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Getty Vocabularies and LOD Conversion

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The Getty Vocabularies
Patricia Harpring - Managing Editor, Getty Vocabulary Program

Getty Vocabularies - Why LOD? Why now?
A Brief History of the Project
Joan Cobb - IT Specialist Project Manager, Getty Information Technology Services

October 21, 2014

Published in: Art & Photos
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Getty Vocabularies and LOD Conversion

  1. 1. THE GETTY VOCABULARIES A Brief Overview & Linked Open Data Patricia Harpring Managing Editor, Getty Vocabulary Program Revised October 2014 Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  2. 2. www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/index.html  For basic information on vocabularies, see Introduction to Controlled Vocabularies (Harpring, Baca editor, revised 2013) and its bibliography Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  3. 3. www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/index.html What Are the Getty Vocabularies? AAT TGN ULAN CONA Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  4. 4. What are the Getty vocabularies?  Catherine wheel or rose window? Mona Lisa or La Gioconda?  The AAT, TGN, ULAN and CONA contain multilingual terminology and other related data to describe o visual art, architecture, other cultural heritage works, conservation, archaeology, archival materials, visual surrogates, and related bibliographic materials Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  5. 5.  Getty vocabularies are valued as authoritative o Grow through contributions from experts o Contributors and sources are cited  Compiled, merged, edited, and published by the Getty Vocabulary Program and our technical team  Data is made available in various ways: via online searching; relational tables, XML format, Web services APIs o Now as Linked Open Data: structured and published to make it openly accessible and shareable on the Semantic Web  Open Data Commons Attribution License (ODC-By) v1.0  Allows sharing, creation, adaptation of data with attribution Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  6. 6.  Getty vocabularies are thesauri compliant with national (NISO) and international (ISO) standards for thesaurus construction  They are compliant with / map to other standards: o CDWA (Categories for the Description of Works of Art) o CCO (Cataloging Cultural Objects) o VRA Core (Visual Resources Association core categories) o LIDO (Lightweight Information Describing Objects) o CIDOC CRM (CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model) (ISO 21127:2006) o etc. Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  7. 7.  Features that allow the Getty vocabularies to be used in cataloging, retrieval, and linking o Each Getty vocabulary record, each term, and other data are identified by unique numeric IDs o Many other fields are controlled by lookup lists o The vocabularies are linked to each other o The vocabularies share a core data structure Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  8. 8. Scope and Content of the Getty Vocabularies AAT TGN ULAN CONA Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  9. 9. AAT, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus® Generic terms for describing art and architecture (fine art, built works, decorative arts, other material culture, visual surrogates, archival materials, archaeology, and conservation) (e.g., oil paintings, Baroque, lithographers, sintering). Current totals: 36,000 records; 245,000 terms • AAT is multilingual; large translation projects are underway • Conceptually organized from terms to describe abstract concepts to generic terms for concrete, physical artifacts • Facets are the upper levels of the AAT structure • AAT is not organized by subject matter or discipline Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  10. 10. AAT, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus® hierarchical Objects Facet .... Furnishings and Equipment ........ Containers ............ culinary containers ................ <vessels for serving / consuming food> .................... rhyta stirrup cups coaching glasses hunting glasses associative sturzbechers Sturzbecher stortebekers distinguished from rhyta rhyton rhytons rhea rheon rheons ritón equivalence Thesaural relationships Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  11. 11. AAT, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus® Sample record ID: 300132869 Terms: bobbin lace (pref, en) bone lace (en) cushion lace (en) 梭心蕾絲(zh) 線軸編織花邊(zh) kloskant (nl) dentelle aux fuseaux (fr) encaje de bolillos (es) encaje de bolillo (es) Klöppelspitze (de) Klöppelspitzen (de) Associative Relationships requires ... lace pillows (<textile fabricating tools and equipment>...Objects Facet) [300132869] Hierarchical Relationships (poly) .Objects Facet ... Visual & Verbal Communication ..... Visual Works ....... visual works (works) ......... <visual works by material > ........... needlework (visual works) ............. lace (needlework) ............... bobbin lace Note: With "needle lace," one of two primary types of handmade lace. It is characterized by being made by ... Chinese (traditional) ..... 與「針織蕾絲(needle lace)」同為主要的手工蕾絲,其特色是以纏繞 於線軸或梭心... Dutch ..... Een van de twee belangrijkste soorten met de hand vervaardigde kant; 'naaldkant' is ... German ..... Zusammen mit der “Nadelspitze” eine der wichtigsten... Spanish ..... Junto a "encaje a aguja", uno de los dos tipos principales de … Contributors: VP,CHIN,AS,RKD,IfM-SMB-PK,CDPB-DIBAM Sources: Earnshaw, Clabburn, Needleworker's Dictionary (1976); Identification of Lace, 2d ed. (1984); Ginsburg, Illustrated History of Textiles (1991) Images by be under additional copyright
