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KM 1 – Knowledge and KM
Introduction: Knowledge and KM
Why is KM increasingly important?
Knowledge: practical insights, descriptions and models
Masterclass KM – SlideShare contribution, June 2014
http://de.slideshare.net/HoferAlfeisJ/presentations
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis
Consulting on Knowledge & Innovation Management
josef.hofer-alfeis@amontis.com
Design: Ron Hofer
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 2
KM Masterclass – Preface
The Masterclass Knowledge Management (KM) is
a set of six presentations describing and
explaining KM via definitions, concepts,
instruments and many practical examples, insights,
stories and exercises as well as links and
references.
The material is the result of 25 years of research,
consulting of challenging clients, discussions with
appreciated peers and communities as well as ten
years of lecturing on KM at various universities in
Germany and Austria including discussions with
many inspiring students, e.g.:
 Zeppelin University, Friedrichshafen
 University of the German Army, Munich
 University of Applied Science, Munich
 University of Applied Sciences for Economics
and Management, Munich
 Donau University Krems, Austria
 University Augsburg
Contents:
 KM 1 – Knowledge and KM
 KM 2 – KM Processes 1
 KM 3 – Soc.-t. KM Systems 1 / Processes 2
 KM 4 – Socio-technical KM-Systems 2
 KM 5 – Plan & Control Knowledge & KM
 KM 6 – KM and Idea / Innovation Mngt.
Any questions, remarks and ideas for
modification or improvement are appreciated –
please contact me, see slide „contact“ at the end
of the presentations.
Munich, May 2014, Josef Hofer-Alfeis
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 3
 Consultancy clients, e.g.
kubus IT, Continental, ThyssenKrupp, MunichRe,
USEEDS, Roche, o2, Siemens, RHI, Erste Bank
 Moderator of the WIMIP Community –
170 KM practitioners in industry / service
organizations
 Lecturer on KM at University Augsburg
and University Tehran (MAKE award program)
 Program board member for the Journal of KM
and the annual BITKOM KnowTech conference
 Leading author of the BITKOM guideline for
KM processes
Author‘s introduction – since 1990 consultant,
researcher and lecturer in KM and Innovation Management
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 4
245
2014: >260 MM members
de.linkedin.com/in/jhaconsult/
22
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 5
photo is important
visitors in total
since 2004: >16k
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 6
activity stream
KM … social networking …?
Using social networks?
for business?
Germany 2013: 30% of all
companies with >10 employees
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 7
Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why?
Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models
Agenda
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 8
Knowledge is the capability for effective action
Peter Senge,
President, Society for Organizational Learning
The basic definitions in KM are still an ongoing discussion – some forum discussions to this topic:
 One Sentence Definition of Knowledge (30 comments, May 2012)
http://www.linkedin.com/groupAnswers?viewQuestionAndAnswers=&discussionID=100991985&gid=154868&commentID=73362991&trk=view_disc&ut=2snoMIInCpPl81
 Knowledge vs. Information (43 comments, Aug. 2012)
http://www.linkedin.com/groupItem?view=&srchtype=discussedNews&gid=89493&item=99140520&type=member&trk=eml-anet_dig-b_pd-ttl-cn&ut=3Qi0paofuyPl81
u“Knowledge“ in KM: a short definition for the practice
important groundwork slide
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 9
 We only know what we know when we need to know it.
example: engineer’s approach
 We always know more than we can say, and
we always say more than we can write down.
example: consultant’s expertise … consulting discussion …
documented consulting results
 Everything is fragmented.
example: the Wikipedia experience  intelligence to find work-arounds
uSome elementary characteristics of “knowledge”
source, e.g. http://www.gurteen.com/gurteen/gurteen.nsf/id/newsletter104?open#L004191
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 10
 As we know, there are known
knowns. These are things we know
we know
 We also know that there are known
unknowns. That is to say, we know
there are some things we do not
know.
 But there are also unknown
unknowns, ones we do not know we
do not know.
 And finally there are things, we do not
know (at the moment), that we know
them
 tacit knowledge
uKnowledge or Not-Knowledge
source partly:The KNOW Network Alert, No. 186 - January 15, 2008
situative /
appearing
when needed
tacit
known
knowns
the unknown
known
unknowns
nknowledge n knowledge
existent not existent
(momentarily)
awarenotaware
today we only know about 1% of the animate beings
on our earth, e.g. in 2011 >20k new biologic
species have been discovered, examples 
in fact not to be
named / described
?
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 11
Enterprise
u„Knowledge“: raw material, resource and product for the
business – a comprehensive view
Knowledge –
the capability for effective action
• individual competencies
• organizational capabilities
• codifiied knowledge /
information
Ideas / Inno-
vation opportunities
Patents ... (Intellectual
Property)
Standards,
Regulations ...
Customers, suppliers, partner, ... the world
Relationships ... Knowledge
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 12
K. Area
Service XX
provision
K. Area
Product
Lifecycle Mngt
K. Area
Customer
Relationship
Mgt
in business-critical knowledge areas
uKnowledge areas – knowledge holders – knowledge quality
...
person
organization information
circulating in specific
knowledge holders
Total knowledge
Knowledge Quality:
• k. depth / proficiency?
• distribution / networking?
• codification?
K. Area
Quality Mngt,
Risk Mngt,
…
K
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 13
uKM strategies
...
person
organization information
circulating in specific
knowledge holders
Total knowledge
K. Area
Service XX
provision
K. Area
Product
Lifecycle Mngt
K. Area
Customer
Relationship
Mgt
in business-critical knowledge areas
K. Area
Quality mgt.,
Risk Mgt.,
…
K
KM-Strategy:
• Personalization?
• Codification?
• Networking &
Collaboration?
• blended approach
Knowledge
Strategy?
see KM 5
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 14
uKM actions and KM key players
K Area
Service XX
bereitstellen
K Area
PLM
K Area
CRM
K Areas
Quality mgt.,
Risk Mgt.,
…
...
person
organization information
Knowledge Worker
KM Support Org.
strategic control,
culture, resources,
mngt. energy
Management
KM key player
subject matter actions in
specific knowledge area
general KM measures for
any knowledge area
K
key players‘ needs
and intentions?
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 15
uKM is always an inter-disciplinary approach –
KM partner disciplines (examples)
Knowledge
the capability for effective action
• individual competencies
• organizational capabilities
• codifiied knowledge /
information
Enterprise
Customers, suppliers, partner, ... the world
relationships ... knowledge
Ideas / Inno-
vation opportunities
Patents ... (Intellectual
Property)
Standards,
Regulations ...
KM partner:
Personnel Development /
Talent Management,
„Learning/Training“ …
KM partner:
Organizational Development,
Process Mngt., Quality Mngt.,
Community Mngt. …
Social Networking Organization
KM partner:
Information Mngt., Communication,
QM …, Information Services, …
additional KM partners
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 16
various partner disciplines of KM are already active to support, e.g. learning and training,
inter-connection by collaboration, information formalizing and distribution,
but they are driving a kind of one-dimensional KM
The value added by the meta-discipline KM:
 provide models and processes for “orchestrated” solutions across all three types of
knowledge carriers: individual, organization and information
 evaluate, involve and integrate contributions of the various KM partner disciplines, i.e.
combine their solutions to more powerful multi-dimensional approaches
Examples:
 Transferring business-critical knowledge to another site of a company
 Maturing company-specific knowledge for performance and innovation
KM is a Meta-Discipline – why is it useful?
