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MMaappppiinngg IInntteerrppeerrssoonnaall RRiisskk 
CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn nneettwwoorrkkss:: 
SSoommee EEvviiddeenncceess ffrroomm TTwwiitttteerr UUsseerrss 
iinn tthhee 22001133 NNoorrtthh KKoorreeaa NNuucclleeaarr TTeesstt 
Kyujin Jung 
Ph.D. Candidate 
Department of Public Administration 
University of North Texas 
Han Woo Park 
Full Professor 
Department of Media & Communication 
YeungNam University
Acknowledgement 
• Jung, K.J., & Park, H.W.@ (2014 Online First). Citizens' Social 
Media Use and Homeland Security Information Policy: Some 
Evidences from Twitter Users during the 2013 North Korea 
Nuclear Test. Government Information Quarterly*. DOI: 
10.1016/j.giq.2014.06.003 
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740624X14001166 
• The earlier version of the current article was presented at the 
Summer Seminar of Asia Triple Helix Society in Daegu, South 
Korea. The authors wish to acknowledge Dr. Ralph Schroeder, 
Dr. Seong-Jun Lee, sand Dr. YonSoo Lee for their suggestions 
in the formative stages of the article as well as their review of 
the manuscript. They also wish to acknowledge Dr. Paul T. 
Jaeger and anonymous reviewers for their critical comments
RReesseeaarrcchh QQuueessttiioonn 
3 
How did citizens in the U.S. and South Korea form different dynamically evolving patterns of risk 
communication on social media during the 2013 North Korean nuclear test? 
How did intermediary actors disseminating risk information on social media facilitate information 
diffusion in different social contexts of South Korea and the United States?
RRiisskk CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn 
4 
 Risk communication in Homeland Security 
 Risk communication is defined as “an interactive 
process of exchange of information and opinion on 
risk among individuals, groups, and institutions” 
(National Research Council, 1989, p. 12) 
 Within the homeland security information policy, 
risk communication with the public is formally 
composed of three stages (Decker, 2001; Purpura, 
2007) 
• Assessing threats 
• Selecting methods 
• Distributing information
RRiisskk CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn 
5 
 Challenges in risk communication 
 Current literature shows that governments and 
principal agencies may not recognize the challenges 
involved in administering risk communication 
(Purpura, 2007; Cole & Follows, 2008; Pidgeon, 
2012) 
 Providing more detailed information on how 
difficult it is for U.S. citizens can strengthen positive 
aspects of risk communication on social media, 
although U.S. government agencies monitor other 
countries' WMD development and seek to protect 
citizens from the spread of nuclear weapons 
(Chapman, 2008)
SSoocciiaall MMeeddiiaa UUssee 
6 
 Social media use in risk communication 
 In terms of risk communication, it have shed critical 
light on the behavior of the public, including the types 
of information sought by the public before, during, 
and after a threat (Jung et al. 2014) 
 As the case of the 2010 Haitian earthquake, in crisis 
communication management, social media use 
effectively influenced the process of sharing and 
disseminating information (Yates and Paquette, 2011) 
 In practice, the US Federal Emergency Management 
Agency (FEMA) has employed diverse social media 
tools such as Twitter (@fema, @ReadydotGov, and 
@citizen_corps), Facebook 
(www.facebook.com/FEMA), and YouTube 
(www.youtube.com/user/FEMA)
TThheeoorreettiiccaall FFrraammeewwoorrkk 
7 
 Situational Theory of Publics 
 The STP aims to examine when and why individual 
citizens become active in risk communication 
behaviors such as information seeking and 
processing (Grunig, 1997, 2003) 
 The STP provides a key framework for identifying 
not only patterns of citizens’ risk communication 
behaviors but also key actors in risk communication 
on social media 
RQ1: How did citizens in the U.S. and South Korea form different 
dynamically evolving patterns of risk communication on social media 
during 2013 North Korean nuclear test?