  12. 12. • Getty Conservation Institute (Los Angeles, California) • Academia Sinica (Nankang, Taiwan) • Netherlands Institute for Art History (RKD: Bureau AAT) (The Hague, The Netherlands) • Centro de Documentación de Bienes Patrimoniales (Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos) (Santiago, Chile) • Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin, Germany) • [Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN) (Gatineau, Quebec, Canada), Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione (Rome, Italy)(ICCD)] and other contributors of partial translations; future translations in French, Italian, Portuguese, other languages Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  13. 13. TGN, the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names® Names, other information for current & historical administrative places (cities, nations, empires) and physical features (e.g., Firenze, Roman Empire, Ganges River). Current totals: 1,241,000; 1,800,000 names • It includes formerly inhabited places, archaeological sites, and historical places with unknown exact locations (i.e., “lost settlements”) • It focuses on places important to study of art and related disciplines • It grows through contributions from large national geographic databases, the expert user community, archaeology projects, scholars, etc. Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  14. 14. TGN, the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names® Sample record Hierarchical Rels. (polyhier.) Place Types Associative Rels AAT Images by be under additional copyright
  15. 15. ULAN, the Union List of Artist Names® Names, other information for people (artists, patrons, sitters) and corporate bodies (repositories, studios) related to the design, creation, patronage, collection, conservation, etc. of art, architecture, and other cultural materials (e.g., Bartolo di Fredi, Santa Eufemia Master, National Palace Museum) Current totals: 223,000 records; 582,000 names • ULAN includes current and historical associative relationships (e.g., student-teacher, firm-member) • Contributions to ULAN are from experts (museums, art libraries, cataloging projects, etc.) • ULAN contributes to the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) (joint project with US Library of Congress and numerous libraries worldwide to combine name authority) Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  16. 16. ULAN, the Union List of Artist Names® Within the last several years the scope has grown to include “Non-Artists” (e.g., sitters and patrons) and “Unknown People by Culture” (e.g., unknown Aztec) [different from anonymous masters, e.g., Santa Eufemia Master] The newest facet is “Unidentified Named People” For the most part, includes people named in original sources, such as archival documents and inventories Their name or partial name is known, they are linked to the document (if linked to a work, the work is often unidentified), but their biography is unknown and thus they cannot be associated with a known person or anonymous personality Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  17. 17. ULAN, the Union List of Artist Names® Sample record ID: 500115493 Names: Dürer, Albrecht (pref,de,en) Albrecht Dürer Duerer, Albrecht (en) Durer, Albrecht (en) Dürero, Alberto (it) Durerus, Albertus (la) Direr, Albreht Djurer, Albrecht Dyûrâ, Albrecht Dīrers, Albrehts Alberto Duro Tedesco デューラー, アルブレヒト(ja) 阿尔布雷希特·丢勒(zh) Nationalities: German (pref) Bavarian Roles: artist (preferred) painter printmaker engraver (printmaker) woodcutter draftsman illustrator designer mathematician theorist portraitist religious artist Gender: male Birth and Death Places: Born: Nuremberg (Bavaria, Germany) (inhab place) Died: Nuremberg (Bavaria, Germany) (inhab place) Events: active: Nuremberg (Bavaria, Germany) (inhab pl) active: Venice (Veneto, Italy) (inhabited place) Associative Relationships: apprentice of Wolgemut, Michael; 1486 to 1489 ..............(German painter, printmaker, 1434/1437-1519) child of Dürer, Albrecht, the elder .............(German goldsmith, 1427-1502) founder of ...Albrecht Dürer Workshop ............. (German workshop, established 1495) patron was ...Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor ............. (Roman emperor, 1459-1519) Contributors: VP,JPGM,Avery,WCI,Prov,GRLPSC,BHA,CCA Sources: Bartrum, Albrecht Dürer and his Legacy (2002); Bénézit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976; Bartsch, Le peintre graveur. Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. AAT AAT TGN Images by be under additional copyright
  18. 18. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Titles, other information for moveable works (paintings, sculpture, prints, drawings, photographs, ceramics, etc.) and architecture (buildings, bridges, etc.) (e.g., Hagia Sophia, Mona Lisa, Fantastic Landscape with a Pavilion). Current totals: [5,500 records; 9,300 titles] • It includes works executed or designed (e.g., a built work for which only design drawings exist); extant or destroyed / historical • CONA is a thesaurus; it is mapped to CDWA, CCO, CIDOC CRM, and LIDO • CONA grows through contributions from repositories of art and the expert cataloging and scholarly community Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  19. 19. The Simplified entity-relationship diagram for CONA is the same as CDWA / CCO ULAN TGN AAT Iconography Authority CONA (Work Records) Source Records Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  20. 20. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® What is a minimum record for contribution? Core elements Catalog Level Classification Work Type Title Creator Creation Date Subject Current Location Measurements Materials Catalog Level item Classification paintings Work Type painting (visual work) scroll (information artifact) Title Scene of Early Spring 宋郭熙早春圖軸 Creator Guo Xi (Chinese painter, 1023 - ca.1085 CE) Creation Date 1072 CE Subject (general) landscape (specific) | spring (season) | trees pine (genus) | streams Current Location National Palace Museum (Taipei, Taiwan) ID: 000053N000000000 Measurements 158.3 x 108.1 cm Materials painted scroll | ink | silk | paper Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright * Instructions are available to contributors for defaults when core data is unavailable
