link in the chain.
➡ Benchmarks get stale… fast!
➡ Real world trumps test environs
➡ Choose the right tool for the right job
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
HTTP/2
➡ Implements RFC 7540
➡ Supports both h2 (HTTP/2 over TLS) and h2c (HTTP/2 over TCP[cleartext])
➡ Enterprise-ready regarding stability, performance, etc.
➡ Also supported in mod_proxy
➡ Perfect compliance
@jimjag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
Thanks
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
@jimjag
Twitter: @jimjag
Emails:

jim@jaguNET.com

jim@apache.org

jimjag@gmail.com
http://www.slideshare.net/jimjag/

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Not your daddy's web server

  • 1. Jim Jagielski @jimjag Apache httpd v2.4: It’s Not Your Daddy’s Web Server!
  • 2. About Me ➡ Apache Software Foundation ➡ Co-founder, Director Emeritus, Member and Developer ➡ Director Emeritus ➡ Outercurve, MARSEC-XL, OSSI, OSI (ex)… ➡ Developer ➡ Mega FOSS projects ➡ O’Reilly Open Source Award: 2013 ➡ European Commission: Luminary Award ➡ Open Source Chef: ConsenSys @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 3. Hold on a tic ➡ How do you define “new”?? @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 4. httpd is sooo old school (aka fud) ➡ Apache doesn’t scale (its SLOW) ➡ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bzkRVzciAZg
 
 ➡ Apache is too generalized
 
 
 ➡ Apache is too complex (config file) ➡ really? ➡ Apache is too old
 (yeah, just like Linux) @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag vs It’s Squagels!
  • 5. Apache httpd 2.4 - design drivers ➡ New features and improve old ones ➡ Support for async I/O w/o dropping support for older systems ➡ Larger selection of usable MPMs: added Event, Motorz, etc... ➡ Leverage higher-performant versions of APR ➡ Increase performance ➡ Reduce memory utilization ➡ The Cloud @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag Currently at version 2.4.33 (2.4.1 went GA Feb 21, 2012)
  • 6. What’s New: Apache httpd 2.4 ➡ Configuration / Runtime Improvements ➡ New Modules / Capabilities ➡ Cloud / Proxy Enhancements ➡ Performance Increases ➡ HTTP/2 @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 7. Configuration - Runtime ➡ mod_macro @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag <Macro VHost $name $domain> <VirtualHost *:80> ServerName $domain ServerAlias www.$domain DocumentRoot /var/www/vhosts/$name ErrorLog /var/log/httpd/$name.error_log CustomLog /var/log/httpd/$name.access_log combined </VirtualHost> </Macro> Use VHost example example.com Use VHost myhost hostname.org Use VHost apache apache.org UndefMacro VHost From my ApacheCon 2000 Preso
  • 8. Configuration - Runtime ➡ <If> supports per-request conditions @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag # Compare the host name to example.com and # redirect to www.example.com if it matches <If "%{HTTP_HOST} == 'example.com'"> Redirect permanent / http://www.example.com/ <ElseIf "%{HTTP_HOST} == ‘foobarfoo.com'"> Redirect permanent / http://www2.example.com/ </If>
  • 9. Configuration - Runtime ➡ Simple config-file variables: <Define> @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag <IfDefine TEST> Define servername test.example.com </IfDefine> <IfDefine !TEST> Define servername www.example.com Define SSL </IfDefine> DocumentRoot /var/www/${servername}/htdocs
  • 10. Configuration - Runtime ➡ Finer control of timeouts, esp. during requests ➡ mod_reqtimeout ➡ KeepAliveTimout down to the millisecond ➡ Finer control over logging ➡ per module/per directory ➡ new logging levels (TRACE[1-8]) @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag LogLevel info ssl:warn <Directory "/usr/local/apache/htdocs/foo"> LogLevel debug </Directory>
  • 11. Configuration - Runtime ➡ Other stuff: ➡ No more NameVirtualHost ➡ General purpose expression parser (BNF compatible) ➡ AllowOverrideList
 