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 17
Joint KM projects with Personnel Development / Talent Management
 Expert Career System based on a Knowledge Strategy 
 Expert Career System enriched by communities of practice 
 Demography-orientiented KM
Joint KM projects with Innovation Management:
 Network building for innovation managers and drivers (community of practice) 
 Specific KM support for innovation managers 
Collaboration areas for KM and Quality / Process Management:
 Avoiding / learning from failure … Lesson-Learned- / Best-Practice-Sharing …
 Reuse of product / service knowledge, e.g. via helpdesk „knowledge data bases“
 Process modelling / improving … Lesson-Learned- / Best-Practice-Sharing …
Areas of inter-disciplinary collaboration – examples
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 18
 KM comprises all management activities, which are concerned with knowledge
systematically, goal-oriented and in most cases independent of the knowledge area, i.e. its
content.
Its objective is to drive for the effective, proficient, networking and learning organization.
my own definiton, for more see D-A-CH-WM-Glossar (in German)
http://wm-wiki.wikispaces.com/file/view/D-A-CH_Wissensmanagement_Glossar_v1-1.pdf 2014-05
 “Managing as if Knowledge were Important”
Nick Milton, Knoco Ltd.
http://www.nickmilton.com/2014/03/managing-as-if-knowledge-is-important.html 2014-05
uKM definition – an approach
old corny joke: you are KMer
– you should know that …
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 19
KM definition: still in many discussions – example
http://www.linkedin.com/newsArticle?viewDiscussion=&articleID=136969185&gid=154868&trk=EML_an
et_nws_c_ttle-0Rt79xs2RVr6JBpnsJt7dBpSBA
Oct 2011
>130 „definitions“
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 20
“The most important, and indeed truly unique, contribution
of management in the 20th century was the
fifty-fold increase in the productivity
of the manual worker in manufacturing.
The most important contribution management
needs to make in the 21st century is
similarly to increase the productivity
of knowledge work and the knowledge worker”
KM – why is it important now?
Management guru Peter F. Drucker, 1909-2005 stated …
image source:
http://projektmanagement.wordpress
.com/category/projektmanagement/p
age/49/
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 21
 Work: knowledge is the major resource in high-income countries …
knowledge-intensive work grows versus manual “mechanical“ work
 People: education and self-responsibility
 Organization: self-organization, networking and collaboration … learning
 Infrastruktur: digitalization and information networking
 Economy: global, open, internet-based …
 Additional trends: Outsourcing … automatization … mobility … complexity …
KM – why is it important now?
an interplay of many factors …
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 22
Can KM create value? – MAKE dimension 8: Managing
enterprise knowledge to generate shareholder/stakeholder value
 Develop and deploy an enterprise knowledge-
based strategy for increasing
shareholder/stakeholder value  KM 5
 Develop and deploy enterprise knowledge-
based programs for increasing
shareholder/stakeholder value  KM 5
 Map and measure knowledge value chains
 KM 5
 Develop and manage knowledge-based value
creation  MAKE competition 
 Measure change in enterprise
shareholder/stakeholder value
 Communicate/report on knowledge-based
value creation
Successfully managing enterprise
knowledge yields big dividends.
The 2013 Global MAKE Winners trading
on the NYSE/NASDAQ showed
• Total Return to Shareholders (TRS) for
the ten-year period 2003-2012 of
22.8% - 2.3 times the average Fortune
500 company median.
• Return on Revenues (ROR) for the
2013 Global MAKE Winners was
12.3% - 3.8 times that of the Fortune
500 ROR median.
• Return on Assets (ROA) for the 2013
Global MAKE Winners was 9.8% - 4.6
that of the Fortune 500 ROA median.
source: Global MAKE report 2013
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 23
Knowledge is the major resource in high-income countries
source: http://www.bloomberg.com/slideshow/2014-01-21/best-countries-for-business-2014.html#slide16 22.01.2014
behind Hongkong, Kanada,
USA, Singapur/Australien
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 24
 guilds … chambers of crafts
 schools, universities, …
 regulations, laws, …
 publicly / government sponsored collaboration
between companies …
 social networks, self help groups, consumer protection, …
 public knowledge repositories, e.g. Wikipedia, LEO, … wer-weiß-was (who-knows it), …
 public cultural and scientific organizations/events
 media …
 religion, popular wisdom, tales, …
 …
also important:
the quality of “public KM” in a society - examples
Lessons Learned
process?
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 25
Regional
distribution of
professional KM
indicator:
2014 Knoco Global
Survey of KM
369 contributions
www.knoco.com
125
18
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 26
No time for KM?
source: km4dev
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 27
Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why?
Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models
• overview and 3D space of knowledge quality
• codified knowledge – defined, described, structured: examples
• distributed and/or networked knowledge: examples
• flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples
• tangibility – explicit vs. implicit or even tacit knowledge: examples
Agenda
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 28
Design: Ron Hofer
uKnowledge has different holders and specifities
knowledge holder – knowledge specifity
 person – education, experiences, abilities, …
 organization – distributed and/or networked capabilities in
groups
 collective: everybody knows it
 complementarily connected: the group knows it only
together (everybody has only a part of a „puzzle“)
 information – codified (defined, described, structured)
knowledge = described capability
information = knowledge??
not disjunctive, but overlapping sets
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 29
e.g. knowledge about
a process, product, market, …
Example: knowledge holders and knowledge networking
in a business knowledge area
expert
documents
files
joint
documents
joint files
group
(community, team,
org. unit, …)
IT-
systems
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 30
uKnowledge specifities:
dimensions and characteristics useful in KM
 content / knowledge area / activity space / topic
/ theme / … „what are we talking about?“
 quality (e.g. in a specific knowledge area)
 level of expertise
 level of distributedness and/or
connectedness/networking
 level of codification
 tangibility / visibility
 explicit / externalized
 implicit (not yet externalized)
 aware
 (momentarily) not aware = tacit
additional specifities:
 value
 truth / validity
 …
 combinations like
knowledge breadth, e.g.
number of knowledge areas
with certain level of expertise,
…
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 31
Example for knowledge area „find the way from A to D“
typically any relevant knowledge area is represented in all three specifities
professional
guide
tourist, being the
2nd time there
various proficiency
levels
proficiency of somebody,
who has done it before A  B
B  C
C  D
partial knowledge
diffused and inter-
connected across
various persons
navigation system
codified knowledge
in various maps
and guidebooks
travel reports
distribution /
networking
codification
codification
depth /
proficiency
Additional Dimension: Knowledge Content, e.g.
geographical, economical, metrological, …
explicit / implicit / tacit?
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 32
uBasic concepts: 3D knowledge quality space and
basic KM processes improve/adapt knowledge quality
codification
expertise/proficiency
world-class
expert
beginner
skilled &
trained
profess’l
expert
individual
collective/
complementary
Sources: Max Boisot, CIBIT, Siemens, JHA
Improve:
describe, structure, define
Improve:
deepen & detail
abstract & enrich
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 33
unsystematical KM is nothing new in business and private life:
 intuitively – personally – semi-professional
 biased by one knowledge holder
 separately driven by various KM key players* and/or support functions
 too much fokused on specific KM instruments or solutions
professional approach:
 systematic: KM theory, concepts, processes supported by practical experiences
 balanced: all three knowledge holders and their interplaying are incorporated,
i.e. balancing the three knowledge quality dimensions for the best joint solution
 orchestrated: coordinated proceeding of KM with all involved partner disciplines
 taylored: oriented on needs and possibillities of the organization
(s. KM 5 Knowledge Strategy, KM-State-and-Needs-Analysis)
uWhy KM as a discipline for ist own?