  21. 21. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Under discussion are the possible applications of CONA: Perhaps in the future • CONA can merge information from various sources and contributors about a given architectural or movable work, and provide a unique ID for that work in LOD • Information from the repository of a work will be preferred (e.g., attribution), but other opinions and additional information of scholars could be included • CONA could be a resource to link the Getty vocabularies to records for art and architecture (in LOD, ingested, or otherwise made available) • CONA could link subject terminology to art and architecture records • CONA could facilitate linking between works, including works held in different repositories but having historical relationships (e.g., studies, disassembled manuscripts, etc.) Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  22. 22.  CONA merges information from multiple sources in one record CONA ID: 700000178 Catalog Level item Classification paintings Work Type panel painting | altarpiece Title Adoration of the Magi Adorazione dei Magi (repository title) Creator Bartolo di Fredi (Sienese painter, active by 1353, died 1410) Creation Date ca. 1385 Subject (general) religion and mythology allegory | human figures (specific) | Adoration of the Magi | Siena | horses | camels | Magi | retinue | Holy Family | Journey of the Magi | gold | frankincense | myrrh | kingship | godship | death Current Location Pinacoteca Nazionale di Siena (Siena, Italy); ID: no. 104 Measurements 195 x 158 cm (76 x 61 5/8 inches) Materials tempera on panel Contributors Sources • CONA ID uniquely identifies the work in LOD world • Repository title is flagged, others included • Date of execution is in dispute: The display of the CONA record prefers the date espoused by the Repository, but the other scholarly opinions are included elsewhere in the record Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Images may be under additional copyright
  23. 23.  CONA could link work records to Getty vocabularies CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Catalog Level item Classification vessels Work Type vase Title Blue and White Glazed Globular Vase 明永樂青花龍紋天球瓶 Creator unknown Chinese Creation Date 1403/1424 CE Subject (general) object (utilitarian) (specific) | animal | dragon Current Location National Palace Museum (Taipei, Taiwan) ID: 012547N000000000 Measurements 42.9 cm high and 9.7 cm diameter; foot diameter 15.8 cm Materials blue and white porcelain | porcelain (material) | blue-and-white (ceramic glaze) Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Linking to the AAT and other Getty vocabularies allows the variant terms and other links and information in the AAT, ULAN, or TGN record to be used in retrieval of the work Images may be under additional copyright
  24. 24. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Sample record  CONA could link work records to Getty vocabularies ID: 700001950 Titles: Shiva met de maan in het haar (nl) Shiva with the Moon in his Hair (en) Catalog Level: item Work Types: sculpture (visual work) Classifications: sculpture (preferred) Creation Date: 1000/1200 Creator Display: anoniem sculptor: unknown Chola ULAN TGN Locations: Current: Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands) AK-MAK-1291; RM001.collect.910; Bruikleen van de Vereniging van Vrienden der Aziatische Kunst Creation: Tamil Nādu (India) Materials: bronze founding AAT Dimensions: 40 cm (height) x 24cm (width) x 10.5 (depth) Events: exhibition: Metamorfoze/Geheugenproject Willem Witsen AAT Cultures: Indian Chola AAT AAT General Subject: TGN human figure(s) (preferred ) ULAN religion and mythology CONA Specific Subjects: CONA IA Shivá (Hindu iconography) mudrā (pose, <visual and representational concepts>) [link to Iconclass] AAT ULAN Images may be under additional copyright Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Contributors & Sources: [Rijksmuseum;VP]; Rijksmuseum XML file
  25. 25. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Sample record AAT ULAN Associative Relationship TGN AAT AAT TGN ULAN CONA CONA IA Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Images may be under additional copyright
  26. 26.  Since CONA is linked to the other vocabularies, it is necessary to match incoming values to the AAT, ULAN, TGN, and CONA Iconography Authority when loaded  The CVA/Processor was developed in-house for editors to use where auto-links are not possible  Such a tool for contributors should be investigated CONA record, creator Koenig, Pierre (American architect, 1925-2004) 500086520 link to ULAN Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust Tools to link as data is loaded or processed: Example CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority®
  27. 27. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority®  CONA could link depicted subjects  Whereas libraries have a tradition of cataloging the subjects of works  Many art museums typically do not index subject matter depicted in / represented by works o [sitters, places, events, iconographical themes, dedication of certain buildings, etc.] o In a survey conducted of American art museums’ data, of the core fields (agreed by consensus in CDWA, CCO, etc.), all museums included all core fields except the subject [by OCLC (Online Computer Library Center, a nonprofit computer library service and research organization); core fields per CCO and CDWA (Categories for the Description of Works of Art)] Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  28. 28. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority®  CONA could link depicted subjects Index three levels of subject analysis Objective description Identification of named subject Interpretation of the meaning or theme Of-ness About-ness • For such subject indexing: CONA can link to AAT, TGN, ULAN, CONA itself, and the CONA Iconography Authority • As well as to other sources for subjects, such as the US Library of Congress authorities and Iconclass (we intend to work closely with Iconclass, a Dutch classification system, www.iconclass.nl/) Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  29. 29. Terms for General Subjects (partial list) advertising & commercial allegory animal apparel architecture botanical cartographic ceremonial object cityscape didactic & propaganda funerary art genre history and legend human figure interior architecture landscape literary theme machine military mixed motif nonrepresentational art object (utilitarian) performance portrait religion and mythology seascape still life • General subject is an extensible controlled list, originally derived from CDWA and CCO • One term for general subject is the minimum required • Additional terms to describe the specific subject are strongly encouraged • How to supply values when missing in large data sets? Title and notes could be mined, parsed, mapped to vocabularies, checked by editors as necessary Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  30. 30. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Class: photograph Work Type: albumen print Title: Lincoln on the Battlefield of Antietam, Maryland, October 2, 1862 Creator/Role: Alexander Gardner (American photographer, 1821-1882) Creation-Date: 1862 Current Location: J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, CA), 84.xm.482.1 Measurements: 8 5/8 x 7 3/4 in. Materials and Techniques: albumen print Descriptive Note: Twenty-six thousand soldiers were killed or wounded in the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, after which Confederate General Robert E. Lee was forced to retreat to Virginia. Lincoln stands tall, front and center in his stovepipe hat, his erect and commanding posture emphasized by the tent pole that seems to be an extension of his spine... Depicted Subjects General portraits history and legend Specific Antietam National Battlefield (Sharpsburg, Maryland, United States) . TGN American Civil War (event) . . . . . . . CONA IA Abraham Lincoln (American president, 1809-1865) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ULAN John McClernand (American Union General, 1812-1900) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ULAN Allan Pinkerton (American Secret Service agent, detective, 1819-1884) . ULAN army camp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AAT tents (portable buildings) . . . . . . . . . AAT Lincoln on the Battlefield of Antietam; albumen print; Alexander Gardner (American photographer, 1821-1882); 1862; 8 5/8 x 7 3/4 inches; J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, CA); Patricia8 H4arp.rxinmg ©. 240184 2J. .P1aul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  31. 31. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Class: prints and drawings Object Type: record drawing Title: Plan and Elevation of the left side of the façade of San Lorenzo, and various other details Creator: Aristotile da Sangallo (Italian) after Michelangelo [link] Sangallo, Aristotile da Role: draftsman Date: late 15th century Subject*: architecture San Lorenzo (Florence, Italy) church façade elevation plan Measurements: 32.0 x 21.5 cm (12 1/2 x 8 3/8 inches) Material and Technique: pen and sepia ink Inscription: Upper center: chiosi grande achoperatione; el tondo tanto grande che / vengha al pari de nichi; Descriptive Note: This is a copy of a design by Michelangelo for the façade. Current Location: Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, Munich, Germany; #33258 General architecture Specific San Lorenzo (built work, Florence, Italy) . . . . . . . . CONA church . . . . . . . . . . . . . AAT façade . . . . . . . . . . . . . AAT elevation . . . . . . . . . . . AAT plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AAT Plan and Elevation of the façade of San Lorenzo; drawing; Aristotile da Sangallo after Michelangelo; late 15th century; 32.0 x 21.5 cm (12 1/2 x 8 3/8 inches); pen and sepia ink; Staatliche Graphische Sammlung (Munich, Germany) #33258. Depicted Subjects Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  32. 32. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Bodhisattva, probably Avalokiteshvara (Guanyin), Northern Qi dynasty (550- 577), ca. 550–560. Shanxi Province, China. sandstone with pigments ; height 13 3/4 ft. (419.1 cm); Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York); The Sackler Fund, 1965 (65.29.4). Depicted Subjects General religion and mythology human figure(s) Specific Bodhisattva . . . . AAT Avalokiteshvar a. CONA IA Maitreya . . . . . . . CONA IA Compassion . . . . AAT Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  33. 33. The CONA Iconography Authority Named events, religious/mythological iconography, fictional characters and places, themes from literature  Includes the proper names of subjects not covered by other Getty vocabularies  The CONA Iconography Authority (IA) is a module within CONA; over time, it could become a stand-alone authority through contributions  Includes links to other sources, such as Iconclass and the US Library of Congress subject authorities Battle of Little Bighorn Nohochacyum Amun Ἄμμων Valhöll Valhalla Pied Piper of Hamelin Rattenfänger von Hameln Shiva Siva Xiva िशव Adoration of the Magi Adorazione dei Magi Anbetung der Heiligen Drei Könige Bambi Battle of Salamis Naumachia tēs Salaminos Enthronement of Puyi 溥儀的登基大典 Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  34. 34. The CONA Iconography Authority Sample record ID: 1000085 Names: Avalokiteshvara Avalokiteśvara अवलोिकतेæवर Kannon Guanyin Guānzìzài 觀自在 觀音 观音菩萨 AAT link: AAT role/attribute bodhisattva TGN role/attribute Lotus (genus) ULAN related to Mahayana Buddhism CONA related to Theravada Buddhism Associative Relationship: associated with .... Krishna (Hindu iconography) Note: The bodhisattva of infinite compassion and mercy; embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. This bodhisattva is variably depicted and portrayed in different cultures as either female or male… Contributors & sources [VP] Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-); Bowker, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions (1997); Huntington, Art of Ancient India (1985) Iconclass: no LC: LC control no.: sh 85010492 Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  35. 35. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Relationships in CONA  CONA could provide links between works • Whole/part relationships for groups, subgroups, items • CONA can accommodate links that a repository would maintain The Dissipation; Jacques Callot (French, 1592-1635); etching; Lieure, no. 1407, State ii/iii; National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC); R.L. Baumfeld Collection; 1969.15.833. Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  36. 36. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Record Type: set Class: decorative arts Work Type: tea service silver Title: Traveling tea service Creation Location: Paris (France) Creation Dae: 1728/1729 Creator: probably by: Martin Berthe, master in 1712 Measurements: Overall (Teapot): 10 x 16.8 x 10.3 cm (3 15/16 x 6 5/8 x 4 1/16 in.) Overall (Tea Canister): 9 x 5.9 x 4.9 cm (3 9/16 x 2 5/16 x 1 15/16 in.) Overall (Sugar bowl): 10 cm (3 15/16 in.) Overall (Tea bowl and saucer): 4.9 cm (1 15/16 in.) Overall (Scent flask): 13.7 cm (5 3/8 in.) Overall (Spoons (each)): 11.7 cm (4 5/8 in.) Overall (Box): 15.4 cm (6 1/16 in.) Materials: silver and ebonized wood; porcelain; glass; kingwood; rosewood Inscriptions/Marks: Maker's Mark: a crowned fleur-de-lys, 2 grains, [M]B, a bunch of grapes ? (Dennis 50): Underside. Warden's Mark: 1728-29, a crowned M (Dennis 57): Underside. Charge Mark: 1727-32, an A crowned on the side (Dennis 57): Underside, partially effaced. Discharge Mark: for medium-sized work, 1727-32, a crowned martlet (Dennis 57): Underside. Countermark: 1727-32, a crowned bell (Dennis 343): flange of lid. Description: Traveling tea service consisting of a teapot; tea canister; suagrbowl; teabowl and saucer; scent flask; two spoons; box. Current Location: Museum of Fine Arts (Boston, Massachusetts); Elizabeth Parke Firestone and Harvey S. Firestone, Jr. Collection, 1993; Accession number: 1993.520.1-8 Ownership History: By 1955, with Jean-Louis Bonnefoy, Au Vieux Paris, Paris; November 1955, sold by Au Vieux Paris to Elizabeth Parke Firestone (1897-1990) and Harvey S. Firestone, Jr. (1898-1973), Akron, OH and Newport, RI; 1993; gift of the Estate of Elizabeth Parke Firestone and Harvey S. Firestone, Jr. (Accession date: May 26, 1993) Traveling Tea Service Teapot Tea Caddy Japanese Imari Sugar Bowl and Cover Chinese Famille- Verte Tea Bowl and Saucer Silver-mounted Scent Flask Two Spoons Wooden Box Traveling tea service; probably Martin Berthe (French silversmith, master 1712); 1728/1729; silver and ebonized wood, porcelain, glass; various dimensions; Museum of Fine Arts (Boston, Massachusetts); 1993.520.1-8 Create separate records when each part of a work contains enough unique information so that it would be difficult to clearly delineate the information in a single record Repositories decide when separate records may be necessary to manage the works Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  37. 37. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Relationships in CONA Cat. Level[controlled]: series  Class. [controlled]: prints *Work Type [link to authority]: color woodcuts *Title : Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji: First Series Alternate Title: First Series: Mt. Fuji Views *Creator Display: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760–1849); Published by Eijudo Japan *Role [controlled]: painter [link]: Hokusai, Katsushika Role: [cont.] publisher [link]: Eijudo Japan *Creation Date 1827-1837 [controlled]:  Earliest: 1827  Latest: 1837 *Subject [links] Mount Fuji ocean genre scenes meisho-e *Current Location [link to authority]: not applicable Style: Edo *Measurements: 36 prints, average plate size: 24 x 37 cm [cont.] Extent: items Value: 36 Unit: N/A Type: count Qualifier: average dimensions Extent: plate mark Value: 24 Unit: cm Type: height Value: 37 Unit: cm Type: width  Whole/Part Records for a series and items (conceptual relationship) *Materials and Techniques: woodcuts, polychrome ink and color on paper [link] ink color (pigment) paper woodcuts Description: Hokusai produced two series of Views of Mt. Fuji. This is the first series. Cat. Level [controlled]: item  Class .[controlled]: prints and drawings Asian art *Work Type [link]:  color woodcut  *Title: Great Wave at Kanagawa Title: In the Hollow of a Wave off the Coast at Kanagawa Title Type: alternate  *Creator Display: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760-1849); published by Nishimura Eijudo (Japanese, 19th century) *Role [link]: printmaker [link]: Hokusai, Katsushika *Role [link]: publisher [link]: Nishimura Eijudo  *Creation Date: ca. 1831/1833 [controlled]:  Earliest: 1828  Latest: 1836  *Subject [links]: seascape wave fishermen boat Mount Fuji (Chubu, Japan) Kanagawa (Kanto, Japan)  Style [link]: Edo  Culture [link]: Japanese  *Current Location [link]: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA) ID:JP1847  *Measurements: 25.7 x 37.9 cm (10 1/8 x 14 15/16 inches) [controlled]: Value: 25.7 Unit: cm Type: height | Value: 37.9 Unit: cm Type: width  *Materials and Techniques: woodcut, polychrome ink and color on paper Material [links]:  polychrome ink paper  color (pigment) Technique [links]:  woodcut  Description: The large wave dominates the scene, with the small mountain in the background. It is said to have inspired said to have inspired both Debussy's "La Mer" and Rilke's "Der Berg."  