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Memory
Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory) were the parents of the
Muses, the guiding spirits of the Nine Arts.
Memory
• Types of Memory
– Iconic
• Masking
– Short-Term
• Mnemonics &
Working Memory
– Long term
• Implicit
• Explicit
– Levels of processing
• Processes
– Encoding, storage,
retrieval
• Methods
– Recognition, recall
• Anatomy of
Memory
– Hippocampus and
Amygdala
Schacter’s “Seven Sins of
Memory”
• Memories are transient (fade with time)
• We do not remember what we do not pay attention to
• Our memories can be temporarily blocked
• We can misattribute the source of memory
• We are suggestible in our memories
• We can show memory distortion (bias)
• We often fail to forget the things we would like not
to recall (persistence of memory)
Memory
• Defines who we are
• Informs what we will do
• Famous cases:
– Clive Wearing
Part I (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmkiMlvLKto)
Part II (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ymEn_YxZqZw&feature=related)
– Stephen Wiltshire
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a8YXZTlwTAU)
– Use link below, there will be a series of topics, And
click on Remembering and Forgetting
http://www.learner.org/resources/series138.html?pop=yes&pid=1502#
Franco Magnani
Memory can be excellent!!
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
The Reconstructive Nature of Memory
Bartlett’s Ghost Story:
The Reconstructive Nature of Memory
• Changes occurred by
– Omission. Ghosts omitted early, wounds of the
spirit become wounds of the flesh
– Rationalization. Growing more coherent
– “Conventionalization”
– Temporal order. Change in order of events
“No trace of an odd or supernatural element is
left: we have a perfectly straightforward story
of a fight and a death”
The War of the Ghosts
One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals, and
while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war-cries,
and they thought: "Maybe this is a war-party". They escaped to the shore,
and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of
paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the
canoe, and they said: "What do you think? We wish to take you along. We
are going up the river to make war on the people".
One of the young men said: "I have no arrows". "Arrows are in the canoe",
they said. "I will not go along. I might be killed. My relatives do not know
where I have gone. But you", he said, turning to the other, "may go with
them.”
So one of the young men went, but the other returned home. And the warriors
went on up the river to a town on the other side of Kalama. The people came
down to the water, and they began to fight, and many were killed. But
presently the young man heard one of the warriors say: "Quick, let us go
home: that Indian has been hit". Now he thought: "Oh, they are ghosts". He
did not feel sick, but they said he had been shot. So the canoes went back to
Egulac, and the young man went ashore to his house, and made a fire. And
he told everybody and said: " Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went
to
fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many of those who attacked us were
killed. They said I was hit, and I did not feel sick". He told it all, and then he
became quiet. When the sun rose he fell down. Something black came out of
his mouth. His face became contorted. The people jumped up and cried.
He was dead.
• Bartlett
– Assigning a name influences the reproduction.
– The transformations are in the direction of conventional
representations (highest frequency of exposure)
– Features that are not at first recognized are elaborated until
recognition is produced
– Once a recognizable feature is produced, it is reduced to its
most conventional simplification
Bartlett’s Ghost Story:
The Reconstructive Nature of Memory
The Reconstruction: Not Just for Stories
Images, Too!
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
Memory Stages
• Encoding
– Processes used to store information in memory
• Storage
– Processes used to maintain information in memory
• Rehearsal and elaboration
• Retrieval
– Processes used to get information back out of
memory
15
5.1 Encoding
• Memory is not a
recording device
• Levels of processing
– semantic judgments
– rhyme judgments
– visual judgments
• Elaborative encoding
Levels of Processing
Craik & Lockhart
– Continuum of Processing
• Shallow: surface, perceptual features
• Deep: processed, meaningful interpretation
– Level or “depth” of processing affects its
memorability
– Deeper encoding produces more elaborate,
longer-lasting memory
Support for Levels of Processing
• Craik & Tulving (1975)
– Participants studied a list in 3 different ways
– Structural: Is the word in capital letters?
– Phonemic: Does the word rhyme with dog?
– Semantic: Does the word fit in this sentence? The ______
is delicious.
– A recognition test was given to see which type of
processing led to the best memory
Craik & Tulving (1975) Results
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Yes No
Sentence Type
Recognized
Case
Rhyme
Sentence
Forms of Deep Processing
• The importance of organization
– Taxonomic, hierarchical, thematic
• Self-relevant information
• Self-generation
• Elaboration
• Distinctiveness
20
5.1 Encoding
• Where does this
elaborative encoding
take place?
– semantic (a)
– organizational—rhyme
(b)
– visual (c)
21
5.1 Orgnizational Encoding
• Organizational
encoding
– noticing relationships
– creating categories
– conceptual groups
PSYCHOLOGY
Schacter
Gilbert
Wegner
5.2
Storage: Maintaining Memories
over Time
Ebbinghause and Nonsense
• Forgetting curve
• Nonsense
Syllables
wyx
ghe
jek
lsm
Distributed Studying: How to Pass
25
5.2 Memories in the Brain
• NMDA receptor
– flow of info. from one neuron
to another
• NMDA receptors become
activated:
– “sending” neuron releases
glutamate
– “receiving” neuron excited
• Long-term potentiation
(LTP) results
– enhanced neural processing
NMDA Receptors and Memory Function:
Figure 8.2 The NMDA receptor and place learning (Part 1)
PSYCHOLOGY
Schacter
Gilbert
Wegner
5.3
Retrieval: Bringing Memories to
Mind
Memory: Tricks with Retrieval
How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the ark?
________
How confident are you? (1=not at all, 7= very confident) ____
In the biblical story, what was Joshua swallowed by?
________
How confident are you? (1=not at all, 7= very confident)
_____
Aspects of memory: Retrieval
• Moses didn’t have an ark—Noah did!
• Joshua wasn’t swallowed by a whale: Jonah
was!
Aspects of memory: Retrieval
• Retrieval Cues
– Help you remember items that feel ‘out of reach’
Winter
Green
Foot
Pencil
Sweater
Jupiter
Chicago
Bible
French
Violin
Aspects of memory: Retrieval
• Retrieval cues:
A season of the year:
A color:
A part of the body:
A writing instrument:
An article of clothing:
A planet:
A name of a city:
A type of book:
A language:
A musical instrument:
Implicit / Explicit Memory
Wo__ St___
W_rd Fra_gm___t
Per ceptual identification
Lexical Decision or
something else?
(Frame judgments) Are
we studying Memory or
Learning
Methods in Study of Memory
• Which type of memory test
would you rather have?
– An essay or a multiple choice
exam?
