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Linked Data and Tools 
Pedro Szekely 
USC/Information Sciences Institute 
pszekely@isi.edu, http://isi.edu/~szekely 
September 2014 
CC-By 2.0
Outline 
• Introduction to linked open data 
• RDF: the Resource Description Framework 
• Tools to convert data to RDF 
• Tools for linking/reconciliation/resolution 
• Storing and maintaining the data 
• Applications 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 2
Pedro Szekely 
Linked Open Data! 
CC-By 2.0 3
The Web of Documents 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 4
What We See 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 5
What the Computer Sees 
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Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 6
Problem 
web pages are machine processable, 
but not machine understandable 
impractical for building applications using the data 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 7
Solution 
publish the data as Linked Open Data 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 8
What Is Linked Data? 
A method of publishing structured data 
so that it can be interlinked 
and become more useful 
Builds upon standard Web technologies 
such as HTTP and URIs 
to share information 
in a way that can be read automatically by computers 
from Wikipedia 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 9
“Linked” Open Data 
Crystal Bridges 
Museum of 
American Art 
Dallas Museum 
of Art 
Indianapolis 
Museum 
of Art 
National Portrait 
Gallery 
The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art 
Smithsonian American 
Art Museum 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 10
“Linked” Open Data 
Crystal Bridges 
Museum of 
American Art 
Dallas Museum 
of Art 
… data is public! 
… in a common format! 
… but we only have islands of data! 
Indianapolis 
Museum 
of Art 
National Portrait 
Gallery 
The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art 
Smithsonian American 
Art Museum 
✔ 
✖ 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 11
Linked Open Data 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 12
Linked Data Principles 
• Use URIs as names for things 
• Use HTTP URIs so that people 
can look up those names 
• When someone looks up a URI, 
provide useful information, 
using the standards (RDF, 
SPARQL) 
• Include links to other URIs so 
that they can discover more 
things http://youtu.be/OM6XIICm_qo! 
http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html ! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 13
Pedro Szekely 
Principle 1 
Use URIs as names for things 
Principle 2 
Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names 
CC-By 2.0 14
Can USC Have a URI? 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 15
http://dbpedia.org/resource/University_of_Southern_California 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 16
Can the Pythagoras Theorem Have a URI? 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 17
http://www.freebase.com/m/05r2j 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 18
My Dog: Can He Have a URI? 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 19
http://szekelys.com/diego 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 20
Pedro Szekely 
Principle 3 
When someone looks up a URI, provide 
useful information, using the standards 
(RDF*, SPARQL) 
CC-By 2.0 21
Pedro Szekely 
http://dbpedia.org/resource/University_of_Southern_California 
CC-By 2.0 22
Pedro Szekely 
http://www.freebase.com/m/05r2j 
CC-By 2.0 23
Pedro Szekely 
http://szekelys.com/diego 
Principle 3 
When someone looks up a URI, provide 
useful information, using the standards 
(RDF*, SPARQL) CC-By 2.0 24
Pedro Szekely 
Principle 4 
Include links to other URIs so that they 
can discover more things 
CC-By 2.0 25
http://szekelys.com/diego 
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . 
@prefix dbpprop: <http://dbpedia.org/property/> . 
@prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . 
@prefix dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . 
@prefix fb: <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/> . 
http://szekelys.com/diego 
rdf:type “Dog” ; 
http://szekelys.com/name ”Diego" ; 
dbpedia-owl:species “Labrador Retriever” ; 
dbprop:country “Canada” ; 
dbprop:color “Yellow” ; 
fb:base.petbreeds.dog.gender “Male” . 
Linked Data?! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 26
http://szekelys.com/diego 
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . 
@prefix dbpprop: <http://dbpedia.org/property/> . 
@prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . 
@prefix dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . 
@prefix fb: <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/> . 
http://szekelys.com/diego 
rdf:type “Dog” ; 
http://szekelys.com/name ”Diego" ; 
dbpedia-owl:species “Labrador Retriever” ; 
dbprop:country “Canada” ; 
dbprop:color “Yellow” ; 
fb:base.petbreeds.dog.gender “Male” . 