Relationship: Relationship Type: part of Qualifier: 1st in series [link to Work]: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760-1849); Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji: First Series; 1827-1837 Great Wave at Kanagawa; Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760-1849); published by Nishimura Eijudo (Japanese, 19th century); woodcut, polychrome ink and color on paper; 25.7 x 37.9 cm (10 1/8 x 14 15/16 inches); Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA), JP1847. Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  38. 38. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Relationships in CONA Record Type: multiples Classification: prints and drawings Work Type: drypoints Title: Christ Presented to the People Creator: Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669) Description: Rembrandt treated this large drypoint almost as a painting, making marked changes to the composition as he reconceived …  Multiples: For example, prints made from the same plate  Each print is described as a unique item; then linked to a record for the multiples  (conceptual relationship) Patricia Harpring © 2012 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes. Do not reproduce. Images may be under additional copyright
  39. 39. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Relationships in CONA Catalog Level: multiples Classification: prints and drawings Work Type: drypoints Title: Christ Presented to the People Creator: Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669) Description: Rembrandt treated this large drypoint almost as a painting, making marked changes to the composition as he reconceived … State: 1 State: 2 State: 3 State: 4 State: 5 State: 6 State: 7 State: 8  Combine relationships with inferred relationships in other fields to expand research  E.g., to compare different items representing various states of this print Patricia Harpring © 2012 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes. Do not reproduce. Images may be under additional copyright
  40. 40. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Classification architecture Work Type memorial Titles Lincoln Memorial Creator architect Henry Bacon (American, 1866- 1924) and sculptor Daniel Chester French (American, 1850-1931) Creation Date designed 1911-1912; constructed 1914-1922 Subject (general) architecture (specific) commemoration | Abraham Lincoln Current Location Washington (DC, USA) Measurements not available Materials exterior: Colorado Yule marble, interior walls and columns: Indiana limestone  Work record for a built work describes a physical work  But designs may represent works never constructed (conceptual relationship to a nonexistent work) Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  41. 41. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Lincoln Memorial Structure (as built) Competition 1908-1909 Competition 1911-1912  These competition designs are works that were never constructed  (conceptual relationships to a nonexistent work, which had architect and proposed physical characteristics such as materials, measurements, etc.) Title: Circular Monument for Lincoln Maker: architect: Daniel H. Burnham; draftsman: C.B. Date: 1908-1909 Location: United States Capitol collection (Washington, DC) Title: Temple design for the Lincoln Memorial Maker: architect: Henry Bacon; draftsman: Jules Guéren Date: 1912 Location: National Archives (Washington, DC) Burnham’s Circular Design Bacon’s Temple Design Pope’s Temple Design Title: Temple design for the Lincoln Memorial Maker: architect: John Russell Pope; draftsman: Otto R. Eggers Date: 1912 Location: National Archives (Washington, DC) Pope’s Pyramid Design Title: Pyramid design for the Lincoln Memorial Maker: architect: John Russell Pope; draftsman: attributed to Rockwell Kent Date: 1912 Location: National Archives (Washington, DC) Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  42. 42. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Relationships in CONA • CONA could virtually reconstruct disassembled works • Held in different repositories or locations • Manuscripts, paintings, sculpture, architecture, etc. Proposed reconstruction of Matteo di Giovanni’s Asciano Altarpiece by Rachel Billinge. Extant panels are now in National Gallery London, Siena, Asciano, Villa I Tatti, Esztergom, Altenburg, Rhode Island, and Private Collections. Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  43. 43. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Associative Relationships relationships may also allow related works in different repositories to be linked for research and discovery Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres; Study for the Dress and the Hands of Madame Moitessier; 1851; graphite on tracing pape; 13 15/16 x 6 5/8 inches; J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, California); 91.GG.79 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres; Madame Moitessier; 1851; Samuel H. Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC); 1946.7.18 Associative study for study is Relationships in CONA Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  44. 44. CONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® part of  Many complex relationships are possible  Built work – dome – design drawing – record drawing - model study for model for Class: sculpture Work Type: half model Title: Half Model for the Dome and Drum for St. Peter’s, Rome Title Type: descriptive Creators: Michelangelo and Giacomo della Porta; Luigi Vanvitelli Date: 1558-1561 Medium: linden wood, gesso, paint Measurements: 5 x 4 x 2 m (without modern base) Scale: 1:15 Current Location: Musei Vaticani (Vatican City, Italy) Subject: Dome of St. Peter’s Related Work: Dome of St. Peter’s Descriptive Note: The model was probably completed under the direction of Michelangelo during … Class: prints and drawings Work Type: •design drawing •preliminary drawing Title: Section and Elevation of the Drum and Dome of St. Peter’s Title Type: descriptive Creator: Michelangelo (Florentine sculptor, painter, architect, 1475-1564) Date: mid 1550s Medium: incised lines, charcoal with traces of brown ink on paper