Characteristics for a professional KM approach?
often heard objection:
„KM is nothing new!?“
* person, organization, information
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 34
Managing all knowledge holders – example HELIOS Kliniken GmbH
„KM in health care – knowledge sharing drives to success“
source: Helios Kliniken internet homepage 2009
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 35
Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why?
Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models
• overview and 3D space of knowledge quality
• codified knowledge – defined, described, structured: examples
• distributed and/or networked knowledge: examples
• flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples
• tangibility – explicit vs. implicit or even tacit knowledge: examples
Agenda
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 36
Codified knowledge- examples (1)
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 37
Codified knowledge- examples (2)
17 advices, what to do / not to do with a candle
candle information, March 2014
photo advice, how to dress in foreign culture
Iran, May 2014
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 38
room for legal studies
in Munich townhall,
May 2014
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 39
Codifying knowledge – example:
Expert Debriefing how to make apple strudel
your knowledge about
„appropriate apples“?
notes about
ingredients
and
proceeding
plus video record, e.g.
how to tear the dough thin and flat
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 40
Codified knowledge: Lessons Learned / Best Practices in
Frequently Asked Questions on battery product page
http://www.akku.net/akku-faq.html#25
Can fast charging destroy my storage battery?
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 41
Codified knowledge: example of measuring the level of
codification and expertise source: test 6/2001 (Stiftung Warentest)
additional similar test assessments:
test 09/2007 – software for English learning
test 10/2007 – school books on history
test 02/2009 – career guidebooks
what is measured:
correctness
completeness
tracability
source listing
reliability of sources
structuring
detailing
...
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 42
Knowledge with increasing level of codification described by „know-
ledge sediments“ with examples concerning communities of practice
standard, code, patent, ... database, standard repository, obligatory training...
guideline, Best Practice, rule, ... document mngt. system, handbook,
reference process model, training...
typical approach, good practice, ... Q&A forum, FAQ, seminar ...
idea, draft, rough concept, ... concept modeller, wiki, workshop...
„seeds for ideas“, trend, meaning, ... creativity instruments, blogging, coffee corner ...
knowledge KM processes / instruments
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 43
Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why?
Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models
• overview and 3D space of knowledge quality
• codified knowledge – defined, described, structured: examples
• distributed and/or networked knowledge: examples
• flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples
• tangibility – explicit vs. implicit or even tacit knowledge: examples
Agenda
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 44
… imagine, we would make the
following two group exercises …
exercise 1 – everybody is on his own:
 10 words are read to you
 you try to keep them in mind
 guess: how many will you remember
to write down? *
exercise 2 – we build groups of ten:
 15 words are read to the group
 every group tries to keep them in mind
 guess: how many will you remember to
write down as a group? **
10 / 15
words
list
*typicalresult:5-8words|**13-15words
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 45
distributed and collective, e.g. joint language
distributed and complementary = networked – examples:
 trivial – but surprising: in this room – who is next with birthday?
 real – business-relevant:
comprehensive knowledge about products and processes
 fictive: in this room we surely could combine our
complementary knowledge to create an innovation
 real – business-relevant: : collective intelligence / Crowd Intelligence
 „Swarm Intelligence“ (many of the same kind with rules for cooperation)
 symbiosis (many different complementing to something greater)
 example: prediction markets, e.g. estimating the chip price at HP –
employees bet anonymiously on the future price of memory chips in six months:
<70% improved forecasting compared to usual expert team
uDistributed and/or networked knowledge: examples
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 46
Distributed networked
knowledge: example
Old towns are grown artefacts
of distributed networked knowledge:
no individual masterplan but the
result of networking of many citizens
source: Suedd. Zeitung, 2014-05-12
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 47
Access – MM visitors / month source: WIKIMEDIA / SZ 15 May 2014
started 2001, currently >4,5MM articles in Englisch,
>1MM in German, >200k in
>1,5MM registered users and an unknown number
of unregistered users have contributed
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 48
ask mommy
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 49
www.best-in-class.com
… offering
distributed/
networked
knowledge via
expert teams /
networks …
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 50
ad hoc networking of fans of
this type of photo brainteaser
– where-is-this? –
to get information about the
unknown location, where the
photo has been shot
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 51
http://www.crowdworx.com/ 22.10.12
… making the knowledge
of the crowd useful for
business questions
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 52
Distributed / networking knowledge of medical online
consulting: measuring the level of expertise – example
source: test 4/2003 (Stiftung Warentest)
similar test assessments:
01/2010 – user evaluation of hotel portals
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 53
Organizational forms with distributed and/or networked
knowledge – examples
expert network /
Community of Practice
customercompany
product / process knowledge,
requested image / brand knowl.
reqirements, ideas
factual image, brand knowledge
business
relationship
static &
dynamic
aspects
personal relationship
partners
relationship knowledge
… joint rituals
specific
expertise
department, project
or process team
joint task
& context
joint collective
knowledge area
individual
perspective
joint
persp.
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 54
Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why?
Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models
• overview and 3D space of knowledge quality
• codified knowledge – defined, described, structured: examples
• distributed and/or networked knowledge: examples
• flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples
• tangibility – explicit vs. implicit or even tacit knowledge: examples
Agenda
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 55
flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency:
examples of measurements reputation in media / expert communities / …
comparison via
benchmarking,
assessments, …
examination results, e.g. school, university, …
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 56
Individual level of expertise: measurement example
source: test 2/2004 (Stiftung Warentest)
additional similar test assessments:
test 04/2008 – gynecologist
test 05/2014 – pharmacists
20 urologists tested
(in Germany)
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 57
Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why?
Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models
• overview and 3D space of knowledge quality
• codified knowledge – defined, described, structured: examples
• distributed and/or networked knowledge: examples
• flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples
• tangibility – explicit vs. implicit or even tacit knowledge: examples
Agenda
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 58
uBasic concepts: 3D knowledge quality space and
basic KM processes improve/adapt knowledge quality
codification
expertise/proficiency
world-class
expert
beginner
skilled &
trained
profess’l
expert
individual
collective/
complementary
Sources: Max Boisot, CIBIT, Siemens, JHA
Improve:
describe, structure, define
Improve:
deepen & detail
abstract & enrich
 tacit … implicit … explicit
increasing level of knowledge codification
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 59
uExplicit and implicit / tacit knowledge
*
to make knowledge explicit (externalized)
is a question of effort –
theoretically you may even lift an iceberg
Sources: http://eisberg.know-library.net/
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 60
uExplicit and implicit / tacit knowledge
examples
explicit knowledge – examples
informally articulated:
 gossip … talk … discussion …
informally documented:
 message … story … report …
formally documented:
 FAQ … Lesson Learnt … Best
Practice
 product / process model
 guideline … standard … patent
implicit knowledge (in person /
group / information) – examples
not (yet) articulated … hard to articulate / describe …
(still) tacit, because no trigger yet
 (undocumented) experiences
 art, craft, skill, e.g. sailboarding
 characteristics, e.g. analytic or design thinking
 values
 relationship, context understanding
 ”between the lines” …in “Big Data”*
 in artefact ...
*what has to be stocked in walmart stores before a hurricane, besides flashlights,
water bottles and boots?  strawberry pop tarts and beer http://www.linkedin.com/groups/Knowledge-
embedded-in-big-data-77700.S.275624713?trk=group_search_item_list-0-b-ttl&goback=.gna_77700 Oct. 2013
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 62
Group exercise: knowledge holders and specifities
Define jointly in your group the knowledge
area you will discuss.