Not Linked Data! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 27
http://szekelys.com/diego 
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . 
@prefix dbpprop: <http://dbpedia.org/property/> . 
@prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . 
@prefix dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . 
@prefix fb: <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/> . 
http://szekelys.com/diego 
rdf:type dbpedia:Dog; 
http://szekelys.com/name ”Diego" ; 
dbpedia-owl:species dbpedia:Labrador_Retriever ; 
dbprop:country dbpedia:Canada; 
dbprop:color dbpedia:Yellow; 
fb:base.petbreeds.dog.gender fb:en.male. 
Almost Linked Data! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 28
http://szekelys.com/diego 
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . 
@prefix dbpprop: <http://dbpedia.org/property/> . 
@prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . 
@prefix dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . 
@prefix fb: <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/> . 
http://szekelys.com/diego 
rdf:type dbpedia:Dog; 
http://szekelys.com/name ”Diego" ; 
dbpedia-owl:species dbpedia:Labrador_Retriever ; 
dbprop:country dbpedia:Canada; 
dbprop:color dbpedia:Yellow; 
fb:base.petbreeds.dog.gender fb:en.male. 
Almost Linked Data! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 29
http://szekelys.com/diego 
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . 
@prefix dbpprop: <http://dbpedia.org/property/> . 
@prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . 
@prefix dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . 
@prefix fb: <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/> . 
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . 
http://szekelys.com/diego 
foaf is a widely used ontology! 
rdf:type dbpedia:Dog; 
foaf:name ”Diego" ; 
dbpedia-owl:species dbpedia:Labrador_Retriever ; 
dbprop:country dbpedia:Canada; 
dbprop:color dbpedia:Yellow; 
fb:base.petbreeds.dog.gender fb:en.male. 
Linked Data! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 30
Pedro Szekely 
RDF! 
CC-By 2.0 31
Resource Description Framework 
Intended for representing metadata about Web resources, 
such as the title, author, and modification date 
of a Web document 
… also be used to represent information about 
things that can be identified on the Web, 
even when they cannot be directly retrieved on the Web 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 32
Represent Resources Using URIs 
That guy has first name “Pedro” 
h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro 
“Pedro” 
h&p://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstName 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 33
Represent Information as Triples 
h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro 
h&p://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstName 
Subject! 
Predicate! 
“Pedro” 
The resource being described 
A property of the resource 
Object! The value of the property 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 34
Use Namespaces 
h&p://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstName 
h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro 
“Pedro” 
foaf:firstName 
h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro 
“Pedro” 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 35
RDF Graphs 
h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro 
“Pedro” 
foaf:firstName 
foaf:Person 
rdf:type 
foaf:homepage 
h&p://isi.edu/~szekely 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 36
RDF Graphs 
Real world objects! Kinds of things! 
h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro 
“Pedro” 
foaf:firstName 
foaf:Person 
rdf:type 
foaf:homepage 
h&p://isi.edu/~szekely 
Literals! 
Properties of things! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 37
Mix Vocabularies 
h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro 
“Pedro” 
foaf:Person 
foaf:firstName 
rdf:type 
h&p://isi.edu/~szekely 
foaf:homepage 
schema:Person 
rdf:type 
schema:spouse 
h&p://szekelys.com/family#claudia 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 38
Linked Open Data 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 39
Tools to Convert Data 
Pedro Szekely 
to RDF! 