Measurements: 270 x 267 cm Type, Purpose, Method of Representation: Descriptive Note: This is the only known drawing where… Subject/Built Work: •section •elevation •Dome (St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome) Related Work: Dome (St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome) Relationship type: design for Current Location: Musée des Beaux Arts (Lille, France) Collection Wicar, 93-94 Class: prints and drawings Work Type: measured drawing Title: External elevation of the model for St. Peter’s Title Type: descriptive Creator: circle of Etienne Dupérac Subject: •elevation •Model of St. Peter’s Related Work: Model of St. Peter’s Date: probably late 1560s Medium: brown ink on paper Descriptive Note: Probably done in preparation for the series of … Current Location: Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, New York, USA); 49.92.91 depicts Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  45. 45. Getty Vocabularies to LOD: Usage and Editorial Perspective AAT TGN ULAN CONA Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  46. 46. How are vocabularies used? • Traditional use of vocabularies for retrieval focuses on the names • If a user asks for one name/term, all of the synonyms can be used for retrieval • For example, if a user searches on “Giovanni da Bologna”... “giambologna” OR “giovanni da bologna” OR “giovanni bologna” OR “jean boulogne” OR “bologna, giovanni da” From ULAN Giambologna Giovanni da Bologna Giovanni Bologna Jean Boulogne Jean de Boulogne Bologna, Giovanni da Giambologna Female Figure; Marble; H: 48 in.; 2008 J. Paul Getty Museum; 82.SA.37 Jean Boulogne; Mercure volant; Bronze; H 1,7 m; L 0,57m; Pr 1,4 m; Musee du Louvre, Collection du duc de Brissac (saisie en 1794)?; MR Giovanni Bologna; Triton, 16th century (1560–70); Bronze; H. 36 in; Metropolitan Museum of Art; Bequest of Benjamin Altman, 1913 (14.40.689) Bologna, Giovanni da; Christ Crucified, probably before 1588; bronze, corpus, height including foot rest: .371 x .254 x .078 m ; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. John R. Gaines in memory … Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  47. 47. • New methods and LOD can incorporate hierarchical and associative relationships, and other links or inferred relationships to answer more complex questions and aid serendipitous discovery How are vocabularies used? Associative relationships Marie de Medici (French queen, patron, 1573-1642) Tacca, Pietro (Italian sculptor and architect, 1577-1640) Giambologna (Flemish sculptor and architect, 1529- 1608, active in Italy) Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Images may be under additional copyright
  48. 48. Editorial perspective: LOD  The Getty vocabularies have always been compiled by experts o Using authoritative sources o Rules in extensive editorial manuals  Seen through the LOD lens, any inconsistency or omission becomes ever more obvious  Getty Vocabulary Program analyzes and cleans up of the data for LOD releases Editorial rules Consistency in application of rules Consistency in content of controlled terminology within each vocabulary Creating actual links between vocabularies Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  49. 49. Editorial perspective: LOD AAT CONA TGN ULAN • From conceptual to actual links • Lookup lists had been based on AAT, but had gotten out of sync with AAT over the years • E.g., nationalities, roles in ULAN and place types in TGN must map to AAT terms Patricia Harpring © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  50. 50. • Nationality/ Culture/ Race/ Ethnicity in ULAN was conceptual, now needed to be linked to AAT • Certain matches must be resolved by hand Matching ULAN Nationality to AAT no match ambiguous match Many links cannot be made automatically This hessian is bad match, type of burlap false match Editorial perspective: LOD ULAN Example
  51. 51. Patricia Harpring Managing Editor Getty Vocabulary Program 1200 Getty Center Drive Los Angeles, CA 90049 pharpring@getty.edu
  52. 52. A Brief History of the Project October 21, 2014 Joan Cobb IT Specialist Project Manager Getty Information Technology Services
  53. 53. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  54. 54. August 2010 Dresden, September 2014 November 2011 © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. January 2013
  55. 55. Dr. Marcia Lei Zeng Professor, School of Library and Information Science Kent State University Curriculum Vitae: http://marciazeng.slis.kent.edu/vita.htm © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  56. 56. Provide proof that the concept for “rhyta” in AAT could be represented as LOD without losing any of its rich content. http://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=rhyta&logic=AND&note=&english=N&prev_page=1&subjectid=300198841 © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  57. 57. • Unique and persistent term IDs • Languages are attributes of term • Same term in multiple languages • Parts of speach © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  58. 58. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  59. 59. For the full list see “Crosswalk by Concept” http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/crosswalk_aat_assoc_rels.pdf © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Hierarchical Associative • Multiple parents • Multiple other relationships
  60. 60. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Chinese German Dutch Spanish