It should be defined in its name by an
activity and an object – some examples:
 conduct meeting
 manage work-life-balance
 cook dinner dish
 manage public relations
 plan journey
 manage project
 your choice ...
Then discuss examples in that knowledge
area for: 
1. knowledge holder person
and its specific expertise?
2. knowledge holder group and its specific
organizational capability –
differentiate between
2a. collective capability?
2b. connected/networked capability?
(what is the name for the
„puzzle-like“ capability?)
3. knowledge holder information
and its documented knowledge?
4. flat and deep knowledge?
5. implicit and explicit knowledge?
6. tacit knowledge?
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 63
Knowledge, KM – and why?
3D space of knowledge quality
codified knowledge
distributed and/or networked knowledge
level of expertise / proficiency
tangibility – explicit, implicit, tacit knowledge
Summary & discussion
?
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 64
Contact
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis
Consulting for Knowledge and Innovation Management
Josef-Sterr-Str. 4, 81377 München, Germany
T +49 89 85661623
M +49 173 9775943
Email josef.hofer-alfeis@amontis.com
Skype JHofer-Alfeis
BrainGuide http://www.brainguide.de/dr-ing-josef-hofer-alfeis/persondetail,1,,,,,69354.html
XING https://www.xing.com/profile/Josef_HoferAlfeis
Public Maven profile: http://www.maven.co/profile/5Anc2u3D
Twitter HoferAlfeisJ
Bookmarking http://del.icio.us/HoferAlfeisJ
Facebook http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1800807835#!/
yasni http://person.yasni.de/josef-hofer-alfeis-17021.htm
Partner
Competence Center
Knowledge | Innovation | Intellectual Capital Mgt.
Amontis Consulting AG
Kurfürsten Anlage 34
D-69115 Heidelberg
www.amontis.com
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 65
Recommended KM Sources Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014
BOOKS:
 Hofer-Alfeis, J.: Entwicklung und Umsetzung einer Wissensstrategie. In: Pircher, R. (Hrsg.):
Wissensmanagement, Wissenstransfer, Wissensnetzwerke - Konzepte, Methoden und
Erfahrungen. Publicis Publishing Books, new edition 2013
 Boisot, Max H.: Managing Knowledge Assets – Securing competitive advantage in the
information economy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN: 0-19-829607-X
 Learning to fly: practical knowledge management from leading and learning organisations –
Nov 2004, Chris Collison, Geoff Parcell, ISBN: 1841125091
 Doz, Yves, et al: From Global to Metanational. Harvard Business School Press, 2001.
ISBN: 0-87584-870-2
 Davenport, T. H., Probst, G.: Knowledge Management Case Book. Publicis Corp. Publishing
,2002. ISBN: 3895781819
 Auer, T.: ABC der Wissensgesellschaft, Doculine-Verlag D-72766 Reutlingen, ISBN 978-3-
9810595-4-0
LINKS:
 www.knowledgebusiness.com
 www.apqc.org/membership-knowledge-management
 www.pwm.at
 www.c-o-k.de/index.htm
 www.xing.com/net/pri3b94dax/knowledgemanagement/
 www.xing.com/net/wm
 www.wissenmanagen.net/
 www.cogneon.de
 www.eknowledgecenter.com
 Bookmark services from JHA:
 JHAs 30 InnoLinks (regularily updated) http://delicious.com/hoferalfeisj/jhas-30-innolinks
 Important discussion forums for KM & Innovations Mngt. (selction):
http://delicious.com/hoferalfeisj/top_-_innom_-_wm_-_foren
JOURNALS:
 Wissensmanagement (Fokus Anwenndung, Beratung, Anbieter)
 Journal of Knowledge Management (Fokus Forschung; englisch)
 KM Review (Fokus Anwendung; englisch)
http://www.melcrum.com/products/journals/kmr.shtml
COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE / BODIES:
WIMIP – Community der KM Practitioners https://www.xing.com/net/wimip
Ges. für WM (GfWM); mit WM-Stammtischen zum Erfahrungsaustausch in vielen Städten,
z.B. gfwm-regional München: http://www.gfwm.de/group/121
BITKOM ArbKreis Knowledge Management, organisiert die jährl. KnowTech-Konferenz
PAPERS, BOOK CONTRIBUTIONS, PRESENTATIONS FROM JHA:
 Improving Knowledge Management for Service Organizations, Munich Re,
Communities Meeting, Hohenkammer 2014
 Wissensmanagement mit Twitter, gfwm-Knowl-edgeCamp, Karlsruhe, 2012,
and more http://de.slideshare.net/HoferAlfeisJ/wissensmanagement-mit-
twitter?from=new_upload_email
 Hofer-Alfeis, J.: Wissensmanagement und Personalmanagement
- Synergien, Projektbeispiele und Erfahrungen - In: KnowTech Konferenzband
2011, www.knowtech.net
 ~: Firmeninterne Vernetzung und Zusammenarbeit der Innovations-Manager
und –Haupttreiber. Und: Wissensvernetzung von Firmen und externen
Forschern/Interessierten für Technologie-Innovation – „Technologie-
Innovations-Communities“ gfwm-KnowledgeCamp, Potsdam, 17.9.2011,
http://knowledgecamp.mixxt.org/networks/files/folder.10675
 Hofer-Alfeis, J., et al: D-A-CH Wissensmanagement Glossar ... - In: KnowTech
Konferenzband 2009, www.knowtech.net
 Hofer-Alfeis, J.: The Leaving Expert Debriefing to fight the retirement wave of
the ageing workforce. Int. J. Human Resources Development and
Management, Vol. 9, Nos. 2/3, 2009
 ~: Lässt sich der wirtschaftliche Erfolg von Wissensmanagement überhaupt
nachweisen? Keynote zum Workshop " WIEM 2009 - Messen, Bewerten und
Benchmarken des wirtschaftlichen Erfolgs von WM, WM2009, Solothurn
 ~: Das virtuelle Aktivitätstal bei sozialen Netzwerken - Diagnose und
Therapie - In: KnowTech Konferenzband 2008, www.knowtech.net
 ~: KM solutions for the Leaving Expert issue. JOURNAL OF KNOWLEDGE
MANAGEMENT j VOL. 12 NO. 4 2008, pp. 44-54,
 ~: Was leistet WM? Wissensmanagement, Heft 1/2008, S. 38-39;
 ~, Keindl, K.: Die Prozess-Systematik im Unternehmenseinsatz.