– The difference between these
two types of tests captures
the difference between a
recall task (essay) and a
recognition test (x-choice)
34
5.3 Retrieval Cues
• Retrieval cues—
reinstating the past
• Encoding specificity
principle
• State-dependent learning
Retrieval Cues
• Context
– Trouble recognizing somebody at work when you
meet them on vacation
– Scuba divers learning a list of words under water
will recall it better underwater than on land
• State Dependent Recall
– Learning while happy or sad means better recall
while happy or sad (drunk too, but general
performance down)
Memory Processes
• One is Active: Rehearsal
• One is Passive: Decay
• Evidence:
– The serial position curve
– The task: I present you with a list and you recall it. You
can recall the words in any order and try to recall as many
as you can (called a free recall task).
– We graph the frequency of recall by serial position in the
list (first word, second word, etc.).
– Looking at that curve can tell us something about memory
stores.
BED
CLOCK
DREAM
NIGHT
TURN
MATTRESS
SNOOZE
NOD
TIRED
NIGHT
ARTICHOKE
INSOMNIA
REST
TOSS
NIGHT
ALARM
NAP
SNORE
PILLOW
Write down the words you saw
Here are the words in the order viewed
BED
CLOCK
DREAM
NIGHT
TURN
MATTRESS
SNOOZE
NOD
TIRED
NIGHT
ARTICHOKE
INSOMNIA
REST
TOSS
NIGHT
ALARM
NAP
SNORE
PILLOW
Did you recall? Explanation
Bed? Clock? Primacy Effect
Snore? Pillow? Recency Effect
Spacing Effect
Night?
Artichoke? Distinctiveness
Toss? Toss &
Turn?
Clustering
Sleep? False Memory
Serial Position Curve
Serial Position Effect
Primacy effect – remembering stuff at
beginning of list better than middle because
of Rehearsal
Recency Effect – remembering stuff at the
end of list better than middle because of
lack of Interference
Serial Position Effect
Recall immediately
after learning
Recall several hours
after learning
Recall from Recall from
LTM STM
LTM
Primacy effect – remembering stuff at
beginning of list better than middle
Recency Effect – remembering stuff at
the end of list better than middle
Nickerson & Adams
Nickerson & Adams
1 c
Consolidation:
Getting Info From STM to LTM
• Mnemonic devices are strategies to improve memory
by organizing information
– Method of Loci: ideas are associated with a place or
part of a building
– Peg-Word system: peg words are associated with
ideas (e.g. “one is a bun”)
– Interactive Images : verbal associations are created
for items to be learned
Research on Short-Term Memory
& Consolidation
• Miller (1956)
– Examined memory capacity
– 7+/- 2 items or “chunks”
• Chunking -- organize the input into larger units
– 1 9 8 0 1 9 9 8 2 0 0 3 - Exceeds capacity
– 1980 1998 2003 - Reorganize by chunking.
Birth-
year
H.S
graduation
College
Graduation
1 4 9 1 6 2 5 3 6 4 9 6 4 8 1
1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81
Short Term Memory Demo
Memory Strategies:
Organization is Key
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
Peg Word system Imagine the words interacting
69
5.1 Visual Imagery Encoding
• Visual imagery
• Simonides
– Greek poet perfected
visual imagery encoding
PSYCHOLOGY
Schacter
Gilbert
Wegner
5.4
Multiple Forms of Memory: How
the Past Returns
A Tale of Three Memories
• Iconic memory
– large capacity
– Same modality as
experience
– Very fast decay
A Tale of Three Memories
Sperling Sensory Memory
Demonstration
• A matrix of 12 letters and numbers will be
briefly flashed on the next few slides
• As soon as you see the information, write
down everything you can remember in its
proper location
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
Whole Report
Here’s where the letters and numbers will appear-- Keep your eyes on the
“X” on the next slide
X
B 5 Q T
2 H S 9
O 4 M Y
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
Partial Report – No Delay
For the next demonstration, report only the top, middle, or bottom row.
The row to report will be identified by markers IMMEDIATELY after
you see the letters.
X
2 V 9 R
Q M 7 L
K H 5 F
> <
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
The Effect of Delay on Sensory Memory
• Short Term Memory,
– Limited capacity
– Acoustic recoding
– Rehearsal maintains information
• Probabilistic transfer into LTM
– information from LTM retrieved and used
here
A Tale of Three Memories
Baddeleys’ Working Memory
Model
Central Executive
Visuo-spatial
Sketch Pad
Episodic Buffer
Phonological
Store
Articulatory Loop
Visual Scribe
Working Memory Model
• Central Executive
– Focuses attention on relevant items and inhibiting
irrelevant ones
– Plans sequence of tasks to accomplish goals, schedules
processes in complex tasks, often switches attention
between different parts
– Updates and checks content to determine next step in
sequence of parts
Short-Term Memory: Working Memory Model
• Articulatory Loop
– Used to maintain information for a short time and for
acoustic rehearsal
• Visuo-spatial Sketch Pad
– Used for maintaining and processing visuo-spatial
information
• Episodic Buffer
– Used for storage of a multimodal code, holding an integrated
episode between systems using different codes
Demo of the Phonological Loop
• Please memorize the following numbers
0 20 89 13 5 78 4 12 43 37 64 29
• Please recall the list of numbers
• A follows B True/ False
• B is not preceded by A True/False
• Please answer the following questions
0 20 89 13 5 78 4 12 43 37 64 29
Demo Time
Now
a) Read each word in
the box in sequential
order.
b) Please recall number
sequence
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
• Please recall the list of numbers
0 20 89 13 5 78 4 12 43 37 64 29
Difficult to consolidate due to
interference. The interference results
from using the phonological loop to do
two tasks at once: rehearsing numbers
and reading.
Demo of the Phonological Loop
• Please memorize the following non-sensical
words
sdc frw mdl qgk lxd wzk psg fkg zbv
Demo Time
Now
a) Point to each “Yes”
in the box in
sequential order.
b) Please recall
nonsensical word
sequence
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
• Please recall the list of numbers
sdc frw mdl qgk lxd wzk psg fkg zbv
Easier to consolidate due to lack of interference,
since the phonological loop is rehearsing the
nonsensical words, and the visual-spatial sketch
pad is busy with the pointing task: each system has
only one job to do.