TThheeoorreettiiccaall FFrraammeewwoorrkk 
8 
 Social Amplification of Risk Framework 
 The SARF focuses on the key notion that citizens’ risk 
communication behaviors are shaped by different social, 
institutional, and cultural contexts that constantly 
interact with threats such as hazards and terrors (Binder, 
2011; Renn, 2011) 
 The SARF posits that social contexts closely connected to 
crisis management organizations such as the Department 
of Homeland Security can amplify or attenuate citizens’ 
risk communication (Rogers et al., 2007) 
RQ2: How did intermediary actors who disseminated risk information on 
social media during the 2013 North Korean nuclear test facilitate 
information diffusion under different social contexts of South Korea and 
the U.S.?
SSiittuuaattiioonnaall BBaacckkggrroouunndd 
9 
 The 2013 North Korean Nuclear Test 
 On February 12, 2013, North Korea conducted its third 
nuclear test in Punggye-ri, near the site of previous two 
tests, in Mantapsan, Kilju-gun, Hamkyeongbuk-do 
Source: Stars and Stripes (February 11, 2013)
DDaattaa aanndd MMeetthhooddss 
10 
 Data 
 To investigate the differences in patterns of citizens’ 
risk communication on social media between the 
U.S. and South Korea during the 2013 North Korean 
nuclear test, NodeXL, which accumulates and 
estimates network structure statistics, including 
diverse actors on Twitter, was employed (Hansen et 
al., 2011) 
 Based on the NodeXL data collection strategy, data 
on Twitter mentions with key wordsin English and 
Korean for North Korea (“ 북한” and “North Korea,” 
respectively) were collected over a 24-day period 
from January 30, 2013, when North Korea 
promulgated martial law, to February 24, 2013
DDaattaa aanndd MMeetthhooddss 
11 
 Methods 
 Social network analysis (SNA) indicators, i.e., 
network density, closeness and betweenness 
centrality, and the vertex property, were employed 
for identifying the patterns of risk communication 
on Twitter during the 2013 nuclear test by North 
Korea 
 Specifically, two sets of network indices derived 
from macro and micro perspectives were employed 
• Macro perspective: Numbers of vertices, edges, 
connected components, single-vertex-connected 
components, unique edges, edges with duplicates, 
maximum vertices, and maximum edges 
• Micro perspective: the page rank and betweenness 
centrality based on cross-sectional ego networks
RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 
12 
 Macro Network Perspective (Korean Keyword)
RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 
13 
 Macro Network Perspective (English Keyword)
RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 
14 
 Micro Network Perspective (Korean Keyword)
RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 
15 
 Micro Network Perspective (English Keyword)
RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 
16 
 Interpersonal Risk Communication Networks 
(Korean Keyword) 
*Red nodes indicate influential actors with high betweenness centrality
RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 
17 
 Interpersonal Risk Communication Networks 
(English Keyword) 
*Red nodes indicate influential actors with high betweenness centrality
RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 
18 
 Top Five Influential Actors in Risk 
Communication Networks Based on Keywords 
Networks Based on the Korean Keyword Networks Based on the English Keyword 
Twitter User 
Name 
Page 
Rank 
Betweenness 
Centrality 
Twitter User 
Name 
Page 
Rank 
Betweenness 
Centrality 
biguse 24.46 25479.23 joshrogin 10.44 840.00 
hypar2k1 23.05 2352.00 loudobbsnews 4.42 424.00 
funronga 11.84 14839.70 rationalists 3.76 42.00 
suahpin 7.91 5830.43 kjon 2.84 20.00 
hwsearth 5.76 17263.74 swin24 2.38 12.00
CCoonncclluussiioonn 
 By mapping risk communication networks 
during the 2013 North Korean nuclear test, the 
findings highlight the power of social networks 
in the context of homeland security 
 As highlighted by the STP, risk communication 
networks emerging from those actors who are 
threatened by potential terrorist attacks tend to 
evolve in a dynamic manner through the 
development of a close-knit structure 
 From the SARF, risk communication can be 
dramatically extended by intermediary actors 
can play crucial roles in the diffusion of risk 
information 
19
TThhaannkk yyoouu 
Kyujin Jung 
Ph.D. Candidate 