Wissensmanagement, Heft 2/2008, S. 38-39
 ~, Keindl, K. und BITKOM Ak KEM: BITKOM Leitfaden WM-Prozess-
Systematik, 2007, http://www.bitkom.org/de/publikationen/38337_45785.aspx
 ~: Wissensmanagement im prozess-orientierten Unternehmen. Beitrag in:
KnowTech Konferenzband 2006, www.knowtech.net
 ~: Mehrwert und Zukunft von Wissensmgt. liegen im trans-disziplinären
Vorgehen. In: KnowTech Konferenzband 2005, www.knowtech.net
 ~: Effective Integration of KM into the Business Starts with a Top-down
Knowledge Strategy. J. of Universal Comput. Science, vol. 9, no. 7 2003, 719-
728
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 66
 Analysis of KM / InnoM state and needs via interviews with key people and design
of an inter-disciplinary KM / InnoM program
 Moderation of developing a knowledge strategy with the business strategy by the
management team
 Support of KM strategy definition, KM implementation and controlling
 Systematic and transparent design of expert career systems based on a
knowledge strategy
 Support with specific KM / InnoM instruments – examples:
 Debriefing of teams or leaving experts
 Development and improvement of communities of practice and other social networks
 Coaching by development of an individual knowledge strategy / KM program
Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis:
Consulting Offerings for KM and Innovation Mngt. (InnoM)

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Km masterclass part1 knowledge&km ha20140530sls

  • 1. KM 1 – Knowledge and KM Introduction: Knowledge and KM Why is KM increasingly important? Knowledge: practical insights, descriptions and models Masterclass KM – SlideShare contribution, June 2014 http://de.slideshare.net/HoferAlfeisJ/presentations Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis Consulting on Knowledge & Innovation Management josef.hofer-alfeis@amontis.com Design: Ron Hofer
  • 2. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 2 KM Masterclass – Preface The Masterclass Knowledge Management (KM) is a set of six presentations describing and explaining KM via definitions, concepts, instruments and many practical examples, insights, stories and exercises as well as links and references. The material is the result of 25 years of research, consulting of challenging clients, discussions with appreciated peers and communities as well as ten years of lecturing on KM at various universities in Germany and Austria including discussions with many inspiring students, e.g.:  Zeppelin University, Friedrichshafen  University of the German Army, Munich  University of Applied Science, Munich  University of Applied Sciences for Economics and Management, Munich  Donau University Krems, Austria  University Augsburg Contents:  KM 1 – Knowledge and KM  KM 2 – KM Processes 1  KM 3 – Soc.-t. KM Systems 1 / Processes 2  KM 4 – Socio-technical KM-Systems 2  KM 5 – Plan & Control Knowledge & KM  KM 6 – KM and Idea / Innovation Mngt. Any questions, remarks and ideas for modification or improvement are appreciated – please contact me, see slide „contact“ at the end of the presentations. Munich, May 2014, Josef Hofer-Alfeis
  • 3. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 3  Consultancy clients, e.g. kubus IT, Continental, ThyssenKrupp, MunichRe, USEEDS, Roche, o2, Siemens, RHI, Erste Bank  Moderator of the WIMIP Community – 170 KM practitioners in industry / service organizations  Lecturer on KM at University Augsburg and University Tehran (MAKE award program)  Program board member for the Journal of KM and the annual BITKOM KnowTech conference  Leading author of the BITKOM guideline for KM processes Author‘s introduction – since 1990 consultant, researcher and lecturer in KM and Innovation Management
  • 4. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 4 245 2014: >260 MM members de.linkedin.com/in/jhaconsult/ 22
  • 5. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 5 photo is important visitors in total since 2004: >16k
  • 6. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 6 activity stream KM … social networking …? Using social networks? for business? Germany 2013: 30% of all companies with >10 employees
  • 7. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 7 Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why? Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models Agenda
  • 8. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 8 Knowledge is the capability for effective action Peter Senge, President, Society for Organizational Learning The basic definitions in KM are still an ongoing discussion – some forum discussions to this topic:  One Sentence Definition of Knowledge (30 comments, May 2012) http://www.linkedin.com/groupAnswers?viewQuestionAndAnswers=&discussionID=100991985&gid=154868&commentID=73362991&trk=view_disc&ut=2snoMIInCpPl81  Knowledge vs. Information (43 comments, Aug. 2012) http://www.linkedin.com/groupItem?view=&srchtype=discussedNews&gid=89493&item=99140520&type=member&trk=eml-anet_dig-b_pd-ttl-cn&ut=3Qi0paofuyPl81 u“Knowledge“ in KM: a short definition for the practice important groundwork slide
  • 9. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 9  We only know what we know when we need to know it. example: engineer’s approach  We always know more than we can say, and we always say more than we can write down. example: consultant’s expertise … consulting discussion … documented consulting results  Everything is fragmented. example: the Wikipedia experience  intelligence to find work-arounds uSome elementary characteristics of “knowledge” source, e.g. http://www.gurteen.com/gurteen/gurteen.nsf/id/newsletter104?open#L004191
  • 10. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 10  As we know, there are known knowns. These are things we know we know  We also know that there are known unknowns. That is to say, we know there are some things we do not know.  But there are also unknown unknowns, ones we do not know we do not know.  And finally there are things, we do not know (at the moment), that we know them  tacit knowledge uKnowledge or Not-Knowledge source partly:The KNOW Network Alert, No. 186 - January 15, 2008 situative / appearing when needed tacit known knowns the unknown known unknowns nknowledge n knowledge existent not existent (momentarily) awarenotaware today we only know about 1% of the animate beings on our earth, e.g. in 2011 >20k new biologic species have been discovered, examples  in fact not to be named / described ?
  • 11. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 11 Enterprise u„Knowledge“: raw material, resource and product for the business – a comprehensive view Knowledge – the capability for effective action • individual competencies • organizational capabilities • codifiied knowledge / information Ideas / Inno- vation opportunities Patents ... (Intellectual Property) Standards, Regulations ... Customers, suppliers, partner, ... the world Relationships ... Knowledge
  • 12. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 12 K. Area Service XX provision K. Area Product Lifecycle Mngt K. Area Customer Relationship Mgt in business-critical knowledge areas uKnowledge areas – knowledge holders – knowledge quality ... person organization information circulating in specific knowledge holders Total knowledge Knowledge Quality: • k. depth / proficiency? • distribution / networking? • codification? K. Area Quality Mngt, Risk Mngt, … K
  • 13. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 13 uKM strategies ... person organization information circulating in specific knowledge holders Total knowledge K. Area Service XX provision K. Area Product Lifecycle Mngt K. Area Customer Relationship Mgt in business-critical knowledge areas K. Area Quality mgt., Risk Mgt., … K KM-Strategy: • Personalization? • Codification? • Networking & Collaboration? • blended approach Knowledge Strategy? see KM 5
  • 14. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 14 uKM actions and KM key players K Area Service XX bereitstellen K Area PLM K Area CRM K Areas Quality mgt., Risk Mgt., … ... person organization information Knowledge Worker KM Support Org. strategic control, culture, resources, mngt. energy Management KM key player subject matter actions in specific knowledge area general KM measures for any knowledge area K key players‘ needs and intentions?
  • 15. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 15 uKM is always an inter-disciplinary approach – KM partner disciplines (examples) Knowledge the capability for effective action • individual competencies • organizational capabilities • codifiied knowledge / information Enterprise Customers, suppliers, partner, ... the world relationships ... knowledge Ideas / Inno- vation opportunities Patents ... (Intellectual Property) Standards, Regulations ... KM partner: Personnel Development / Talent Management, „Learning/Training“ … KM partner: Organizational Development, Process Mngt., Quality Mngt., Community Mngt. … Social Networking Organization KM partner: Information Mngt., Communication, QM …, Information Services, … additional KM partners
  • 16. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 16 various partner disciplines of KM are already active to support, e.g. learning and training, inter-connection by collaboration, information formalizing and distribution, but they are driving a kind of one-dimensional KM The value added by the meta-discipline KM:  provide models and processes for “orchestrated” solutions across all three types of knowledge carriers: individual, organization and information  evaluate, involve and integrate contributions of the various KM partner disciplines, i.e. combine their solutions to more powerful multi-dimensional approaches Examples:  Transferring business-critical knowledge to another site of a company  Maturing company-specific knowledge for performance and innovation KM is a Meta-Discipline – why is it useful?