Evidence for Phonological Loop
• Phonological similarity effect:
– BBGTCD is harder to memorize than FKYWMR
• Wordlength effect:
– Pay,wit,bar,hop,sum vs. helicopter, university,
television, alligator,opportunity
• Subvocal articulation, auditory noise,
interferes with verbal memory
Demo Time: Visual Spatial Sketch Pad
• Please memorize
the following
matrix:
4
3
5
8
9
30
7
2
1
6
20
0
Visual and Spatial-Sequential
Distractors
• Dellasala 1999 – Visual and spatial components
Visual
Spatial- sequential
Results
Conclusion: Separable visual and spatial-temporal
components
Working Memory
• Context
– Trouble recognizing somebody at work when you
meet them on vacation
– Scuba divers learning a list of words under water
will recall it better underwater than on land
• State Dependent Recall
– Learning while happy or sad means better recall
while happy or sad (drunk too, but general
performance down)
State Dependent
• Goodwin et al (1969) asked
male volunteers to perform
memory tasks that involved
learning and remembering
words while either sober or
under the effects of alcohol
at three times the legal
drunk driving limit.
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
• Long term memory
– Unlimited capacity
– Semantic coding
– Little decay
A Tale of Three Memories
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
105
5.4 Multiple Forms of Long-Term
Memory
• Implicit memory
• Explicit memory
• Procedural memory
• Semantic memory
• Episodic memory
• Priming
Implicit and Explicit Memory
• Explicit memory tasks
– Recall is Voluntary, Conscious, Verbal (or demonstrable)
– Also called Declarative memory
– Recall or recognition
• Implicit memory tasks
– Involuntary and Unconscious
– Require participants to complete a task (the completion of the task
indirectly indicates memory)
– Also Called Non-declarative memory
– Word stem, word fragment, perceptual degradation
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
Examples of Types of Memories
• Episodic: “I bumped into a friend today at the
diner whom I hadn’t seen since last year.”
• Semantic: “George Washington was the first
President of the U.S.”
• Procedural Memory: Riding a bike
• Classical conditioning: Reflexes
• Priming: Jingles
Priming Demo
• Hand out sheets to Group 1 and 2
Priming Demo
• Unscramble
L T E P A
Group 1 PLATE
Group 2 PETAL
Priming
• Why did half the class say plate and the other
half say petal?
• They were primed to do so
• There were two different sheets of
unscrambled words
Priming sheet 1
• Unscramble the
following word:
• F I N E K
• O P O N S
• K R O F
• P U C
• E C U S A R
• L T E P A
• Answer:
• K N I F E
• S P O O N
• F O R K
• C U P
• S A U C E R
• P L A T E
Priming sheet 2
• Unscramble the
following word:
• N Y P A S
• F E L A
• K T A L S
• D U B
• L O B S O M S
• L T E P A
• Answer:
• P A N S Y
• L E A F
• S T A L K
• B U D
• B L O S S O M
• P E T A L
Memory for general knowledge
•Connectionist models
•Parallel processing
•Learning (unobserved)
•Layers (Input, Processing,
Output)
•Nodes and Links
•Weights
•Increasingly popular, powerful
•Hard do damage, robust 
plausible
James McClelland
H.M.
Or
Got Memory?
-Prior to 1953, the role of the MTL in memory was
relatively unknown
-H.M. changed all that: bilateral temporal lobectomy =
complete anterograde amnesia
-Brenda Milner’s neuropsychological testing
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
H.M.’s retrograde amnesia
-H.M.s RA extends
back ~11 years pre-
surgery
-Famous Faces
performance is normal
for 40s, then below
normal for 50s, then
severely impaired in the
60s & 70s
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s
%
Correct
Famous Faces Recognition by Decade
H.M.
Comparison
Intact domains of memory in amnesia
-Working memory:
HM’s digit span is
normal
-Skill and Perceptual
learning
Perceptual Learning
Gollins partial pictures
test
Common Inaccuracies in
Long-term Memory
• Reasons for inaccuracy of memory:
– Source amnesia: attribution of a memory to the wrong
source (e.g. a dream is recalled as an actual event; age
correlates with a decrease in source memory; infantile
memories are from a third person perspective)
– Sleeper effect: a piece of information from an unreliable
source is initially discounted, but is recalled after the source
has been forgotten
– Misinformation effect: we incorporate outside
information into our own memories
The Reconstructive Nature of Memory
Write down what you saw
The Reconstructive Nature of Memory
The Reconstructive Nature of Memory
• Loftus
The Reconstructive Nature of Memory
• Replicated on a group of people
– What memories did people remember?
• 7 out of 24 remembered the false event
– How are the events remembered?
• True memories described more
• True memories rated more clear
• False memories’ clarity increased over time
– Can they choose the false memory?
• 19 out of 24 figured out which was false
• Process of elimination?
One Person’s False Memory...
• “I vaguely, vague, I mean this is very vague, remember the lady
helping me and Tim and my mom doing something else, but I don't
remember crying. I mean I can remember a hundred times crying..... I
just remember bits and pieces of it. I remember being with the lady. I
remember going shopping. I don't think I, I don't remember the
sunglasses part.“
• "Well, it can't be Slasher, 'cause I know that he ran up in the...the
chimney and I know that that cat got smashed and I know that we got
robbed so it had to be that mall one.”
• "..I totally remember walking around in those dressing rooms and my
mom not being in the section she said she'd be in. You know what I
mean?"
Individual Differences
• Some people are more susceptible to
misinformation than others
– 7 out of 24 participants
• People high at risk for misinformation
acceptance have
– Poor general memory
– High scores on imagery vividness
– High empathy scores
Memory for general knowledge
• Scripts
– For routine events
– Restaurant example
– Allows inferences, problem of intrusions
Script Demo: Remember This
The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange the items
into different groups. Of course one pile may be sufficient
depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere
else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise you are
pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is
better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run
this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A
mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will
seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet
of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task
in the immediate future, but then, one can never tell. After the
procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different
groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places.
Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will
then have to be repeated. However, that is part of life.
Recall The Last Slide
I have one word for you:
LAUNDRY
Try recalling the list again
Schemas
• We reconstruct memories according to a
“map” of behaviors that are highly related to
one another, and form a set.
– Prior knowledge influences memory
– Interpretation of details
– Reductions in ambiguity
– Makes unusual things stand out
• Schemas in action
(There is no meaningful difference
between chunks and schemas)
Connectionist Perspective
• Parallel distributed processing model
– Memory uses a network
– Meaning comes from patterns of activation
across the entire network
– Spreading Activation Network Model
– Supported by priming effects
Memory for general knowledge
•Connectionist models
•Parallel processing
•Learning (unobserved)
•Layers (Input, Processing, Output)
•Nodes and Links
•Weights
•Increasingly popular, powerful
•Hard do damage, robust  plausible
James McClelland
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
If You Do Not Retrieve from
LTM…
• Has the memory disappeared?
or
• Is the memory still there but cannot retrieve it
(available, but not accessible)?