CC-By 2.0 40
Steps to Create Linked Open Data 
• Select ontologies 
… that define classes and properties for our data 
• Convert data to RDF 
… from the museum database to the ontologies 
• Identify links to other Linked Data datasets 
… to other museums and Link Data hubs 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 41
• Select ontologies 
… that define classes and properties for our data 
CIDOC CRM 
http://www.cidoc-crm.org/ 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 42
• Select ontologies 
… that define classes and properties for our data 
• Convert data to RDF 
… from the museum database to the ontologies 
Pedro SzPeekderlyo Szekely CC-By 2.0 43
RDF Mapping Tools 
Tool Shortcomings Benefits 
custom 
labor intensive, error 
flexible 
code 
prone 
R2RML difficult to learn, only 
for SQL databases 
W3C standard, good documentation, 
multiple vendors 
RDF 
Refine 
only for tabular data graphical user interface, support for 
reconciliation, open source 
Karma semi-automatic, graphical user 
interface, supports tabular data, XML 
and JSON, multiple export formats, 
R2RML compatible, open source 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 44
R2RML 
About 6,550 results! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 45
R2RML Example 
:Table1 rdf:type rr:TriplesMap ; 
rr:logicalTable "Select ('<http:..isbn/' || ISBN || '>') AS isbn, 
Author, Title, Publisher, Year from book_table"; 
rr:subjectMap [ rdf:type rr:IRIMap ; rr:column "isbn" ] ; 
rr:propertyObjectMap [ rr:property a:title ; rr:column "Title" ; ] ; 
rr:propertyObjectMap [ rr:property a:year ; rr:column "Year" ; ] ; 
http://ivan-herman.name/2010/11/02/my-first-mapping-from-rdb-to-rdf-using-r2rml/! 
http://www.w3.org/TR/r2rml/! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 46
RDF Refine 
Pedro Szekely http://refine.deri.ie/rdfExportDocs!CC-By 2.0 47
Karma 
https://github.com/InformationIntegrationGroup/Web-Karma! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 48
Pedro Szekely 
Tools for Linking! 
CC-By 2.0 49
Multiple “John Singer Sargent” 
ima:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! 
a saam:SaamPerson ;! 
dct:date "1856-1925" ;! 
foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! 
cb:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! 
a saam:SaamPerson ;! 
ont0:dateOfBirth "1879", "1885" ;! 
ont0:dateOfDeath "1925" ;! 
skos:prefLabel "John Singer Sargent" .! 
saam:SaamPerson_4253! 
a saam:SaamPerson ;! 
saam:associatedPlace ! 
dallas:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! 
a saam:SaamPerson ;! 
ont0:dateOfBirth "1856" ;! 
ont0:dateOfDeath "1925" ;! 
foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! 
met:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! 
a saam:SaamPerson ;! 
ont0:placeOfResidence ! 
saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13950_0, ! 
saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13951_0 ;! 
saam:constituentId "4253" ;! 
rdaGr2:biographicalInformation ! 
“Painter. Sargent traveled …" ;! 
rdaGr2:dateAssociatedWithThePerson "1990-10-1”, "1995-5-8" ;! 
rdaGr2:dateOfBirth "1856-1-12" ;! 
rdaGr2:dateOfDeath "1925-4-15" ;! 
rdaGr2:placeOfBirth saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13952_0 ;! 
rdaGr2:placeOfDeath saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13953_0 ;! 
skos:altLabel "John S. Sargent" ;! 
skos:prefLabel "John Singer Sargent" .! 
"North and Central America", ! 
"United States" ;! 
foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 50
ima:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! 
a saam:SaamPerson ;! 
dct:date "1856-1925" ;! 
foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! 
cb:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! 
a saam:SaamPerson ;! 
ont0:dateOfBirth "1879", "1885" ;! 
ont0:dateOfDeath "1925" ;! 
skos:prefLabel "John Singer Sargent" .! 
saam:SaamPerson_4253! 
a saam:SaamPerson ;! 
saam:associatedPlace ! 
dallas:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! 
a saam:SaamPerson ;! 
ont0:dateOfBirth "1856" ;! 
ont0:dateOfDeath "1925" ;! 
foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! 
met:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! 
a saam:SaamPerson ;! 
ont0:placeOfResidence ! 
saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13950_0, ! 
saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13951_0 ;! 
saam:constituentId "4253" ;! 
rdaGr2:biographicalInformation ! 