  61. 61. • Subject • Created • Updated • Term added • Term deleted • Note created • Note updated • Moved • Parent added • Relation deleted • Merged • Issued • Source • Created • Updated • Merge Obsolete Subjects • When, for some reason the concept is deleted, we also provide continuity. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  62. 62. • The way data is being published on the web is currently in transition. • A current trend in managing art information is to increasingly make data about art, architecture, and cultural objects available as Linked Open Data. • This applies to the information directly describing the objects, but also to the vocabularies used in the descriptions. • For several years, the Getty Vocabulary team had been receiving legitimate requests to publish our thesauri as LOD. • Dr. Zeng’s 62-page report convinced us that it was possible to publish all of our data as LOD. It was time to stop asking “why” and to start exploring “how” to make it happen. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  63. 63. Finally, our time had come! © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  64. 64. Some facts and links that helped us take the leap into the LOD world © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  65. 65. • Tim Berners-Lee TED Talk • http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_the_year_open_data_went _worldwide.html • Europeana Video • Sometimes a picture is worth a thousand words – in this case, it’s a video • http://vimeo.com/36752317 • Several sessions with Pedro Szekely • Helped us to understand the publishing process • http://www.isi.edu/integration/karma/ • Eero Hyvönen’s book • Publishing and Using Cultural Heritage Linked Data on the Semantic Web © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  66. 66. • Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) • Hosted by OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) • http://www.viaf.org/ • Semantic Technology & Business Conference • http://semtechbizsf2013.semanticweb.com/agenda.cfm?confid=70&sche duleDay=PRINT • Linked Open Data in Libraries Archives and Museums (LODLAM) • http://lodlam.net/ • R2RML mapping language • http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/R2RML • http://www.w3.org/TR/r2rml/ © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  67. 67. Vocabulary Coordination System (Oracle RDBMS) R2RML + Perl NT Files OWLIM Triple Store vocab.getty.edu/sparql Internet © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Gregg Garcia. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  68. 68. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Gregg Garcia. For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  69. 69. To offer the Getty Vocabularies as Conduits to connect resources © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  70. 70. AAT Place Types TGN ULAN http://vocab.getty.edu Roles Nationalities Event Terms CONA Event Places Artist, Creator Repository © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  71. 71. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. Getty Museum Getty Wide Search Provenance Index AATA Online The Getty Vocabularies acts as a conduit to connect the projects to each other.
  72. 72. Chinese AAT © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. VIAF Spanish AAT German AAT Dutch AAT Arches LCSH Swiss AAT Project
  73. 73. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  74. 74. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  75. 75. Contributing Institution CONA Mapping Tool CONA Validation Application CONA Interim XML CONA XML ULAN XML TGN XML AAT XML AAT TGN ULAN CONA Editorial System (VCS) vocab.getty.edu AAT TGN ULAN CONA Bi-weekly LOD Publication Ability to Synchronize Links A contribution to CONA is a contribution to all 4 vocabularies
  76. 76. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  77. 77. General information site • Target audience: Anyone interested in general information about the project • http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/lod /index.html © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute. SPARQL Endpoint • Target audience: Developers and programmers who are interested in consuming the data • http://vocab.getty.edu/
  78. 78. February 2014 © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  79. 79. August 2014 In the first few days 1,700 hits / over 200 tweets © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  80. 80. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  81. 81. EADitor Ethan Gruber US Numismatic Society Nomisma.org Kerameikos.org © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  82. 82. Visualizing Hierarchies with d3js Matthew Lincoln http://matthewlincoln.net/2014/02/21/hierarchies-of-the-getty.html © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  83. 83. Visualization of AAT "Rhyta" on en.lodlive.it http://en.lodlive.it/?http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300198841 © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  84. 84. Getty Vocabularies as LOD A major 2014 milestone for the LODLAM community LODLAM: Linked Open Data in Libraries Archives and Museums © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  85. 85. Partage Plus Digitising and Enabling Art Nouveau for Europeana http://www.partage-plus.eu/ © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  86. 86. http://pro.europeana.eu/pro-blog/-/blogs/2293682
  87. 87. Indexing Plugin for Adobe Bridge Greg Reser -UC, San Diego Library © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  88. 88. Athanasios Velios Ligatus University of the Arts London https://www.drupal.org/sandbox/avelios/2328571 © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  89. 89. DIGIMUS AAT Classification Astrolabe © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  90. 90. Academia Sinica Digitization of the works of Chengpo Chen (1895-1947) Using AAT LOD to bridge between the descriptions of the artworks in the Chen collection and those in other collections in the world. © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  91. 91. Union List of Artist Names (ULAN) Cultural Objects Name Authority (CONA)  © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.
  92. 92. Joan Cobb IT Specialist Project Manager Information Technology Services 1200 Getty Center Drive Los Angeles, CA 90049 jcobb@getty.edu © 2014 J. Paul Getty Trust, author: Joan Cobb .For educational purposes only. Do not distribute.

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