Evidence Supporting “Still There” Theory
Nelson (1971)
Paired associate List
43-house
67-dog
38-dress
77-scissors
Cued recall test
43- ________
67- ________
Two week delay
Subjects recalled 75% of items
on list
But focus was on 25% they
forgot.
Nelson (1971) Critical Manipulation
If participants forgot “38-dress” and “77-scissors” then participants
relearned either same pairs or changed pairs
25% “forgot” Relearned Results
Same
38-dress
77-scissors
38-dress
77-scissors
78%
Changed
38-dress
77-scissors
38-apple
77-kettle
43%
The better performance of participants in the same
condition indicate that there was some memory left for
“forgotten” items. Otherwise both groups would remember
the same amount.
The Neuro-anatomy of Memory
• Hippocampus
• Amygdala
Hippocampus
Anatomy of
Memory
Amygdala: emotional memory and memory consolidation
Basal ganglia & cerebellum: memory for skills, habits and
CC responses
Hippocampus: memory recognition, spatial, episodic
memory, laying down new declarative long-term memories
Thalamus, formation of new memories and working
memories
Cortical Areas: encoding of factual memories, storage of
episodic and semantic memories, skill learning, priming.
What does the Hippocampus Do?
• Place cells neurons that respond when you are in a
specific place, in the place field of the neuron. So a
place cell would fire when you are in your bedroom
or house, etc. Each hippocampal neuron has a place
field in many different environments. At first when
you put the rat in the new environment, no neurons
fire. Then as the rat becomes familiar with the room,
neurons fire for particular parts of the room.
What does the Hippocampus Do?
• Configural Association Theory The theory
that the hippocampus retains the interrelation
among cues, spatially and temporally. So it
remembers the relationship between a visual
cue and a location as signaling food.
• Path Integration Theory the hippocampus
calculates current location, past location, and
future location from one’s own movement.
The Amygdal: Fear
and Memory
Amygdala
• • The amygdala modulates the formation of memories
in other brain structures, such as the hippocampus.
Information or events of particular emotional /
motivational significance are better remembered than
those of little importance (c.f. flashbulb memory).
• Lesions in humans and primates reveal a role for the
amygdala in the perception of emotional cues and the
generation of emotional responses, particularly those
associated with negative emotions such as fear.
Amygdala
• • Amygdala lesions before retention testing
disrupt conditioned fear. Hence, the amygdala
may be the site of storage of fear memories.
• Temporary inactivation by drugs during
acquisition has the same effect, suggesting a
genuine role in memory encoding.
The Chowchilla Kidnapping
Officials unearth the underground
Livermore dungeon in which 26
schoolchildren and their bus driver were
held captive in 1976.
Credit: James Palmer / Associated Press 1976
•
Flashbulb Memory
• The number of details remembered about September 11 and the everyday
event were statistically indistinguishable. Most memories were consistent,
and over time, the number of consistent details participants were able to
recall did decline, but there was no difference in the decline for ordinary
memories and for memories of September 11. The number of inconsistent
details (e.g. "I was with Fred" changing to "I was with Mary") increased
similarly for both ordinary events and September 11.
Flashbulb Memory
• What was different was the confidence and vividness of the memories:
Participants were more likely to believe their memories of September 11
were accurate than their ordinary memories, and they reported those
memories as being equally vivid, even months after the event. Meanwhile,
they reported the ordinary memories becoming less and less vivid and
reliable, even though objectively they could remember no more details
about September 11.
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
Recall for Details During
Hurricanes
Terms
• Encoding
• Storage
• Retrieval
• Organizationa
l encoding /
chunking
• Sensory
memory
• Iconic mem.
• Echoic
memory
• Short-term
memory
• Long-term
memory
• Prospective
memory
• Tip-of-the-
tongue
• Memory
misattribution
• Source
memory
• False
recognition
• Bias
• Suggestibility
• Flashbulb
mem.
• Transfer-
appropriate
• Explicit
memory
• Procedural
mem.
• Implcit mem.
• Semantic
mem.
• Priming
• Episodic
• Transience
• Retroactive
interference
• Proactive
interference
• Rehearsal
• Working
memory
• Long-term
memory
• Anterograde
amnesia
• Retrograde
amnesia
• NMDA
receptor
• Retrieval cue
• State-
depenedent
mem.
The End of Memory
Back-Up Slides
Forensics and Memory: False Confessions
Forensics and Memory: False Confessions
Forensics and Memory: Brief Overview of
Criminal Justice System
• 74% of crimes do not result in arrest
• 76% of charges are dropped or juvenile
• 22% of charges go to trial
• Only about 14 of 1000 crimes committed will
actually go to trial – criminal or civil
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)
Concepts to know
•Interference:
Proactive vs. Retroactive
1 2 1 2
•Explicitness:
Explicit vs. Implicit
Bla
Concepts to know
•Encoding specificity
•Modal model of memory:
Sensory memory  Short term memory Long term memory
Information Response
Storage
Retrieval
-Context effect
-State dependent
learning
Concepts to know
•Working memory = structured STM
Phonological
loop
Visuospatial
sketchpad
Central
executive
LTM
Declarative Procedural
Episodic Semantic
•Memory structure
Implicit
Explicit
Knowing
Vivid Recall
Knowing that... Knowing how to...
Varieties of Memory: Declarative
• “What” memory
– What happened, when it happened, that it
happened.
• Episodic: events, “when and where”
– Re-experiencing, autobiographical
– Easier to acquire, may suffer from “multiple exposures”
• Semantic: knowledge, facts
– Not autobiographical
– Multiple exposures needed to acquire and strengthen
knowledge
– May misattribute knowledge!
Varieties of memory: Procedural
– Consist of procedural and motor memory
– “How” memory
• How to do things, procedures used
• Examples: how to ride a bike, how to tie your shoes,
how to drive to school/work
– Motor memory
• Consists of actions/muscle use
• Riding a bike!, a dance performance,
Caption: Results of Talarico and Rubin’s (2003) flashbulb memory experiment.
(a) The decrease in the number of details remembered was similar for memories
of 9/11 and for memories of an everyday event. (b) Participants’ belief that their
memory was accurate remained high for 9/11, but decreased for memories of the
everyday event. (Extracted from “Consistency and Key properties of Flashbulb
and Everyday Memories,” by J. M. Talarico & D. C. Rubin, Psychological
Science, 14, 5, Fig. 1. Copyright © 2003 with permission from the American
Caption: What happens at a synapse as (a) a stimulus is first
presented. The record next to the electrode indicates the rate of
firing in the axon of neuron B. (b) As the stimulus is repeated
structural changes are beginning to occur. (c) After many
repetitions, more complex connections have developed between
the two neurons, which causes an increase in the firing rate, even
Caption: Results of Warrington and
Weiskrantz’s (1968) experiment.