 
 ➡ Loadable MPM modules ➡ Recall that different MPMs have different config directives! @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag AllowOverride None AllowOverrideList Redirect RedirectMatch Header ./configure —enable-mpms-shared=all LoadModule mpm_event_module modules/mod_mpm_event.so
  • 12. Configuration - Runtime ➡ Require ➡ Removes order deny/allow insanity! ➡ mod_access_compat for backwards combat @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag AuthType Basic AuthName "Restricted Resource" AuthBasicProvider file AuthUserFile /web/users AuthGroupFile /web/groups Require group admin <Directory /www/docs> <RequireAll> Require group alpha beta Require not group reject </RequireAll> </Directory> <Directory /www/docs2> Require all granted </Directory>
  • 13. New Modules ➡ mod_lua @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag <Files *.lua> SetHandler lua-script </Files> … example.lua require "string" function handle(r) r.content_type = "text/plain" if r.method == 'GET' then r:puts("Hello Lua World!n") for k, v in pairs( r:parseargs() ) do r:puts( string.format("%s: %sn", k, v) ) end elseif r.method == 'POST' then r:puts("Hello Lua World!n") for k, v in pairs( r:parsebody() ) do r:puts( string.format("%s: %sn", k, v) ) end elseif r.method == 'PUT' then r:puts("Unsupported HTTP method " .. r.method) r.status = 405 return apache2.ok else return 501 end return apache2.OK end
  • 14. New Modules ➡ mod_buffer ➡ buffer the i/o stacks w/i httpd ➡ mod_sed ➡ True sed functionality, alternate to mod_substitute
 
 
 
 
 ➡ mod_remoteip ➡ allow access to the real client IP address
 ➡ Also provides HA PROXY support @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag <Directory "/var/www/docs/status"> AddOutputFilter Sed html OutputSed "s/complete/DONE/g" OutputSed “s/in-progress/TODO/g" </Directory> RemoteIPHeader X-Client-IP
  • 15. New Modules ➡ mod_session ➡ easily maintain application server state ➡ mod_auth_form ➡ Form-based auth can now be handled internally @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag <Location /dologin.html> SetHandler form-login-handler AuthFormLoginRequiredLocation http://example.com/login.html AuthFormLoginSuccessLocation http://example.com/success.html AuthFormProvider file AuthUserFile conf/passwd AuthType form AuthName realm Session On SessionCookieName session path=/ SessionCryptoPassphrase secret </Location>
  • 16. New Modules ➡ mod_log_debug ➡ Add debug logging at any hook
 
 
 
