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Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-1
Ethics, Social
Responsibility,
and Diversity
5
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-2
Ethics and Stakeholders
Stakeholders: people or groups that have an
interest in the organization.
 Stakeholders include employees, customers,
shareholders, suppliers, and others.
 Stakeholders often want different outcomes and
managers must work to satisfy as many as possible.
Ethics: a set of beliefs about right and
wrong.
 Ethics guide people in dealings with stakeholders and
others, to determine appropriate actions.
 Managers often must choose between the conflicting
interest of stakeholders.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-3
Ethics
It is difficult to know when a decision is
ethical. Here is a good test:
Managerial ethics: If a manager
makes a decision falling within
usual standards, is willing to
personally communicate the decision
to stakeholders, and believes friends
would approve, then it is likely an
ethical decision.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-4
Ethical Models
Social Ethics:
Legal rules, customs
Professional Ethics:
Values in workplace
Individual Ethics:
Family influence
Organization’s
Code of Ethics
Figure 5.2
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-5
Ethical Origins
Societal Ethics: standards that members of
society use when dealing with each other.
 Based on values and standards found in society’s
legal rules, norm, and mores.
 Codified in the form of law and society customs.
 Norms dictate how people should behave.
Societal ethics vary based on a given
society.
 Strong beliefs in one country may differ elsewhere.
 Example: bribes are an accepted business practice in
some countries.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-6
Ethical Origins
Professional ethics: values and standards used
by groups of managers in the workplace.
 Applied when decisions are not clear-cut ethically.
 Example: physicians and lawyers have professional
associations that enforce these.
Individual ethics: values of an individual
resulting from their family& upbringing.
 If behavior is not illegal, people will often disagree on if
it is ethical.
 Ethics of top managers set the tone for firms.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-7
Ethical Decisions
A key ethical issue is how to disperse harm
and benefits among stakeholders.
 If a firm is very profitable for two years, who should
receive the profits? Employees, managers and
stockholders all want a share.
 Should we keep the cash for future slowdowns?
What is the ethical decision?
What about the reverse, when firms must
layoff workers.
Final point: stockholders are the legal owners
of the firm!
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-8
Ethical Decisions
Some other issues managers must consider.
 Should you hold payment to suppliers as long as
possible to benefit your firm?
 This will harm your supplier who is a stakeholder.
 Should you pay severance pay to laid off workers?
 This may decrease the stockholder's return.
 Should you buy goods from overseas firms that hire
children?
 If you don’t the children might not earn enough
money to eat.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-9
Why Behave Ethically?
Managers should behave ethically to avoid
harming others.
 Managers are responsible for protecting and nurturing
resources in their charge.
Unethical managers run the risk for loss of
reputation.
 This is a valuable asset to any manager!
 Reputation is critical to long term management
success.
 All stakeholders are judged by reputation.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-10
Social Responsibility
Social Responsibility: the manager’s duty to
nurture, protect and enhance the welfare of
stakeholders.
There are many ways managers respond to
this duty:
Obstructionist response: managers choose not
to be socially responsible.
 Managers behave illegally and unethically.
 They hide and cover-up problems.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-11
Defensive response: managers stay within the
law but make no attempt to exercise
additional social responsibility.
 Put shareholder interest above all other stakeholders.
 Managers say society should make laws if change is
needed.
Accommodative response: managers realize
the need for social responsibility.
 Try to balance the interests of all stakeholders.
Proactive response: managers actively
embrace social responsibility.
 Go out of their way to learn about and help stakeholders.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-12
Levels of Responsibility
Obstruction
response
Defensive
response
Accommodative
response
Proactive
response
Low HighSocial responsibility
Figure 5.3
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-13
Why be Responsible?
Managers accrue benefits by being
responsible.
 Workers and society benefit.
 Quality of life in society will improve.
 It is the right thing to do.
Whistleblowers: a person reporting illegal or
unethical acts.
 Whistleblowers now protected by law in most cases.
Social audit: managers specifically take ethics
and business into account when making
decisions.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-14
The Social Audit
Profitability
Negative Low Medium High
Negative
Low
Medium
High
Favored
Strategies
SocialReturns
Figure 5.4
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-15
Promoting Ethics
There is evidence showing that ethical
managers benefit over the long run.
Ethical Control System: a formal system to
encourage ethical management.