  • 17. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 17 Joint KM projects with Personnel Development / Talent Management  Expert Career System based on a Knowledge Strategy   Expert Career System enriched by communities of practice   Demography-orientiented KM Joint KM projects with Innovation Management:  Network building for innovation managers and drivers (community of practice)   Specific KM support for innovation managers  Collaboration areas for KM and Quality / Process Management:  Avoiding / learning from failure … Lesson-Learned- / Best-Practice-Sharing …  Reuse of product / service knowledge, e.g. via helpdesk „knowledge data bases“  Process modelling / improving … Lesson-Learned- / Best-Practice-Sharing … Areas of inter-disciplinary collaboration – examples
  • 18. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 18  KM comprises all management activities, which are concerned with knowledge systematically, goal-oriented and in most cases independent of the knowledge area, i.e. its content. Its objective is to drive for the effective, proficient, networking and learning organization. my own definiton, for more see D-A-CH-WM-Glossar (in German) http://wm-wiki.wikispaces.com/file/view/D-A-CH_Wissensmanagement_Glossar_v1-1.pdf 2014-05  “Managing as if Knowledge were Important” Nick Milton, Knoco Ltd. http://www.nickmilton.com/2014/03/managing-as-if-knowledge-is-important.html 2014-05 uKM definition – an approach old corny joke: you are KMer – you should know that …
  • 19. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 19 KM definition: still in many discussions – example http://www.linkedin.com/newsArticle?viewDiscussion=&articleID=136969185&gid=154868&trk=EML_an et_nws_c_ttle-0Rt79xs2RVr6JBpnsJt7dBpSBA Oct 2011 >130 „definitions“
  • 20. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 20 “The most important, and indeed truly unique, contribution of management in the 20th century was the fifty-fold increase in the productivity of the manual worker in manufacturing. The most important contribution management needs to make in the 21st century is similarly to increase the productivity of knowledge work and the knowledge worker” KM – why is it important now? Management guru Peter F. Drucker, 1909-2005 stated … image source: http://projektmanagement.wordpress .com/category/projektmanagement/p age/49/
  • 21. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 21  Work: knowledge is the major resource in high-income countries … knowledge-intensive work grows versus manual “mechanical“ work  People: education and self-responsibility  Organization: self-organization, networking and collaboration … learning  Infrastruktur: digitalization and information networking  Economy: global, open, internet-based …  Additional trends: Outsourcing … automatization … mobility … complexity … KM – why is it important now? an interplay of many factors …
  • 22. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 22 Can KM create value? – MAKE dimension 8: Managing enterprise knowledge to generate shareholder/stakeholder value  Develop and deploy an enterprise knowledge- based strategy for increasing shareholder/stakeholder value  KM 5  Develop and deploy enterprise knowledge- based programs for increasing shareholder/stakeholder value  KM 5  Map and measure knowledge value chains  KM 5  Develop and manage knowledge-based value creation  MAKE competition   Measure change in enterprise shareholder/stakeholder value  Communicate/report on knowledge-based value creation Successfully managing enterprise knowledge yields big dividends. The 2013 Global MAKE Winners trading on the NYSE/NASDAQ showed • Total Return to Shareholders (TRS) for the ten-year period 2003-2012 of 22.8% - 2.3 times the average Fortune 500 company median. • Return on Revenues (ROR) for the 2013 Global MAKE Winners was 12.3% - 3.8 times that of the Fortune 500 ROR median. • Return on Assets (ROA) for the 2013 Global MAKE Winners was 9.8% - 4.6 that of the Fortune 500 ROA median. source: Global MAKE report 2013
  • 23. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 23 Knowledge is the major resource in high-income countries source: http://www.bloomberg.com/slideshow/2014-01-21/best-countries-for-business-2014.html#slide16 22.01.2014 behind Hongkong, Kanada, USA, Singapur/Australien
  • 24. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 24  guilds … chambers of crafts  schools, universities, …  regulations, laws, …  publicly / government sponsored collaboration between companies …  social networks, self help groups, consumer protection, …  public knowledge repositories, e.g. Wikipedia, LEO, … wer-weiß-was (who-knows it), …  public cultural and scientific organizations/events  media …  religion, popular wisdom, tales, …  … also important: the quality of “public KM” in a society - examples Lessons Learned process?
  • 25. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 25 Regional distribution of professional KM indicator: 2014 Knoco Global Survey of KM 369 contributions www.knoco.com 125 18
  • 26. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 26 No time for KM? source: km4dev
  • 27. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 27 Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why? Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models • overview and 3D space of knowledge quality • codified knowledge – defined, described, structured: examples • distributed and/or networked knowledge: examples • flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples • tangibility – explicit vs. implicit or even tacit knowledge: examples Agenda
  • 28. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 28 Design: Ron Hofer uKnowledge has different holders and specifities knowledge holder – knowledge specifity  person – education, experiences, abilities, …  organization – distributed and/or networked capabilities in groups  collective: everybody knows it  complementarily connected: the group knows it only together (everybody has only a part of a „puzzle“)  information – codified (defined, described, structured) knowledge = described capability information = knowledge?? not disjunctive, but overlapping sets
  • 29. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 29 e.g. knowledge about a process, product, market, … Example: knowledge holders and knowledge networking in a business knowledge area expert documents files joint documents joint files group (community, team, org. unit, …) IT- systems
  • 30. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 30 uKnowledge specifities: dimensions and characteristics useful in KM  content / knowledge area / activity space / topic / theme / … „what are we talking about?“  quality (e.g. in a specific knowledge area)  level of expertise  level of distributedness and/or connectedness/networking  level of codification  tangibility / visibility  explicit / externalized  implicit (not yet externalized)  aware  (momentarily) not aware = tacit additional specifities:  value  truth / validity  …  combinations like knowledge breadth, e.g. number of knowledge areas with certain level of expertise, …
  • 31. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 31 Example for knowledge area „find the way from A to D“ typically any relevant knowledge area is represented in all three specifities professional guide tourist, being the 2nd time there various proficiency levels proficiency of somebody, who has done it before A  B B  C C  D partial knowledge diffused and inter- connected across various persons navigation system codified knowledge in various maps and guidebooks travel reports distribution / networking codification codification depth / proficiency Additional Dimension: Knowledge Content, e.g. geographical, economical, metrological, … explicit / implicit / tacit?