 ➡ mod_ratelimit ➡ (basic) bandwidth limiting for clients @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag <Location /foo> LogMessage “subreq to foo” hook=type_checker expr=%{IS_SUBREQ} </Location> <Location /downloads> SetOutputFilter RATE_LIMIT SetEnv rate-limit 400 </Location>
  • 17. Even more! ➡ mod_cache ➡ Can serve stale data if required ➡ X-Cache-Header now supports HIT/MISS/ REVALIDATE ➡ Can cache HEAD ➡ htcacheclean improvements ➡ Redis and memcached (And Apache Geode) ➡ mod_socache / mod_slotmem ➡ Data object/blog storage mechanisms ➡ mod_brotli @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 18. New Modules ➡ mod_proxy submodules: ➡ mod_proxy_fcgi ➡ mod_proxy_scgi ➡ mod_proxy_uwsgi ➡ mod_proxy_wstunnel ➡ mod_proxy_html ➡ mod_proxy_express ➡ mod_proxy_hcheck @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 19. Cloud and Performance ➡ The Cloud is a game changer for web servers ➡ Horizontal scalability is no longer as painful ➡ Concurrency is no longer the sole consideration ➡ ... or maybe even the primary one ➡ What’s important now? Transaction Time! (because it CAN be) ➡ Low latency ➡ Fast req/resp turnover ➡ Does density still matter? Of course! ➡ micro-services ➡ Are there environs where super-mega concurrency is the bugaboo? You betcha! (but the cloud makes these more and more rare, and you’re likely using a bad architecture anyway) @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 20. Cloud and Dynamics ➡ The Cloud is a game changer for web servers ➡ The cloud is a dynamic place ➡ automated reconfiguration ➡ horizontal, not vertical scaling ➡ self-aware environments @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag OK, maybe not THAT self-aware
  • 21. Why Dynamic Proxy Matters ➡ Apache httpd still the most frequently used front-end ➡ Proxy capabilities must be cloud friendly ➡ Front-end must be dynamic friendly @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 22. Apache httpd 2.4 proxy ➡ Reverse Proxy Improvements ➡ Supports FastCGI, SCGI, Websockets in balancer ➡ Additional load balancing mechanisms ➡ Runtime changing of clusters w/o restarts ➡ Support for dynamic configuration ➡ mod_proxy_express ➡ mod_fcgid and fcgistarter ➡ Support for Unix Domain Sockets @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 23. Backend Status ➡ Dynamic Health Checks ! ➡ TCP/IP Ping ➡ OPTIONS ➡ HEAD ➡ GET @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag ProxyHCExpr ok234 {%{REQUEST_STATUS} =~ /^[234]/} ProxyHCExpr gdown {%{REQUEST_STATUS} =~ /^[5]/} ProxyHCExpr in_maint {hc('body') !~ /Under maintenance/} <Proxy balancer://foo/> BalancerMember http://www.example.com/ hcmethod=GET hcexpr=in_maint hcuri=/status.php BalancerMember http://www2.example.com/ hcmethod=HEAD hcexpr=ok234 hcinterval=10 BalancerMember http://www3.example.com/ hcmethod=TCP hcinterval=5 hcpasses=2 hcfails=3 BalancerMember http://www4.example.com/ </Proxy> ProxyPass "/" “balancer://foo/" ProxyPassReverse "/" “balancer://foo/"
  • 24. Mass Reverse Proxy ➡ Use the new mod_proxy_express module ➡ ProxyPass mapping obtained via db file ➡ Fast and efficient ➡ Still dynamic, with no config changes required ➡ micro-services? You betcha! @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag ProxyExpress map file ##
 ##express-map.db:
 ##
 