 Firms appoint an ethics ombudsman to monitor
practices.
 Ombudsman communicates standards to all employees.
Ethical culture: firms increasingly seek to
make good ethics part of the norm and
organizational culture.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-16
Managing Diverse Workforces
The workforce has become much more
diverse during the last 30 years.
 Diversity refers to differences among people such as age,
gender, race, religion.
 Diversity is an ethical and social responsibility issue.
Managers need to give all workers equal
opportunities.
 Not following this is against the law and unethical.
 When all have equal opportunity, the organization
benefits.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-17
Types of Diversity
Figure 5.5
Capabilities
Disabilities
Socioeconomic
background
Sexual
orientation
Religion
Ethnicity
Race
Gender
Age
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-18
Manage Diversity
Distributive Justice: dictates members be
treated fairly concerning pay raises,
promotions, office space and similar issues.
 These rewards should be assigned based on merit and
performance.
 A legal requirement that is becoming more prevalent in
American business.
Procedural Justice: Managers should use fair
practices to determine how to distribute
outcomes to members.
 This involves how managers appraise worker
performance or decide who to layoff.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-19
Diversity Makes Business Sense
Diverse employees provide new, different
points of view.
 Customers are also diverse.
Still, some employees may be treated unfairly.
 Biases: systematic tendencies to use information in ways
that result in inaccurate perceptions.
 People often view those like themselves positively and
have biases about others.
 Social status is a type of bias conferred to people of
differing social position.
 Stereotypes: inaccurate beliefs about a given group.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-20
How to Manage Diversity
Increase diversity awareness: managers need
to become aware of their own bias.
Understand cultural differences and their
impact on working styles.
Practice effective communication with diverse
groups.
Be sure top management is committed to
diversity.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-21
Sexual Harassment
Damages both the person being harassed and
the organization.
 Both men and women can be victims.
Quid pro quo harassment: victim is requested
to perform sexual favors to keep a job or win
promotion.
Hostile work environment harassment: Some
members are faced with a hostile,
intimidating work environment.
 Lewd jokes, pornographic displays and remarks.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
5-22
Avoiding Harassment
Develop and communicate a sexual
harassment policy.
 Point out that these actions are unacceptable.
Set up a fair complaint system to investigate
allegations.
 If there are problems, correct them at once.
Provide harassment training to employees and
managers.

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management

  • 1. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-1 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Diversity 5
  • 2. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-2 Ethics and Stakeholders Stakeholders: people or groups that have an interest in the organization.  Stakeholders include employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers, and others.  Stakeholders often want different outcomes and managers must work to satisfy as many as possible. Ethics: a set of beliefs about right and wrong.  Ethics guide people in dealings with stakeholders and others, to determine appropriate actions.  Managers often must choose between the conflicting interest of stakeholders.
  • 3. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-3 Ethics It is difficult to know when a decision is ethical. Here is a good test: Managerial ethics: If a manager makes a decision falling within usual standards, is willing to personally communicate the decision to stakeholders, and believes friends would approve, then it is likely an ethical decision.
  • 4. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-4 Ethical Models Social Ethics: Legal rules, customs Professional Ethics: Values in workplace Individual Ethics: Family influence Organization’s Code of Ethics Figure 5.2
  • 5. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-5 Ethical Origins Societal Ethics: standards that members of society use when dealing with each other.  Based on values and standards found in society’s legal rules, norm, and mores.  Codified in the form of law and society customs.  Norms dictate how people should behave. Societal ethics vary based on a given society.  Strong beliefs in one country may differ elsewhere.  Example: bribes are an accepted business practice in some countries.
  • 6. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-6 Ethical Origins Professional ethics: values and standards used by groups of managers in the workplace.  Applied when decisions are not clear-cut ethically.  Example: physicians and lawyers have professional associations that enforce these. Individual ethics: values of an individual resulting from their family& upbringing.  If behavior is not illegal, people will often disagree on if it is ethical.  Ethics of top managers set the tone for firms.
  • 7. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-7 Ethical Decisions A key ethical issue is how to disperse harm and benefits among stakeholders.  If a firm is very profitable for two years, who should receive the profits? Employees, managers and stockholders all want a share.  Should we keep the cash for future slowdowns? What is the ethical decision? What about the reverse, when firms must layoff workers. Final point: stockholders are the legal owners of the firm!