“Painter. Sargent traveled …" ;! 
rdaGr2:dateAssociatedWithThePerson "1990-10-1”, "1995-5-8" ;! 
rdaGr2:dateOfBirth "1856-1-12" ;! 
rdaGr2:dateOfDeath "1925-4-15" ;! 
rdaGr2:placeOfBirth saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13952_0 ;! 
rdaGr2:placeOfDeath saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13953_0 ;! 
skos:altLabel "John S. Sargent" ;! 
skos:prefLabel "John Singer Sargent" .! 
"North and Central America", ! 
"United States" ;! 
foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! 
Pedro 
Szekely 
John Singer Sargent 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 51
Linking “John Singer Sargent” 
saam:SaamPerson_4253! 
owl:sameAs cb:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent ;! 
owl:sameAs dallas:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent ;! 
owl:sameAs ima:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent ;! 
owl:sameAs met:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent ;! 
owl:sameAs dbpedia:John_Singer_Sargent ;! 
owl:sameAs nytimes/N49129220686803623753 ;! 
owl:sameAs w-flick/John_Singer_Sargent ;! 
...! 
.! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 52 
Pedro 
Szekely
Linking/Reconciliation Tools 
Tool Shortcomings Benefits 
custom 
code 
very difficult tuned to the data 
SILK 
LIMES 
experimental, poor 
support 
work with RDF, efficient, relatively 
easy to use 
RDF 
Refine 
requires implementing 
a new reconciliation 
service 
integrated with RDF conversion, user 
interface for curation 
Karma under development 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 53
SILK 
http://wifo5-03.informatik.uni-mannheim.de/bizer/silk! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 54
RDF Refine 
http://refine.deri.ie/reconciliationDocs! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 55
Pedro Szekely 
Storing and 
Maintaining the Data! 
CC-By 2.0 56
Storage Options 
Technology Shortcomings Benefits 
SPARQL 
low reliability, esoteric, 
endpoint 
slow 
sophisticated query language 
RDF dump no query capability, 
esoteric 
flexibility: clients can 
download and use in 
applications, easy to publish 
JSON-LD + 
ElasticSearch 
restricted query language very high performance, 
mainstream technology, easy 
to publish 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 57
JSON-LD 
{ 
"@type": "http://www.cidoc-crm.org/cidoc-crm/E21_Person", 
"@id": "http://americanart.si.edu/data/person-institution/99”, 
“P1_is_identified_by": { 
"@type": "http://www.cidoc-crm.org/cidoc-crm/E82_Actor_Appellation", 
"@id": "http://americanart.si.edu/data/person-institution/99/appellation/Birth-or-Maiden-Name”, 
“label": " Walter Inglis Anderson”, 
“lastname": "Anderson", 
“firstname": "Walter Inglis” 
} 
} 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 58
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 59
Pedro Szekely 
Applications! 
CC-By 2.0 60
we have expanded the reach of linked data within the BBC to more 
audience facing products and presented our ambitions to using linked 
data as glue for the plethora of content the BBC produces! 
! 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/internet/posts/Linked-Data-new-ontologies-website! 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/internet/posts/Linked-Data-Connecting-together-the-BBCs-Online-Content! 
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 61 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/internet/posts/Opening-up-the-BBCs-Linked-Data!
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 62
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 63
Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 64
thanks for your attention! 
questions?!