  • 32. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 32 uBasic concepts: 3D knowledge quality space and basic KM processes improve/adapt knowledge quality codification expertise/proficiency world-class expert beginner skilled & trained profess’l expert individual collective/ complementary Sources: Max Boisot, CIBIT, Siemens, JHA Improve: describe, structure, define Improve: deepen & detail abstract & enrich
  • 33. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 33 unsystematical KM is nothing new in business and private life:  intuitively – personally – semi-professional  biased by one knowledge holder  separately driven by various KM key players* and/or support functions  too much fokused on specific KM instruments or solutions professional approach:  systematic: KM theory, concepts, processes supported by practical experiences  balanced: all three knowledge holders and their interplaying are incorporated, i.e. balancing the three knowledge quality dimensions for the best joint solution  orchestrated: coordinated proceeding of KM with all involved partner disciplines  taylored: oriented on needs and possibillities of the organization (s. KM 5 Knowledge Strategy, KM-State-and-Needs-Analysis) uWhy KM as a discipline for ist own? Characteristics for a professional KM approach? often heard objection: „KM is nothing new!?“ * person, organization, information
  • 34. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 34 Managing all knowledge holders – example HELIOS Kliniken GmbH „KM in health care – knowledge sharing drives to success“ source: Helios Kliniken internet homepage 2009
  • 35. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 35 Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why? Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models • overview and 3D space of knowledge quality • codified knowledge – defined, described, structured: examples • distributed and/or networked knowledge: examples • flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples • tangibility – explicit vs. implicit or even tacit knowledge: examples Agenda
  • 36. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 36 Codified knowledge- examples (1)
  • 37. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 37 Codified knowledge- examples (2) 17 advices, what to do / not to do with a candle candle information, March 2014 photo advice, how to dress in foreign culture Iran, May 2014
  • 38. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 38 room for legal studies in Munich townhall, May 2014
  • 39. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 39 Codifying knowledge – example: Expert Debriefing how to make apple strudel your knowledge about „appropriate apples“? notes about ingredients and proceeding plus video record, e.g. how to tear the dough thin and flat
  • 40. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 40 Codified knowledge: Lessons Learned / Best Practices in Frequently Asked Questions on battery product page http://www.akku.net/akku-faq.html#25 Can fast charging destroy my storage battery?
  • 41. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 41 Codified knowledge: example of measuring the level of codification and expertise source: test 6/2001 (Stiftung Warentest) additional similar test assessments: test 09/2007 – software for English learning test 10/2007 – school books on history test 02/2009 – career guidebooks what is measured: correctness completeness tracability source listing reliability of sources structuring detailing ...
  • 42. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 42 Knowledge with increasing level of codification described by „know- ledge sediments“ with examples concerning communities of practice standard, code, patent, ... database, standard repository, obligatory training... guideline, Best Practice, rule, ... document mngt. system, handbook, reference process model, training... typical approach, good practice, ... Q&A forum, FAQ, seminar ... idea, draft, rough concept, ... concept modeller, wiki, workshop... „seeds for ideas“, trend, meaning, ... creativity instruments, blogging, coffee corner ... knowledge KM processes / instruments
  • 43. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 43 Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why? Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models • overview and 3D space of knowledge quality • codified knowledge – defined, described, structured: examples • distributed and/or networked knowledge: examples • flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples • tangibility – explicit vs. implicit or even tacit knowledge: examples Agenda
  • 44. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 44 … imagine, we would make the following two group exercises … exercise 1 – everybody is on his own:  10 words are read to you  you try to keep them in mind  guess: how many will you remember to write down? * exercise 2 – we build groups of ten:  15 words are read to the group  every group tries to keep them in mind  guess: how many will you remember to write down as a group? ** 10 / 15 words list *typicalresult:5-8words|**13-15words
  • 45. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 45 distributed and collective, e.g. joint language distributed and complementary = networked – examples:  trivial – but surprising: in this room – who is next with birthday?  real – business-relevant: comprehensive knowledge about products and processes  fictive: in this room we surely could combine our complementary knowledge to create an innovation  real – business-relevant: : collective intelligence / Crowd Intelligence  „Swarm Intelligence“ (many of the same kind with rules for cooperation)  symbiosis (many different complementing to something greater)  example: prediction markets, e.g. estimating the chip price at HP – employees bet anonymiously on the future price of memory chips in six months: <70% improved forecasting compared to usual expert team uDistributed and/or networked knowledge: examples
  • 46. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 46 Distributed networked knowledge: example Old towns are grown artefacts of distributed networked knowledge: no individual masterplan but the result of networking of many citizens source: Suedd. Zeitung, 2014-05-12
  • 47. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 47 Access – MM visitors / month source: WIKIMEDIA / SZ 15 May 2014 started 2001, currently >4,5MM articles in Englisch, >1MM in German, >200k in >1,5MM registered users and an unknown number of unregistered users have contributed
  • 48. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 48 ask mommy
  • 49. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 49 www.best-in-class.com … offering distributed/ networked knowledge via expert teams / networks …
  • 50. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 50 ad hoc networking of fans of this type of photo brainteaser – where-is-this? – to get information about the unknown location, where the photo has been shot
  • 51. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 51 http://www.crowdworx.com/ 22.10.12 … making the knowledge of the crowd useful for business questions
  • 52. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 52 Distributed / networking knowledge of medical online consulting: measuring the level of expertise – example source: test 4/2003 (Stiftung Warentest) similar test assessments: 01/2010 – user evaluation of hotel portals
  • 53. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 53 Organizational forms with distributed and/or networked knowledge – examples expert network / Community of Practice customercompany product / process knowledge, requested image / brand knowl. reqirements, ideas factual image, brand knowledge business relationship static & dynamic aspects personal relationship partners relationship knowledge … joint rituals specific expertise department, project or process team joint task & context joint collective knowledge area individual perspective joint persp.
  • 54. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 54 Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why? Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models • overview and 3D space of knowledge quality • codified knowledge – defined, described, structured: examples • distributed and/or networked knowledge: examples • flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples • tangibility – explicit vs. implicit or even tacit knowledge: examples Agenda
  • 55. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 55 flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples of measurements reputation in media / expert communities / … comparison via benchmarking, assessments, … examination results, e.g. school, university, …
  • 56. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 56 Individual level of expertise: measurement example source: test 2/2004 (Stiftung Warentest) additional similar test assessments: test 04/2008 – gynecologist test 05/2014 – pharmacists 20 urologists tested (in Germany)
  • 57. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 57 Introduction: Knowledge, KM – and why? Focus: Knowledge - practical insights, descriptions and models • overview and 3D space of knowledge quality • codified knowledge – defined, described, structured: examples • distributed and/or networked knowledge: examples • flat vs. deep knowledge – level of expertise / proficiency: examples • tangibility – explicit vs. implicit or even tacit knowledge: examples Agenda
  • 58. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 58 uBasic concepts: 3D knowledge quality space and basic KM processes improve/adapt knowledge quality codification expertise/proficiency world-class expert beginner skilled & trained profess’l expert individual collective/ complementary Sources: Max Boisot, CIBIT, Siemens, JHA Improve: describe, structure, define Improve: deepen & detail abstract & enrich  tacit … implicit … explicit increasing level of knowledge codification
  • 59. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 59 uExplicit and implicit / tacit knowledge * to make knowledge explicit (externalized) is a question of effort – theoretically you may even lift an iceberg Sources: http://eisberg.know-library.net/
  • 60. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 60 uExplicit and implicit / tacit knowledge examples explicit knowledge – examples informally articulated:  gossip … talk … discussion … informally documented:  message … story … report … formally documented:  FAQ … Lesson Learnt … Best Practice  product / process model  guideline … standard … patent implicit knowledge (in person / group / information) – examples not (yet) articulated … hard to articulate / describe … (still) tacit, because no trigger yet  (undocumented) experiences  art, craft, skill, e.g. sailboarding  characteristics, e.g. analytic or design thinking  values  relationship, context understanding  ”between the lines” …in “Big Data”*  in artefact ... *what has to be stocked in walmart stores before a hurricane, besides flashlights, water bottles and boots?  strawberry pop tarts and beer http://www.linkedin.com/groups/Knowledge- embedded-in-big-data-77700.S.275624713?trk=group_search_item_list-0-b-ttl&goback=.gna_77700 Oct. 2013
  • 61. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 62 Group exercise: knowledge holders and specifities Define jointly in your group the knowledge area you will discuss. It should be defined in its name by an activity and an object – some examples:  conduct meeting  manage work-life-balance  cook dinner dish  manage public relations  plan journey  manage project  your choice ... Then discuss examples in that knowledge area for:  1. knowledge holder person and its specific expertise? 2. knowledge holder group and its specific organizational capability – differentiate between 2a. collective capability? 2b. connected/networked capability? (what is the name for the „puzzle-like“ capability?) 3. knowledge holder information and its documented knowledge? 4. flat and deep knowledge? 5. implicit and explicit knowledge? 6. tacit knowledge?