  • 8. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-8 Ethical Decisions Some other issues managers must consider.  Should you hold payment to suppliers as long as possible to benefit your firm?  This will harm your supplier who is a stakeholder.  Should you pay severance pay to laid off workers?  This may decrease the stockholder's return.  Should you buy goods from overseas firms that hire children?  If you don’t the children might not earn enough money to eat.
  • 9. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-9 Why Behave Ethically? Managers should behave ethically to avoid harming others.  Managers are responsible for protecting and nurturing resources in their charge. Unethical managers run the risk for loss of reputation.  This is a valuable asset to any manager!  Reputation is critical to long term management success.  All stakeholders are judged by reputation.
  • 10. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-10 Social Responsibility Social Responsibility: the manager’s duty to nurture, protect and enhance the welfare of stakeholders. There are many ways managers respond to this duty: Obstructionist response: managers choose not to be socially responsible.  Managers behave illegally and unethically.  They hide and cover-up problems.
  • 11. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-11 Defensive response: managers stay within the law but make no attempt to exercise additional social responsibility.  Put shareholder interest above all other stakeholders.  Managers say society should make laws if change is needed. Accommodative response: managers realize the need for social responsibility.  Try to balance the interests of all stakeholders. Proactive response: managers actively embrace social responsibility.  Go out of their way to learn about and help stakeholders.
  • 12. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-12 Levels of Responsibility Obstruction response Defensive response Accommodative response Proactive response Low HighSocial responsibility Figure 5.3
  • 13. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-13 Why be Responsible? Managers accrue benefits by being responsible.  Workers and society benefit.  Quality of life in society will improve.  It is the right thing to do. Whistleblowers: a person reporting illegal or unethical acts.  Whistleblowers now protected by law in most cases. Social audit: managers specifically take ethics and business into account when making decisions.
  • 14. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-14 The Social Audit Profitability Negative Low Medium High Negative Low Medium High Favored Strategies SocialReturns Figure 5.4
  • 15. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-15 Promoting Ethics There is evidence showing that ethical managers benefit over the long run. Ethical Control System: a formal system to encourage ethical management.  Firms appoint an ethics ombudsman to monitor practices.  Ombudsman communicates standards to all employees. Ethical culture: firms increasingly seek to make good ethics part of the norm and organizational culture.
  • 16. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-16 Managing Diverse Workforces The workforce has become much more diverse during the last 30 years.  Diversity refers to differences among people such as age, gender, race, religion.  Diversity is an ethical and social responsibility issue. Managers need to give all workers equal opportunities.  Not following this is against the law and unethical.  When all have equal opportunity, the organization benefits.
  • 17. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-17 Types of Diversity Figure 5.5 Capabilities Disabilities Socioeconomic background Sexual orientation Religion Ethnicity Race Gender Age
  • 18. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-18 Manage Diversity Distributive Justice: dictates members be treated fairly concerning pay raises, promotions, office space and similar issues.  These rewards should be assigned based on merit and performance.  A legal requirement that is becoming more prevalent in American business. Procedural Justice: Managers should use fair practices to determine how to distribute outcomes to members.  This involves how managers appraise worker performance or decide who to layoff.
  • 19. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-19 Diversity Makes Business Sense Diverse employees provide new, different points of view.  Customers are also diverse. Still, some employees may be treated unfairly.  Biases: systematic tendencies to use information in ways that result in inaccurate perceptions.  People often view those like themselves positively and have biases about others.  Social status is a type of bias conferred to people of differing social position.  Stereotypes: inaccurate beliefs about a given group.
  • 20. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-20 How to Manage Diversity Increase diversity awareness: managers need to become aware of their own bias. Understand cultural differences and their impact on working styles. Practice effective communication with diverse groups. Be sure top management is committed to diversity.
  • 21. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-21 Sexual Harassment Damages both the person being harassed and the organization.  Both men and women can be victims. Quid pro quo harassment: victim is requested to perform sexual favors to keep a job or win promotion. Hostile work environment harassment: Some members are faced with a hostile, intimidating work environment.  Lewd jokes, pornographic displays and remarks.
  • 22. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 5-22 Avoiding Harassment Develop and communicate a sexual harassment policy.  Point out that these actions are unacceptable. Set up a fair complaint system to investigate allegations.  If there are problems, correct them at once. Provide harassment training to employees and managers.