Caption: Results of Stanny and Johnson’s (2000) weapons-focus
experiment. Presence of a weapon that was fired is associated with a
decrease in memory about the perpetrator, the victim, and the weapon.
Forgetting Is a Process, Too!
Proactive interference:
old information interferes with recall of new information
Retroactive interference:
new information interferes with recall of old information
Decay theory:
memory trace fades with time
Motivated forgetting:
involves the loss of painful memories (protective memory loss)
Retrieval failure:
the information is still within LTM, but cannot be recalled
because the retrieval cue is absent

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Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) eliciting a response (unconditioned response) • is paired with another stimulus (conditioned stimulus)

  • 1. Memory Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory) were the parents of the Muses, the guiding spirits of the Nine Arts.
  • 2. Memory • Types of Memory – Iconic • Masking – Short-Term • Mnemonics & Working Memory – Long term • Implicit • Explicit – Levels of processing • Processes – Encoding, storage, retrieval • Methods – Recognition, recall • Anatomy of Memory – Hippocampus and Amygdala
  • 3. Schacter’s “Seven Sins of Memory” • Memories are transient (fade with time) • We do not remember what we do not pay attention to • Our memories can be temporarily blocked • We can misattribute the source of memory • We are suggestible in our memories • We can show memory distortion (bias) • We often fail to forget the things we would like not to recall (persistence of memory)
  • 4. Memory • Defines who we are • Informs what we will do • Famous cases: – Clive Wearing Part I (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmkiMlvLKto) Part II (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ymEn_YxZqZw&feature=related) – Stephen Wiltshire (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a8YXZTlwTAU) – Use link below, there will be a series of topics, And click on Remembering and Forgetting http://www.learner.org/resources/series138.html?pop=yes&pid=1502#
  • 5. Franco Magnani Memory can be excellent!!
  • 9. Bartlett’s Ghost Story: The Reconstructive Nature of Memory • Changes occurred by – Omission. Ghosts omitted early, wounds of the spirit become wounds of the flesh – Rationalization. Growing more coherent – “Conventionalization” – Temporal order. Change in order of events “No trace of an odd or supernatural element is left: we have a perfectly straightforward story of a fight and a death”
  • 10. The War of the Ghosts One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals, and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war-cries, and they thought: "Maybe this is a war-party". They escaped to the shore, and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the canoe, and they said: "What do you think? We wish to take you along. We are going up the river to make war on the people". One of the young men said: "I have no arrows". "Arrows are in the canoe", they said. "I will not go along. I might be killed. My relatives do not know where I have gone. But you", he said, turning to the other, "may go with them.” So one of the young men went, but the other returned home. And the warriors went on up the river to a town on the other side of Kalama. The people came down to the water, and they began to fight, and many were killed. But presently the young man heard one of the warriors say: "Quick, let us go home: that Indian has been hit". Now he thought: "Oh, they are ghosts". He did not feel sick, but they said he had been shot. So the canoes went back to Egulac, and the young man went ashore to his house, and made a fire. And he told everybody and said: " Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many of those who attacked us were killed. They said I was hit, and I did not feel sick". He told it all, and then he became quiet. When the sun rose he fell down. Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted. The people jumped up and cried. He was dead.
  • 11. • Bartlett – Assigning a name influences the reproduction. – The transformations are in the direction of conventional representations (highest frequency of exposure) – Features that are not at first recognized are elaborated until recognition is produced – Once a recognizable feature is produced, it is reduced to its most conventional simplification Bartlett’s Ghost Story: The Reconstructive Nature of Memory
  • 12. The Reconstruction: Not Just for Stories Images, Too!
  • 14. Memory Stages • Encoding – Processes used to store information in memory • Storage – Processes used to maintain information in memory • Rehearsal and elaboration • Retrieval – Processes used to get information back out of memory
  • 15. 15 5.1 Encoding • Memory is not a recording device • Levels of processing – semantic judgments – rhyme judgments – visual judgments • Elaborative encoding
  • 16. Levels of Processing Craik & Lockhart – Continuum of Processing • Shallow: surface, perceptual features • Deep: processed, meaningful interpretation – Level or “depth” of processing affects its memorability – Deeper encoding produces more elaborate, longer-lasting memory
  • 17. Support for Levels of Processing • Craik & Tulving (1975) – Participants studied a list in 3 different ways – Structural: Is the word in capital letters? – Phonemic: Does the word rhyme with dog? – Semantic: Does the word fit in this sentence? The ______ is delicious. – A recognition test was given to see which type of processing led to the best memory
  • 18. Craik & Tulving (1975) Results 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Yes No Sentence Type Recognized Case Rhyme Sentence
  • 19. Forms of Deep Processing • The importance of organization – Taxonomic, hierarchical, thematic • Self-relevant information • Self-generation • Elaboration • Distinctiveness
  • 20. 20 5.1 Encoding • Where does this elaborative encoding take place? – semantic (a) – organizational—rhyme (b) – visual (c)
  • 21. 21 5.1 Orgnizational Encoding • Organizational encoding – noticing relationships – creating categories – conceptual groups
  • 23. Ebbinghause and Nonsense • Forgetting curve • Nonsense Syllables wyx ghe jek lsm
  • 25. 25 5.2 Memories in the Brain • NMDA receptor – flow of info. from one neuron to another • NMDA receptors become activated: – “sending” neuron releases glutamate – “receiving” neuron excited • Long-term potentiation (LTP) results – enhanced neural processing
  • 26. NMDA Receptors and Memory Function: Figure 8.2 The NMDA receptor and place learning (Part 1)
  • 28. Memory: Tricks with Retrieval How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the ark? ________ How confident are you? (1=not at all, 7= very confident) ____ In the biblical story, what was Joshua swallowed by? ________ How confident are you? (1=not at all, 7= very confident) _____
  • 29. Aspects of memory: Retrieval • Moses didn’t have an ark—Noah did! • Joshua wasn’t swallowed by a whale: Jonah was!