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Linked Data and Tools

  • 1. Linked Data and Tools Pedro Szekely USC/Information Sciences Institute pszekely@isi.edu, http://isi.edu/~szekely September 2014 CC-By 2.0
  • 2. Outline • Introduction to linked open data • RDF: the Resource Description Framework • Tools to convert data to RDF • Tools for linking/reconciliation/resolution • Storing and maintaining the data • Applications Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 2
  • 3. Pedro Szekely Linked Open Data! CC-By 2.0 3
  • 4. The Web of Documents Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 4
  • 5. What We See Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 5
  • 6. What the Computer Sees blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 6
  • 7. Problem web pages are machine processable, but not machine understandable impractical for building applications using the data Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 7
  • 8. Solution publish the data as Linked Open Data Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 8
  • 9. What Is Linked Data? A method of publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful Builds upon standard Web technologies such as HTTP and URIs to share information in a way that can be read automatically by computers from Wikipedia Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 9
  • 10. “Linked” Open Data Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art Dallas Museum of Art Indianapolis Museum of Art National Portrait Gallery The Metropolitan Museum of Art Smithsonian American Art Museum Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 10
  • 11. “Linked” Open Data Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art Dallas Museum of Art … data is public! … in a common format! … but we only have islands of data! Indianapolis Museum of Art National Portrait Gallery The Metropolitan Museum of Art Smithsonian American Art Museum ✔ ✖ Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 11
  • 12. Linked Open Data Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 12
  • 13. Linked Data Principles • Use URIs as names for things • Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names • When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL) • Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things http://youtu.be/OM6XIICm_qo! http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html ! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 13
  • 14. Pedro Szekely Principle 1 Use URIs as names for things Principle 2 Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names CC-By 2.0 14
  • 15. Can USC Have a URI? Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 15
  • 17. Can the Pythagoras Theorem Have a URI? Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 17
  • 19. My Dog: Can He Have a URI? Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 19
  • 21. Pedro Szekely Principle 3 When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) CC-By 2.0 21
  • 24. Pedro Szekely http://szekelys.com/diego Principle 3 When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) CC-By 2.0 24
  • 25. Pedro Szekely Principle 4 Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things CC-By 2.0 25
  • 26. http://szekelys.com/diego @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix dbpprop: <http://dbpedia.org/property/> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . @prefix dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . @prefix fb: <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/> . http://szekelys.com/diego rdf:type “Dog” ; http://szekelys.com/name ”Diego" ; dbpedia-owl:species “Labrador Retriever” ; dbprop:country “Canada” ; dbprop:color “Yellow” ; fb:base.petbreeds.dog.gender “Male” . Linked Data?! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 26
  • 27. http://szekelys.com/diego @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix dbpprop: <http://dbpedia.org/property/> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . @prefix dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . @prefix fb: <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/> . http://szekelys.com/diego rdf:type “Dog” ; http://szekelys.com/name ”Diego" ; dbpedia-owl:species “Labrador Retriever” ; dbprop:country “Canada” ; dbprop:color “Yellow” ; fb:base.petbreeds.dog.gender “Male” . Not Linked Data! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 27
  • 28. http://szekelys.com/diego @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix dbpprop: <http://dbpedia.org/property/> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . @prefix dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . @prefix fb: <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/> . http://szekelys.com/diego rdf:type dbpedia:Dog; http://szekelys.com/name ”Diego" ; dbpedia-owl:species dbpedia:Labrador_Retriever ; dbprop:country dbpedia:Canada; dbprop:color dbpedia:Yellow; fb:base.petbreeds.dog.gender fb:en.male. Almost Linked Data! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 28
