11 ethics and business functions


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11 ethics and business functions

  1. 1. Lesson 11
  2. 2. Accounting and Finance Human resources management Marketing and Sales Production & Operation
  3. 3. Ethics of Accounting Accounting ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to accountancy. It is an example of professional ethics.
  4. 4. Accounting ethics were first introduced by Luca Pacioli, and later expanded by government groups, professional organizations, and independent companies. Ethics are taught in accounting courses at higher education institutions as well as by companies training accountants and auditors.
  5. 5. ISSUES  Creative accounting, earnings management, misleading financial analysis.  Insider trading, securities fraud, bucket shops, forex scams: concerns (criminal) manipulation of the financial markets.
  6. 6. ISSUES CONT..  Executive compensation: concerns excessive payments made to corporate CEO's and top management.
  7. 7. Ethics of Human Resource Mgt. The ethics of human resource management (HRM) covers those ethical issues arising around the employer-employee relationship, such as the rights and duties owed between employer and employee.
  8. 8. ISSUES  Discrimination issues include discrimination on the bases of age (ageism), gender, race, religion, disabilities, weight and attractiveness, affirmative action, sexual harassment.
  9. 9. ISSUES CONT..  Issues arising from the traditional view of relationships between employers and employees, also known as At-will employment.
  10. 10. ISSUES CONT..  Issues surrounding the representation of employees and the democratization of the workplace: union busting, strike breaking.  Issues affecting the privacy of the employee: workplace surveillance, drug testing.  Issues affecting the privacy of the employer: whistle-blowing.
  11. 11. ISSUES CONT..  Issues relating to the fairness of the employment contract and the balance of power between employer and employee: slavery, indentured servitude, employment law.  Occupational safety and health.
  12. 12. Ethics of Sales and Marketing Marketing ethics is the area of applied ethics which deals with the moral principles behind the operation and regulation of marketing. Some areas of marketing ethics (ethics of advertising and promotion) overlap with media ethics.
  13. 13. ISSUES  Pricing: price fixing, price discrimination, price skimming.  Price skimming is a pricing strategy in which a marketer sets a relatively high price for a product or service at first, then lowers the price over time.
  14. 14. ISSUES  Anti-competitive practices: these include but go beyond pricing tactics to cover issues such as manipulation of loyalty and supply chains.
  15. 15. ISSUES  Specific marketing strategies: greenwash, bait and switch, shill, viral marketing, spam (electronic), pyramid scheme, planned obsolescence.
  16. 16. ISSUES CONT..  Content of advertisements: attack ads, subliminal messages, sex in advertising, products regarded as immoral or harmful  Children and marketing: marketing in schools.  Black markets, grey markets.
  17. 17. Ethics of Production  This area of business ethics deals with the duties of a company to ensure that products and production processes do not cause harm.
  18. 18. Ethics of Production  Some of the more acute dilemmas in this area arise out of the fact that there is usually a degree of danger in any product or production
  19. 19. Ethics of Production  And it is difficult to define a degree of permissibility, or the degree of permissibility may depend on the changing state of preventative technologies or changing social perceptions of acceptable risk.
  20. 20.  Defective, addictive and inherently dangerous products and services (e.g. tobacco, alcohol, weapons, motor vehicles, chemical manufacturing, bungee jumping).  Ethical relations between the company and the environment: pollution, environmental ethics, carbon emissions trading.
  21. 21.  Ethical problems arising out of new technologies: genetically modified food, mobile phone radiation and health.  Product testing ethics: animal rights and animal testing, use of economically disadvantaged groups (such as students) as test objects.