  • 30. Aspects of memory: Retrieval • Retrieval Cues – Help you remember items that feel ‘out of reach’ Winter Green Foot Pencil Sweater Jupiter Chicago Bible French Violin
  • 31. Aspects of memory: Retrieval • Retrieval cues: A season of the year: A color: A part of the body: A writing instrument: An article of clothing: A planet: A name of a city: A type of book: A language: A musical instrument:
  • 32. Implicit / Explicit Memory Wo__ St___ W_rd Fra_gm___t Per ceptual identification Lexical Decision or something else? (Frame judgments) Are we studying Memory or Learning
  • 33. Methods in Study of Memory • Which type of memory test would you rather have? – An essay or a multiple choice exam? – The difference between these two types of tests captures the difference between a recall task (essay) and a recognition test (x-choice)
  • 34. 34 5.3 Retrieval Cues • Retrieval cues— reinstating the past • Encoding specificity principle • State-dependent learning
  • 35. Retrieval Cues • Context – Trouble recognizing somebody at work when you meet them on vacation – Scuba divers learning a list of words under water will recall it better underwater than on land • State Dependent Recall – Learning while happy or sad means better recall while happy or sad (drunk too, but general performance down)
  • 36. Memory Processes • One is Active: Rehearsal • One is Passive: Decay • Evidence: – The serial position curve – The task: I present you with a list and you recall it. You can recall the words in any order and try to recall as many as you can (called a free recall task). – We graph the frequency of recall by serial position in the list (first word, second word, etc.). – Looking at that curve can tell us something about memory stores.
  • 37. BED
  • 38. CLOCK
  • 39. DREAM
  • 40. NIGHT
  • 41. TURN
  • 44. NOD
  • 45. TIRED
  • 46. NIGHT
  • 49. REST
  • 50. TOSS
  • 51. NIGHT
  • 52. ALARM
  • 53. NAP
  • 54. SNORE
  • 56. Write down the words you saw
  • 57. Here are the words in the order viewed BED CLOCK DREAM NIGHT TURN MATTRESS SNOOZE NOD TIRED NIGHT ARTICHOKE INSOMNIA REST TOSS NIGHT ALARM NAP SNORE PILLOW Did you recall? Explanation Bed? Clock? Primacy Effect Snore? Pillow? Recency Effect Spacing Effect Night? Artichoke? Distinctiveness Toss? Toss & Turn? Clustering Sleep? False Memory
  • 59. Serial Position Effect Primacy effect – remembering stuff at beginning of list better than middle because of Rehearsal Recency Effect – remembering stuff at the end of list better than middle because of lack of Interference
  • 60. Serial Position Effect Recall immediately after learning Recall several hours after learning Recall from Recall from LTM STM LTM Primacy effect – remembering stuff at beginning of list better than middle Recency Effect – remembering stuff at the end of list better than middle
  • 63. Consolidation: Getting Info From STM to LTM • Mnemonic devices are strategies to improve memory by organizing information – Method of Loci: ideas are associated with a place or part of a building – Peg-Word system: peg words are associated with ideas (e.g. “one is a bun”) – Interactive Images : verbal associations are created for items to be learned
  • 64. Research on Short-Term Memory & Consolidation • Miller (1956) – Examined memory capacity – 7+/- 2 items or “chunks” • Chunking -- organize the input into larger units – 1 9 8 0 1 9 9 8 2 0 0 3 - Exceeds capacity – 1980 1998 2003 - Reorganize by chunking. Birth- year H.S graduation College Graduation
  • 65. 1 4 9 1 6 2 5 3 6 4 9 6 4 8 1 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 Short Term Memory Demo
  • 68. Peg Word system Imagine the words interacting
  • 69. 69 5.1 Visual Imagery Encoding • Visual imagery • Simonides – Greek poet perfected visual imagery encoding
  • 71. A Tale of Three Memories
  • 72. • Iconic memory – large capacity – Same modality as experience – Very fast decay A Tale of Three Memories
  • 73. Sperling Sensory Memory Demonstration • A matrix of 12 letters and numbers will be briefly flashed on the next few slides • As soon as you see the information, write down everything you can remember in its proper location
  • 74. X X X X X X X X X X X X Whole Report Here’s where the letters and numbers will appear-- Keep your eyes on the “X” on the next slide
  • 75. X
  • 76. B 5 Q T 2 H S 9 O 4 M Y
  • 78. X X X X X X X X X X X X Partial Report – No Delay For the next demonstration, report only the top, middle, or bottom row. The row to report will be identified by markers IMMEDIATELY after you see the letters.
  • 79. X
  • 80. 2 V 9 R Q M 7 L K H 5 F
  • 81. > <
  • 83. The Effect of Delay on Sensory Memory
  • 84. • Short Term Memory, – Limited capacity – Acoustic recoding – Rehearsal maintains information • Probabilistic transfer into LTM – information from LTM retrieved and used here A Tale of Three Memories
  • 85. Baddeleys’ Working Memory Model Central Executive Visuo-spatial Sketch Pad Episodic Buffer Phonological Store Articulatory Loop Visual Scribe
  • 86. Working Memory Model • Central Executive – Focuses attention on relevant items and inhibiting irrelevant ones – Plans sequence of tasks to accomplish goals, schedules processes in complex tasks, often switches attention between different parts – Updates and checks content to determine next step in sequence of parts
  • 87. Short-Term Memory: Working Memory Model • Articulatory Loop – Used to maintain information for a short time and for acoustic rehearsal • Visuo-spatial Sketch Pad – Used for maintaining and processing visuo-spatial information • Episodic Buffer – Used for storage of a multimodal code, holding an integrated episode between systems using different codes
  • 88. Demo of the Phonological Loop • Please memorize the following numbers 0 20 89 13 5 78 4 12 43 37 64 29
  • 89. • Please recall the list of numbers • A follows B True/ False • B is not preceded by A True/False • Please answer the following questions 0 20 89 13 5 78 4 12 43 37 64 29
  • 90. Demo Time Now a) Read each word in the box in sequential order. b) Please recall number sequence Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
  • 91. • Please recall the list of numbers 0 20 89 13 5 78 4 12 43 37 64 29 Difficult to consolidate due to interference. The interference results from using the phonological loop to do two tasks at once: rehearsing numbers and reading.
  • 92. Demo of the Phonological Loop • Please memorize the following non-sensical words sdc frw mdl qgk lxd wzk psg fkg zbv
  • 93. Demo Time Now a) Point to each “Yes” in the box in sequential order. b) Please recall nonsensical word sequence Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
  • 94. • Please recall the list of numbers sdc frw mdl qgk lxd wzk psg fkg zbv Easier to consolidate due to lack of interference, since the phonological loop is rehearsing the nonsensical words, and the visual-spatial sketch pad is busy with the pointing task: each system has only one job to do.