  • 29. http://szekelys.com/diego @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix dbpprop: <http://dbpedia.org/property/> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . @prefix dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . @prefix fb: <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/> . http://szekelys.com/diego rdf:type dbpedia:Dog; http://szekelys.com/name ”Diego" ; dbpedia-owl:species dbpedia:Labrador_Retriever ; dbprop:country dbpedia:Canada; dbprop:color dbpedia:Yellow; fb:base.petbreeds.dog.gender fb:en.male. Almost Linked Data! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 29
  • 30. http://szekelys.com/diego @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix dbpprop: <http://dbpedia.org/property/> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . @prefix dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . @prefix fb: <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . http://szekelys.com/diego foaf is a widely used ontology! rdf:type dbpedia:Dog; foaf:name ”Diego" ; dbpedia-owl:species dbpedia:Labrador_Retriever ; dbprop:country dbpedia:Canada; dbprop:color dbpedia:Yellow; fb:base.petbreeds.dog.gender fb:en.male. Linked Data! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 30
  • 31. Pedro Szekely RDF! CC-By 2.0 31
  • 32. Resource Description Framework Intended for representing metadata about Web resources, such as the title, author, and modification date of a Web document … also be used to represent information about things that can be identified on the Web, even when they cannot be directly retrieved on the Web Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 32
  • 33. Represent Resources Using URIs That guy has first name “Pedro” h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro “Pedro” h&p://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstName Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 33
  • 34. Represent Information as Triples h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro h&p://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstName Subject! Predicate! “Pedro” The resource being described A property of the resource Object! The value of the property Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 34
  • 35. Use Namespaces h&p://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstName h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro “Pedro” foaf:firstName h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro “Pedro” Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 35
  • 36. RDF Graphs h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro “Pedro” foaf:firstName foaf:Person rdf:type foaf:homepage h&p://isi.edu/~szekely Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 36
  • 37. RDF Graphs Real world objects! Kinds of things! h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro “Pedro” foaf:firstName foaf:Person rdf:type foaf:homepage h&p://isi.edu/~szekely Literals! Properties of things! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 37
  • 38. Mix Vocabularies h&p://szekelys.com/family#pedro “Pedro” foaf:Person foaf:firstName rdf:type h&p://isi.edu/~szekely foaf:homepage schema:Person rdf:type schema:spouse h&p://szekelys.com/family#claudia Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 38
  • 39. Linked Open Data Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 39
  • 40. Tools to Convert Data Pedro Szekely to RDF! CC-By 2.0 40
  • 41. Steps to Create Linked Open Data • Select ontologies … that define classes and properties for our data • Convert data to RDF … from the museum database to the ontologies • Identify links to other Linked Data datasets … to other museums and Link Data hubs Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 41
  • 42. • Select ontologies … that define classes and properties for our data CIDOC CRM http://www.cidoc-crm.org/ Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 42
  • 43. • Select ontologies … that define classes and properties for our data • Convert data to RDF … from the museum database to the ontologies Pedro SzPeekderlyo Szekely CC-By 2.0 43
  • 44. RDF Mapping Tools Tool Shortcomings Benefits custom labor intensive, error flexible code prone R2RML difficult to learn, only for SQL databases W3C standard, good documentation, multiple vendors RDF Refine only for tabular data graphical user interface, support for reconciliation, open source Karma semi-automatic, graphical user interface, supports tabular data, XML and JSON, multiple export formats, R2RML compatible, open source Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 44
  • 45. R2RML About 6,550 results! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 45
  • 46. R2RML Example :Table1 rdf:type rr:TriplesMap ; rr:logicalTable "Select ('<http:..isbn/' || ISBN || '>') AS isbn, Author, Title, Publisher, Year from book_table"; rr:subjectMap [ rdf:type rr:IRIMap ; rr:column "isbn" ] ; rr:propertyObjectMap [ rr:property a:title ; rr:column "Title" ; ] ; rr:propertyObjectMap [ rr:property a:year ; rr:column "Year" ; ] ; http://ivan-herman.name/2010/11/02/my-first-mapping-from-rdb-to-rdf-using-r2rml/! http://www.w3.org/TR/r2rml/! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 46
  • 47. RDF Refine Pedro Szekely http://refine.deri.ie/rdfExportDocs!CC-By 2.0 47
  • 49. Pedro Szekely Tools for Linking! CC-By 2.0 49