 www1.example.com http://192.168.002.2:8080
 www2.example.com http://192.168.002.12:8088
 www3.example.com http://192.168.002.10 ... www6341.example.com http://192.168.211.26 httpd.conf file ProxyExpressEnable On ProxyExpressDBMFile express-map.db
  • 25. Embedded Admin ➡ Allows for real-time ➡ Addition of new workers/nodes ➡ Change of LB methods ➡ Can be persistent! ➡ More RESTful ➡ Can be CLI-driven @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 26. Easy setup <Location /balancer-manager> SetHandler balancer-manager Require 192.168.2.22 </Location> @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 27. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag @jimjag
  • 28. server-status aware This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag @jimjag
  • 29. Performance ➡ From Nic Rosenthal Battle of the stacks
 (http://www.slideshare.net/AllThingsOpen/battle-of-the-stacks) @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag HHVM + NGINX! ! vs! ! HHVM + Apache 2.4! ! http://ldr.io/1ogvD7X http://ldr.io/1ogD7b3 Response time: 76ms Response time: 60ms HHVM + NGINX HHVM + Apache 2.4 Image by Articularnos.com https://www.flickr.com/photos/articularnos/ Champion of the ! Battle Of The Stacks ATO Edition HHVM + Apache 2.4
  • 30. Performance ➡ From Bryan Call’s 2014 ApacheCon preso
 (http://www.slideshare.net/bryan_call/choosing-a-proxy-server-apachecon-2014) @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag •  Squid&used&the&most& CPU&again& •  NGiNX&had&latency& issues& •  ATS&most&throughput& 0& 500& 1000& 1500& 2000& 2500& ATS& NGiNX& Squid& Varnish& hBpd& RPS$/$CPU$Usage$ 0& 5000& 10000& 15000& 20000& 25000& 30000& ATS& NGiNX& Squid& Varnish& hBpd& Requests$Per$Second$ 0& 5& 10& 15& 20& 25& 30& 35& 40& ATS& NGiNX& Squid& Varnish& hBpd& Latency$ Median& 95th&
  • 31. Raw Performance ➡ Event MPM : no longer experimental ➡ non-blocking ➡ async ➡ Faster, more efficient APR ➡ Smaller memory footprint ➡ More efficient data structures (worker and event) @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 32. Apache httpd vs nginx ➡ Why nginx? Everyone asks about it... ➡ Benchmark: local and reverse proxy transaction times ➡ Apache httpd 2.4.22-dev, nginx 1.8.1 ➡ CentOS6, Dual Xeon 3.33GHz ➡ 4GB memory ➡ localhost loopback and external (no firewall) ➡ Double checked results: OSX 10.11.2 (8-core), Fedora 23 (4- core) @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 33. Setup This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag @jimjag loopbackSetup 1: Setup 2: Setup 3: Setup 3:
  • 34. Considerations ➡ Multiple benchmarking systems: ➡ flood (50/250/5/2, 50/100/5/2, 50/5/5/2) ➡ httperf (num-conns=100->20000, numcalls=3,10,100) ➡ weighttp ➡ Full URL requests (www.example.com/index.html) ➡ Static local requests ➡ Static reverse proxy requests ➡ All Apache httpd MPMs ➡ No significant “tuning” efforts (mostly out of the box configs) @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 35. nginx vs Event (typical) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag @jimjag Apache - Event MPM 0 500 1000 1500 2000 nginx 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 Open Write Read Close Increasing concurrency Increasing concurrency
  • 36. Apache - Prefork MPM 0 500 1000 1500 2000 nginx vs Prefork (typical) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag @jimjag nginx 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 Open Write Read Close Increasing concurrency Increasing concurrency
  • 37. Total req/resp time This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag @jimjag Comparison - total transaction (close) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Prefork Worker Event nginx Increasing concurrency
  • 38. Resp to Req. Bursts - httperf This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag @jimjag 100 ---> 20000 0.00 1.75 3.50 5.25 7.00 min avg max dev min avg max dev min avg max dev min avg max dev min avg max dev min avg max dev prefork worker event nginx Increasing concurrency
  • 39. Independent benchmarks This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag @jimjag Source: Ryosuke Matsumoto : http://blog.matsumoto-r.jp/?p=1812 #!/bin/sh RESULT='./result.txt'   for port in 80 8080 8888 do #for count in 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 #for count in 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 for count in 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 do echo -n "$port $count " >> $RESULT httperf --rate $count --num-conns 25000 --server ipaddr --port $port --uri=/test.html | grep "Request rate:" >> $RESULT.$port sleep 60 done done
  • 40. Take-away ➡ Today, the web-server isn’t the slow link in the chain. ➡ Benchmarks get stale… fast! ➡ Real world trumps test environs ➡ Choose the right tool for the right job @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 41. HTTP/2 ➡ Implements RFC 7540 ➡ Supports both h2 (HTTP/2 over TLS) and h2c (HTTP/2 over TCP[cleartext]) ➡ Enterprise-ready regarding stability, performance, etc. ➡ Also supported in mod_proxy ➡ Perfect compliance @jimjag This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag
  • 42. Thanks This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. - Jim Jagielski - @jimjag @jimjag Twitter: @jimjag Emails:
 jim@jaguNET.com
 jim@apache.org
 jimjag@gmail.com http://www.slideshare.net/jimjag/