  • 95. Evidence for Phonological Loop • Phonological similarity effect: – BBGTCD is harder to memorize than FKYWMR • Wordlength effect: – Pay,wit,bar,hop,sum vs. helicopter, university, television, alligator,opportunity • Subvocal articulation, auditory noise, interferes with verbal memory
  • 96. Demo Time: Visual Spatial Sketch Pad • Please memorize the following matrix: 4 3 5 8 9 30 7 2 1 6 20 0
  • 97. Visual and Spatial-Sequential Distractors • Dellasala 1999 – Visual and spatial components Visual Spatial- sequential
  • 98. Results Conclusion: Separable visual and spatial-temporal components
  • 99. Working Memory • Context – Trouble recognizing somebody at work when you meet them on vacation – Scuba divers learning a list of words under water will recall it better underwater than on land • State Dependent Recall – Learning while happy or sad means better recall while happy or sad (drunk too, but general performance down)
  • 100. State Dependent • Goodwin et al (1969) asked male volunteers to perform memory tasks that involved learning and remembering words while either sober or under the effects of alcohol at three times the legal drunk driving limit.
  • 103. • Long term memory – Unlimited capacity – Semantic coding – Little decay A Tale of Three Memories
  • 105. 105 5.4 Multiple Forms of Long-Term Memory • Implicit memory • Explicit memory • Procedural memory • Semantic memory • Episodic memory • Priming
  • 106. Implicit and Explicit Memory • Explicit memory tasks – Recall is Voluntary, Conscious, Verbal (or demonstrable) – Also called Declarative memory – Recall or recognition • Implicit memory tasks – Involuntary and Unconscious – Require participants to complete a task (the completion of the task indirectly indicates memory) – Also Called Non-declarative memory – Word stem, word fragment, perceptual degradation
  • 108. Examples of Types of Memories • Episodic: “I bumped into a friend today at the diner whom I hadn’t seen since last year.” • Semantic: “George Washington was the first President of the U.S.” • Procedural Memory: Riding a bike • Classical conditioning: Reflexes • Priming: Jingles
  • 109. Priming Demo • Hand out sheets to Group 1 and 2
  • 110. Priming Demo • Unscramble L T E P A Group 1 PLATE Group 2 PETAL
  • 111. Priming • Why did half the class say plate and the other half say petal? • They were primed to do so • There were two different sheets of unscrambled words
  • 112. Priming sheet 1 • Unscramble the following word: • F I N E K • O P O N S • K R O F • P U C • E C U S A R • L T E P A • Answer: • K N I F E • S P O O N • F O R K • C U P • S A U C E R • P L A T E
  • 113. Priming sheet 2 • Unscramble the following word: • N Y P A S • F E L A • K T A L S • D U B • L O B S O M S • L T E P A • Answer: • P A N S Y • L E A F • S T A L K • B U D • B L O S S O M • P E T A L
  • 114. Memory for general knowledge •Connectionist models •Parallel processing •Learning (unobserved) •Layers (Input, Processing, Output) •Nodes and Links •Weights •Increasingly popular, powerful •Hard do damage, robust  plausible James McClelland
  • 115. H.M. Or Got Memory? -Prior to 1953, the role of the MTL in memory was relatively unknown -H.M. changed all that: bilateral temporal lobectomy = complete anterograde amnesia -Brenda Milner’s neuropsychological testing
  • 118. H.M.’s retrograde amnesia -H.M.s RA extends back ~11 years pre- surgery -Famous Faces performance is normal for 40s, then below normal for 50s, then severely impaired in the 60s & 70s 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s % Correct Famous Faces Recognition by Decade H.M. Comparison
  • 119. Intact domains of memory in amnesia -Working memory: HM’s digit span is normal -Skill and Perceptual learning
  • 121. Common Inaccuracies in Long-term Memory • Reasons for inaccuracy of memory: – Source amnesia: attribution of a memory to the wrong source (e.g. a dream is recalled as an actual event; age correlates with a decrease in source memory; infantile memories are from a third person perspective) – Sleeper effect: a piece of information from an unreliable source is initially discounted, but is recalled after the source has been forgotten – Misinformation effect: we incorporate outside information into our own memories
  • 123. Write down what you saw
  • 126. • Loftus The Reconstructive Nature of Memory
  • 127. • Replicated on a group of people – What memories did people remember? • 7 out of 24 remembered the false event – How are the events remembered? • True memories described more • True memories rated more clear • False memories’ clarity increased over time – Can they choose the false memory? • 19 out of 24 figured out which was false • Process of elimination?
  • 128. One Person’s False Memory... • “I vaguely, vague, I mean this is very vague, remember the lady helping me and Tim and my mom doing something else, but I don't remember crying. I mean I can remember a hundred times crying..... I just remember bits and pieces of it. I remember being with the lady. I remember going shopping. I don't think I, I don't remember the sunglasses part.“ • "Well, it can't be Slasher, 'cause I know that he ran up in the...the chimney and I know that that cat got smashed and I know that we got robbed so it had to be that mall one.” • "..I totally remember walking around in those dressing rooms and my mom not being in the section she said she'd be in. You know what I mean?"
  • 129. Individual Differences • Some people are more susceptible to misinformation than others – 7 out of 24 participants • People high at risk for misinformation acceptance have – Poor general memory – High scores on imagery vividness – High empathy scores
  • 130. Memory for general knowledge • Scripts – For routine events – Restaurant example – Allows inferences, problem of intrusions
  • 131. Script Demo: Remember This The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange the items into different groups. Of course one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then, one can never tell. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is part of life.
  • 132. Recall The Last Slide I have one word for you: LAUNDRY Try recalling the list again
  • 133. Schemas • We reconstruct memories according to a “map” of behaviors that are highly related to one another, and form a set. – Prior knowledge influences memory – Interpretation of details – Reductions in ambiguity – Makes unusual things stand out
  • 134. • Schemas in action
  • 135. (There is no meaningful difference between chunks and schemas)
  • 136. Connectionist Perspective • Parallel distributed processing model – Memory uses a network – Meaning comes from patterns of activation across the entire network – Spreading Activation Network Model – Supported by priming effects
  • 137. Memory for general knowledge •Connectionist models •Parallel processing •Learning (unobserved) •Layers (Input, Processing, Output) •Nodes and Links •Weights •Increasingly popular, powerful •Hard do damage, robust  plausible James McClelland
  • 139. If You Do Not Retrieve from LTM… • Has the memory disappeared? or • Is the memory still there but cannot retrieve it (available, but not accessible)?
  • 140. Evidence Supporting “Still There” Theory Nelson (1971) Paired associate List 43-house 67-dog 38-dress 77-scissors Cued recall test 43- ________ 67- ________ Two week delay Subjects recalled 75% of items on list But focus was on 25% they forgot.