Department of Public Administration 
University of North Texas 
Han Woo Park 
Full Professor 
Department of Media & Communication 
YeungNam University

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Mapping Interpersonal Risk Communication networks: Some Evidences from Twitter Users in the 2013 North Korea Nuclear Test

  • 1. MMaappppiinngg IInntteerrppeerrssoonnaall RRiisskk CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn nneettwwoorrkkss:: SSoommee EEvviiddeenncceess ffrroomm TTwwiitttteerr UUsseerrss iinn tthhee 22001133 NNoorrtthh KKoorreeaa NNuucclleeaarr TTeesstt Kyujin Jung Ph.D. Candidate Department of Public Administration University of North Texas Han Woo Park Full Professor Department of Media & Communication YeungNam University
  • 2. Acknowledgement • Jung, K.J., & Park, H.W.@ (2014 Online First). Citizens' Social Media Use and Homeland Security Information Policy: Some Evidences from Twitter Users during the 2013 North Korea Nuclear Test. Government Information Quarterly*. DOI: 10.1016/j.giq.2014.06.003 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740624X14001166 • The earlier version of the current article was presented at the Summer Seminar of Asia Triple Helix Society in Daegu, South Korea. The authors wish to acknowledge Dr. Ralph Schroeder, Dr. Seong-Jun Lee, sand Dr. YonSoo Lee for their suggestions in the formative stages of the article as well as their review of the manuscript. They also wish to acknowledge Dr. Paul T. Jaeger and anonymous reviewers for their critical comments
  • 3. RReesseeaarrcchh QQuueessttiioonn 3 How did citizens in the U.S. and South Korea form different dynamically evolving patterns of risk communication on social media during the 2013 North Korean nuclear test? How did intermediary actors disseminating risk information on social media facilitate information diffusion in different social contexts of South Korea and the United States?
  • 4. RRiisskk CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn 4  Risk communication in Homeland Security  Risk communication is defined as “an interactive process of exchange of information and opinion on risk among individuals, groups, and institutions” (National Research Council, 1989, p. 12)  Within the homeland security information policy, risk communication with the public is formally composed of three stages (Decker, 2001; Purpura, 2007) • Assessing threats • Selecting methods • Distributing information
  • 5. RRiisskk CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn 5  Challenges in risk communication  Current literature shows that governments and principal agencies may not recognize the challenges involved in administering risk communication (Purpura, 2007; Cole & Follows, 2008; Pidgeon, 2012)  Providing more detailed information on how difficult it is for U.S. citizens can strengthen positive aspects of risk communication on social media, although U.S. government agencies monitor other countries' WMD development and seek to protect citizens from the spread of nuclear weapons (Chapman, 2008)
  • 6. SSoocciiaall MMeeddiiaa UUssee 6  Social media use in risk communication  In terms of risk communication, it have shed critical light on the behavior of the public, including the types of information sought by the public before, during, and after a threat (Jung et al. 2014)  As the case of the 2010 Haitian earthquake, in crisis communication management, social media use effectively influenced the process of sharing and disseminating information (Yates and Paquette, 2011)  In practice, the US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has employed diverse social media tools such as Twitter (@fema, @ReadydotGov, and @citizen_corps), Facebook (www.facebook.com/FEMA), and YouTube (www.youtube.com/user/FEMA)
  • 7. TThheeoorreettiiccaall FFrraammeewwoorrkk 7  Situational Theory of Publics  The STP aims to examine when and why individual citizens become active in risk communication behaviors such as information seeking and processing (Grunig, 1997, 2003)  The STP provides a key framework for identifying not only patterns of citizens’ risk communication behaviors but also key actors in risk communication on social media RQ1: How did citizens in the U.S. and South Korea form different dynamically evolving patterns of risk communication on social media during 2013 North Korean nuclear test?