  • 62. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 63 Knowledge, KM – and why? 3D space of knowledge quality codified knowledge distributed and/or networked knowledge level of expertise / proficiency tangibility – explicit, implicit, tacit knowledge Summary & discussion ?
  • 63. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 64 Contact Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis Consulting for Knowledge and Innovation Management Josef-Sterr-Str. 4, 81377 München, Germany T +49 89 85661623 M +49 173 9775943 Email josef.hofer-alfeis@amontis.com Skype JHofer-Alfeis BrainGuide http://www.brainguide.de/dr-ing-josef-hofer-alfeis/persondetail,1,,,,,69354.html XING https://www.xing.com/profile/Josef_HoferAlfeis Public Maven profile: http://www.maven.co/profile/5Anc2u3D Twitter HoferAlfeisJ Bookmarking http://del.icio.us/HoferAlfeisJ Facebook http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1800807835#!/ yasni http://person.yasni.de/josef-hofer-alfeis-17021.htm Partner Competence Center Knowledge | Innovation | Intellectual Capital Mgt. Amontis Consulting AG Kurfürsten Anlage 34 D-69115 Heidelberg www.amontis.com
  • 64. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 65 Recommended KM Sources Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 BOOKS:  Hofer-Alfeis, J.: Entwicklung und Umsetzung einer Wissensstrategie. In: Pircher, R. (Hrsg.): Wissensmanagement, Wissenstransfer, Wissensnetzwerke - Konzepte, Methoden und Erfahrungen. Publicis Publishing Books, new edition 2013  Boisot, Max H.: Managing Knowledge Assets – Securing competitive advantage in the information economy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN: 0-19-829607-X  Learning to fly: practical knowledge management from leading and learning organisations – Nov 2004, Chris Collison, Geoff Parcell, ISBN: 1841125091  Doz, Yves, et al: From Global to Metanational. Harvard Business School Press, 2001. ISBN: 0-87584-870-2  Davenport, T. H., Probst, G.: Knowledge Management Case Book. Publicis Corp. Publishing ,2002. ISBN: 3895781819  Auer, T.: ABC der Wissensgesellschaft, Doculine-Verlag D-72766 Reutlingen, ISBN 978-3- 9810595-4-0 LINKS:  www.knowledgebusiness.com  www.apqc.org/membership-knowledge-management  www.pwm.at  www.c-o-k.de/index.htm  www.xing.com/net/pri3b94dax/knowledgemanagement/  www.xing.com/net/wm  www.wissenmanagen.net/  www.cogneon.de  www.eknowledgecenter.com  Bookmark services from JHA:  JHAs 30 InnoLinks (regularily updated) http://delicious.com/hoferalfeisj/jhas-30-innolinks  Important discussion forums for KM & Innovations Mngt. (selction): http://delicious.com/hoferalfeisj/top_-_innom_-_wm_-_foren JOURNALS:  Wissensmanagement (Fokus Anwenndung, Beratung, Anbieter)  Journal of Knowledge Management (Fokus Forschung; englisch)  KM Review (Fokus Anwendung; englisch) http://www.melcrum.com/products/journals/kmr.shtml COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE / BODIES: WIMIP – Community der KM Practitioners https://www.xing.com/net/wimip Ges. für WM (GfWM); mit WM-Stammtischen zum Erfahrungsaustausch in vielen Städten, z.B. gfwm-regional München: http://www.gfwm.de/group/121 BITKOM ArbKreis Knowledge Management, organisiert die jährl. KnowTech-Konferenz PAPERS, BOOK CONTRIBUTIONS, PRESENTATIONS FROM JHA:  Improving Knowledge Management for Service Organizations, Munich Re, Communities Meeting, Hohenkammer 2014  Wissensmanagement mit Twitter, gfwm-Knowl-edgeCamp, Karlsruhe, 2012, and more http://de.slideshare.net/HoferAlfeisJ/wissensmanagement-mit- twitter?from=new_upload_email  Hofer-Alfeis, J.: Wissensmanagement und Personalmanagement - Synergien, Projektbeispiele und Erfahrungen - In: KnowTech Konferenzband 2011, www.knowtech.net  ~: Firmeninterne Vernetzung und Zusammenarbeit der Innovations-Manager und –Haupttreiber. Und: Wissensvernetzung von Firmen und externen Forschern/Interessierten für Technologie-Innovation – „Technologie- Innovations-Communities“ gfwm-KnowledgeCamp, Potsdam, 17.9.2011, http://knowledgecamp.mixxt.org/networks/files/folder.10675  Hofer-Alfeis, J., et al: D-A-CH Wissensmanagement Glossar ... - In: KnowTech Konferenzband 2009, www.knowtech.net  Hofer-Alfeis, J.: The Leaving Expert Debriefing to fight the retirement wave of the ageing workforce. Int. J. Human Resources Development and Management, Vol. 9, Nos. 2/3, 2009  ~: Lässt sich der wirtschaftliche Erfolg von Wissensmanagement überhaupt nachweisen? Keynote zum Workshop " WIEM 2009 - Messen, Bewerten und Benchmarken des wirtschaftlichen Erfolgs von WM, WM2009, Solothurn  ~: Das virtuelle Aktivitätstal bei sozialen Netzwerken - Diagnose und Therapie - In: KnowTech Konferenzband 2008, www.knowtech.net  ~: KM solutions for the Leaving Expert issue. JOURNAL OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT j VOL. 12 NO. 4 2008, pp. 44-54,  ~: Was leistet WM? Wissensmanagement, Heft 1/2008, S. 38-39;  ~, Keindl, K.: Die Prozess-Systematik im Unternehmenseinsatz. Wissensmanagement, Heft 2/2008, S. 38-39  ~, Keindl, K. und BITKOM Ak KEM: BITKOM Leitfaden WM-Prozess- Systematik, 2007, http://www.bitkom.org/de/publikationen/38337_45785.aspx  ~: Wissensmanagement im prozess-orientierten Unternehmen. Beitrag in: KnowTech Konferenzband 2006, www.knowtech.net  ~: Mehrwert und Zukunft von Wissensmgt. liegen im trans-disziplinären Vorgehen. In: KnowTech Konferenzband 2005, www.knowtech.net  ~: Effective Integration of KM into the Business Starts with a Top-down Knowledge Strategy. J. of Universal Comput. Science, vol. 9, no. 7 2003, 719- 728
  • 65. Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis, 2014 - 66  Analysis of KM / InnoM state and needs via interviews with key people and design of an inter-disciplinary KM / InnoM program  Moderation of developing a knowledge strategy with the business strategy by the management team  Support of KM strategy definition, KM implementation and controlling  Systematic and transparent design of expert career systems based on a knowledge strategy  Support with specific KM / InnoM instruments – examples:  Debriefing of teams or leaving experts  Development and improvement of communities of practice and other social networks  Coaching by development of an individual knowledge strategy / KM program Dr.-Ing. Josef Hofer-Alfeis: Consulting Offerings for KM and Innovation Mngt. (InnoM)