  • 141. Nelson (1971) Critical Manipulation If participants forgot “38-dress” and “77-scissors” then participants relearned either same pairs or changed pairs 25% “forgot” Relearned Results Same 38-dress 77-scissors 38-dress 77-scissors 78% Changed 38-dress 77-scissors 38-apple 77-kettle 43% The better performance of participants in the same condition indicate that there was some memory left for “forgotten” items. Otherwise both groups would remember the same amount.
  • 142. The Neuro-anatomy of Memory • Hippocampus • Amygdala
  • 143. Hippocampus Anatomy of Memory Amygdala: emotional memory and memory consolidation Basal ganglia & cerebellum: memory for skills, habits and CC responses Hippocampus: memory recognition, spatial, episodic memory, laying down new declarative long-term memories Thalamus, formation of new memories and working memories Cortical Areas: encoding of factual memories, storage of episodic and semantic memories, skill learning, priming.
  • 144. What does the Hippocampus Do? • Place cells neurons that respond when you are in a specific place, in the place field of the neuron. So a place cell would fire when you are in your bedroom or house, etc. Each hippocampal neuron has a place field in many different environments. At first when you put the rat in the new environment, no neurons fire. Then as the rat becomes familiar with the room, neurons fire for particular parts of the room.
  • 145. What does the Hippocampus Do? • Configural Association Theory The theory that the hippocampus retains the interrelation among cues, spatially and temporally. So it remembers the relationship between a visual cue and a location as signaling food. • Path Integration Theory the hippocampus calculates current location, past location, and future location from one’s own movement.
  • 147. Amygdala • • The amygdala modulates the formation of memories in other brain structures, such as the hippocampus. Information or events of particular emotional / motivational significance are better remembered than those of little importance (c.f. flashbulb memory). • Lesions in humans and primates reveal a role for the amygdala in the perception of emotional cues and the generation of emotional responses, particularly those associated with negative emotions such as fear.
  • 148. Amygdala • • Amygdala lesions before retention testing disrupt conditioned fear. Hence, the amygdala may be the site of storage of fear memories. • Temporary inactivation by drugs during acquisition has the same effect, suggesting a genuine role in memory encoding.
  • 149. The Chowchilla Kidnapping Officials unearth the underground Livermore dungeon in which 26 schoolchildren and their bus driver were held captive in 1976. Credit: James Palmer / Associated Press 1976 •
  • 150. Flashbulb Memory • The number of details remembered about September 11 and the everyday event were statistically indistinguishable. Most memories were consistent, and over time, the number of consistent details participants were able to recall did decline, but there was no difference in the decline for ordinary memories and for memories of September 11. The number of inconsistent details (e.g. "I was with Fred" changing to "I was with Mary") increased similarly for both ordinary events and September 11.
  • 151. Flashbulb Memory • What was different was the confidence and vividness of the memories: Participants were more likely to believe their memories of September 11 were accurate than their ordinary memories, and they reported those memories as being equally vivid, even months after the event. Meanwhile, they reported the ordinary memories becoming less and less vivid and reliable, even though objectively they could remember no more details about September 11.
  • 153. Recall for Details During Hurricanes
  • 154. Terms • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval • Organizationa l encoding / chunking • Sensory memory • Iconic mem. • Echoic memory • Short-term memory • Long-term memory • Prospective memory • Tip-of-the- tongue • Memory misattribution • Source memory • False recognition • Bias • Suggestibility • Flashbulb mem. • Transfer- appropriate • Explicit memory • Procedural mem. • Implcit mem. • Semantic mem. • Priming • Episodic • Transience • Retroactive interference • Proactive interference • Rehearsal • Working memory • Long-term memory • Anterograde amnesia • Retrograde amnesia • NMDA receptor • Retrieval cue • State- depenedent mem.
  • 155. The End of Memory
  • 157. Forensics and Memory: False Confessions
  • 158. Forensics and Memory: False Confessions
  • 159. Forensics and Memory: Brief Overview of Criminal Justice System • 74% of crimes do not result in arrest • 76% of charges are dropped or juvenile • 22% of charges go to trial • Only about 14 of 1000 crimes committed will actually go to trial – criminal or civil
  • 161. Concepts to know •Interference: Proactive vs. Retroactive 1 2 1 2 •Explicitness: Explicit vs. Implicit Bla
  • 162. Concepts to know •Encoding specificity •Modal model of memory: Sensory memory  Short term memory Long term memory Information Response Storage Retrieval -Context effect -State dependent learning
  • 163. Concepts to know •Working memory = structured STM Phonological loop Visuospatial sketchpad Central executive LTM Declarative Procedural Episodic Semantic •Memory structure Implicit Explicit Knowing Vivid Recall Knowing that... Knowing how to...
  • 164. Varieties of Memory: Declarative • “What” memory – What happened, when it happened, that it happened. • Episodic: events, “when and where” – Re-experiencing, autobiographical – Easier to acquire, may suffer from “multiple exposures” • Semantic: knowledge, facts – Not autobiographical – Multiple exposures needed to acquire and strengthen knowledge – May misattribute knowledge!
  • 165. Varieties of memory: Procedural – Consist of procedural and motor memory – “How” memory • How to do things, procedures used • Examples: how to ride a bike, how to tie your shoes, how to drive to school/work – Motor memory • Consists of actions/muscle use • Riding a bike!, a dance performance,
  • 166. Caption: Results of Talarico and Rubin’s (2003) flashbulb memory experiment. (a) The decrease in the number of details remembered was similar for memories of 9/11 and for memories of an everyday event. (b) Participants’ belief that their memory was accurate remained high for 9/11, but decreased for memories of the everyday event. (Extracted from “Consistency and Key properties of Flashbulb and Everyday Memories,” by J. M. Talarico & D. C. Rubin, Psychological Science, 14, 5, Fig. 1. Copyright © 2003 with permission from the American
  • 167. Caption: What happens at a synapse as (a) a stimulus is first presented. The record next to the electrode indicates the rate of firing in the axon of neuron B. (b) As the stimulus is repeated structural changes are beginning to occur. (c) After many repetitions, more complex connections have developed between the two neurons, which causes an increase in the firing rate, even
  • 168. Caption: Results of Warrington and Weiskrantz’s (1968) experiment.
  • 169. Caption: Results of Stanny and Johnson’s (2000) weapons-focus experiment. Presence of a weapon that was fired is associated with a decrease in memory about the perpetrator, the victim, and the weapon.
  • 170. Forgetting Is a Process, Too! Proactive interference: old information interferes with recall of new information Retroactive interference: new information interferes with recall of old information Decay theory: memory trace fades with time Motivated forgetting: involves the loss of painful memories (protective memory loss) Retrieval failure: the information is still within LTM, but cannot be recalled because the retrieval cue is absent