  • 8. TThheeoorreettiiccaall FFrraammeewwoorrkk 8  Social Amplification of Risk Framework  The SARF focuses on the key notion that citizens’ risk communication behaviors are shaped by different social, institutional, and cultural contexts that constantly interact with threats such as hazards and terrors (Binder, 2011; Renn, 2011)  The SARF posits that social contexts closely connected to crisis management organizations such as the Department of Homeland Security can amplify or attenuate citizens’ risk communication (Rogers et al., 2007) RQ2: How did intermediary actors who disseminated risk information on social media during the 2013 North Korean nuclear test facilitate information diffusion under different social contexts of South Korea and the U.S.?
  • 9. SSiittuuaattiioonnaall BBaacckkggrroouunndd 9  The 2013 North Korean Nuclear Test  On February 12, 2013, North Korea conducted its third nuclear test in Punggye-ri, near the site of previous two tests, in Mantapsan, Kilju-gun, Hamkyeongbuk-do Source: Stars and Stripes (February 11, 2013)
  • 10. DDaattaa aanndd MMeetthhooddss 10  Data  To investigate the differences in patterns of citizens’ risk communication on social media between the U.S. and South Korea during the 2013 North Korean nuclear test, NodeXL, which accumulates and estimates network structure statistics, including diverse actors on Twitter, was employed (Hansen et al., 2011)  Based on the NodeXL data collection strategy, data on Twitter mentions with key wordsin English and Korean for North Korea (“ 북한” and “North Korea,” respectively) were collected over a 24-day period from January 30, 2013, when North Korea promulgated martial law, to February 24, 2013
  • 11. DDaattaa aanndd MMeetthhooddss 11  Methods  Social network analysis (SNA) indicators, i.e., network density, closeness and betweenness centrality, and the vertex property, were employed for identifying the patterns of risk communication on Twitter during the 2013 nuclear test by North Korea  Specifically, two sets of network indices derived from macro and micro perspectives were employed • Macro perspective: Numbers of vertices, edges, connected components, single-vertex-connected components, unique edges, edges with duplicates, maximum vertices, and maximum edges • Micro perspective: the page rank and betweenness centrality based on cross-sectional ego networks
  • 12. RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 12  Macro Network Perspective (Korean Keyword)
  • 13. RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 13  Macro Network Perspective (English Keyword)
  • 14. RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 14  Micro Network Perspective (Korean Keyword)
  • 15. RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 15  Micro Network Perspective (English Keyword)
  • 16. RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 16  Interpersonal Risk Communication Networks (Korean Keyword) *Red nodes indicate influential actors with high betweenness centrality
  • 17. RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 17  Interpersonal Risk Communication Networks (English Keyword) *Red nodes indicate influential actors with high betweenness centrality
  • 18. RReessuullttss aanndd DDiissccuussssiioonn 18  Top Five Influential Actors in Risk Communication Networks Based on Keywords Networks Based on the Korean Keyword Networks Based on the English Keyword Twitter User Name Page Rank Betweenness Centrality Twitter User Name Page Rank Betweenness Centrality biguse 24.46 25479.23 joshrogin 10.44 840.00 hypar2k1 23.05 2352.00 loudobbsnews 4.42 424.00 funronga 11.84 14839.70 rationalists 3.76 42.00 suahpin 7.91 5830.43 kjon 2.84 20.00 hwsearth 5.76 17263.74 swin24 2.38 12.00
  • 19. CCoonncclluussiioonn  By mapping risk communication networks during the 2013 North Korean nuclear test, the findings highlight the power of social networks in the context of homeland security  As highlighted by the STP, risk communication networks emerging from those actors who are threatened by potential terrorist attacks tend to evolve in a dynamic manner through the development of a close-knit structure  From the SARF, risk communication can be dramatically extended by intermediary actors can play crucial roles in the diffusion of risk information 19
  • 20. TThhaannkk yyoouu Kyujin Jung Ph.D. Candidate Department of Public Administration University of North Texas Han Woo Park Full Professor Department of Media & Communication YeungNam University