  • 50. Multiple “John Singer Sargent” ima:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! a saam:SaamPerson ;! dct:date "1856-1925" ;! foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! cb:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! a saam:SaamPerson ;! ont0:dateOfBirth "1879", "1885" ;! ont0:dateOfDeath "1925" ;! skos:prefLabel "John Singer Sargent" .! saam:SaamPerson_4253! a saam:SaamPerson ;! saam:associatedPlace ! dallas:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! a saam:SaamPerson ;! ont0:dateOfBirth "1856" ;! ont0:dateOfDeath "1925" ;! foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! met:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! a saam:SaamPerson ;! ont0:placeOfResidence ! saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13950_0, ! saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13951_0 ;! saam:constituentId "4253" ;! rdaGr2:biographicalInformation ! “Painter. Sargent traveled …" ;! rdaGr2:dateAssociatedWithThePerson "1990-10-1”, "1995-5-8" ;! rdaGr2:dateOfBirth "1856-1-12" ;! rdaGr2:dateOfDeath "1925-4-15" ;! rdaGr2:placeOfBirth saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13952_0 ;! rdaGr2:placeOfDeath saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13953_0 ;! skos:altLabel "John S. Sargent" ;! skos:prefLabel "John Singer Sargent" .! "North and Central America", ! "United States" ;! foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 50
  • 51. ima:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! a saam:SaamPerson ;! dct:date "1856-1925" ;! foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! cb:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! a saam:SaamPerson ;! ont0:dateOfBirth "1879", "1885" ;! ont0:dateOfDeath "1925" ;! skos:prefLabel "John Singer Sargent" .! saam:SaamPerson_4253! a saam:SaamPerson ;! saam:associatedPlace ! dallas:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! a saam:SaamPerson ;! ont0:dateOfBirth "1856" ;! ont0:dateOfDeath "1925" ;! foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! met:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent! a saam:SaamPerson ;! ont0:placeOfResidence ! saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13950_0, ! saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13951_0 ;! saam:constituentId "4253" ;! rdaGr2:biographicalInformation ! “Painter. Sargent traveled …" ;! rdaGr2:dateAssociatedWithThePerson "1990-10-1”, "1995-5-8" ;! rdaGr2:dateOfBirth "1856-1-12" ;! rdaGr2:dateOfDeath "1925-4-15" ;! rdaGr2:placeOfBirth saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13952_0 ;! rdaGr2:placeOfDeath saam:SaamPlace_1357324439768t1r13953_0 ;! skos:altLabel "John S. Sargent" ;! skos:prefLabel "John Singer Sargent" .! "North and Central America", ! "United States" ;! foaf:name "John Singer Sargent" .! Pedro Szekely John Singer Sargent Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 51
  • 52. Linking “John Singer Sargent” saam:SaamPerson_4253! owl:sameAs cb:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent ;! owl:sameAs dallas:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent ;! owl:sameAs ima:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent ;! owl:sameAs met:SaamPerson_John_Singer_Sargent ;! owl:sameAs dbpedia:John_Singer_Sargent ;! owl:sameAs nytimes/N49129220686803623753 ;! owl:sameAs w-flick/John_Singer_Sargent ;! ...! .! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 52 Pedro Szekely
  • 53. Linking/Reconciliation Tools Tool Shortcomings Benefits custom code very difficult tuned to the data SILK LIMES experimental, poor support work with RDF, efficient, relatively easy to use RDF Refine requires implementing a new reconciliation service integrated with RDF conversion, user interface for curation Karma under development Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 53
  • 56. Pedro Szekely Storing and Maintaining the Data! CC-By 2.0 56
  • 57. Storage Options Technology Shortcomings Benefits SPARQL low reliability, esoteric, endpoint slow sophisticated query language RDF dump no query capability, esoteric flexibility: clients can download and use in applications, easy to publish JSON-LD + ElasticSearch restricted query language very high performance, mainstream technology, easy to publish Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 57
  • 58. JSON-LD { "@type": "http://www.cidoc-crm.org/cidoc-crm/E21_Person", "@id": "http://americanart.si.edu/data/person-institution/99”, “P1_is_identified_by": { "@type": "http://www.cidoc-crm.org/cidoc-crm/E82_Actor_Appellation", "@id": "http://americanart.si.edu/data/person-institution/99/appellation/Birth-or-Maiden-Name”, “label": " Walter Inglis Anderson”, “lastname": "Anderson", “firstname": "Walter Inglis” } } Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 58
  • 61. we have expanded the reach of linked data within the BBC to more audience facing products and presented our ambitions to using linked data as glue for the plethora of content the BBC produces! ! http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/internet/posts/Linked-Data-new-ontologies-website! http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/internet/posts/Linked-Data-Connecting-together-the-BBCs-Online-Content! Pedro Szekely CC-By 2.0 61 http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/internet/posts/Opening-up-the-BBCs-Linked-Data!
  • 65. thanks for your attention! questions?!