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Welding Courses Institute Pakistan-
CSWIP and NDT
CSWIP 3.1 (Welding Inspector)
Introduction Course
Introduction Class
• CSWIP = Certified Scheme for Welding Inspection Personnel
• TWI UK
(The Welding Institute Cambridge)
• CSWIP 3.0 _______Level 01
• CSWIP 3.1 _______Level 02
• CSWIP 3.2 (3.2.1 , 3.2.2) _________ Level 03
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Exam Criteria
Total Five Papers
Exam Papers and Duration
Paper Questions Passing Marks Duration
General Paper 30 21 45
Technology
Paper
60 42 1 hour and
15 mins
Macro Paper
(A,B)
12 Each 9 30 mins
Break
Plate Paper 20 14 1 hour and
15 Mins
Pipe Paper 20 14 1 hour and
45 Mins
Total Time
Duration 6 hours
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Certification Expire Time:
• Valid for 5 Years
• Can be renew by
paying Fee.
• After 10 years
• Re-Exam
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Materials Technologies
Metals:
Properties:
Crystal Structure
Electrical Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity
High Melting Temperature
Example:
Fe, Al, Cu, Ni (Pure Metals)
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Metalloids:
Properties:
 They are semi-conductors
 Having some properties of Metals and Non-Metals
Example:
C (Carbon)
Si (Silicon)
Br (Boron) etc.
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Non Metals (Non Conductor Insulators)
They are Non conductor to Electricity
For Example:
Inert Gasses:
• Argon and Helium
Active Gasses:
• CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)
• H2 (Hydrogen)
• N2 (Nitrogen)
• O2 (Oxygen)
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Types of Metals
There are two types of metals,
1. Ferrous Metals Iron Ore
2. Non-Ferrous Metals Other Metals Base
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Ferrite Metals
 Body Central Cubic (B.C.C), Crystal Structure (CS)
 Alpha Iron (α) _ Ferrite
 Room Temp.
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Austenite Metals
 Face Central Cubic (F.C.C) Structure
 Gamma Iron (γ)
 High Temp.
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Pure Metals
Pure Form of Metals
E.g. Fe, Al, Cu, Ni
• Alloys:
Combination of two or more Metals
E.g. Steel
This is the Alloy of Fe + C + Alloying Elements
The Amount of Carbon maximum 1.7%
(Minor Quantity of Alloying Elements)
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Types OF Steel
Carbon Steel (C.S)
Alloy Steel (A.S)
Carbon Steel:
Properties control by the Percentage of Carbon.
Alloy Steel:
Properties Control by the Percentage of Alloys.
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Process of Making Iron
Reduction Process:
 Raw Material (Fe2O4), (Fe2O3)
 Removal of Oxygen
 Fe Making in Blast Furnace
 Product Pig Iron 3-4% Carbon.
Process of Making Steel:
Oxidation Process:
 Addition of Oxygen
 Steel making in electric Induction Furnace
 Carbon content Max. 1.7%
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Types of Carbon Steel
i. Low Carbon Steel
ii. Medium Carbon Steel
iii. High Carbon Steel
I) Low Carbon Steel:
 0.01% Carbon to <= 0.3% Carbon
II) Medium Carbon Steel:
 0.3% Carbon to <= 0.6% Carbon
III) High Carbon Steel:
 0.6% carbon to <= 1.4% Carbon
 Steel ---- Approx. Maximum 1.7% Carbon
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Types of Steel W.R.T Silicon
i. Rimming Steel:
• Without Silicon
• Low Quality Steel used as Electrode wire in MMA/SMAW welding Process
ii. Killed Steel:
• With Silicon
• Killed steels are used in various steel treatments, including alloy steels, forging steels,
and carburizing steels
iii) Semi-Killed Steel:
• Deoxidized Steel
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Types of Alloy Steel
1. Low Allow Steel
2. High Alloy Steel OR Stainless Steel
Low Alloy Steel:
<= 7% Alloying Elements
High Alloy Steel:
 7% Alloying Steel
 E.g. Stainless Steel
Chromium Cr = min 11.5%
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Types of Stainless Steel
I. Martensitic
II. Ferritic
III. Austenitic
IV. Precipitation Hardening
V. Duplex
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Martensitic Stainless Steel:
AISI Series = 400
(American Iron and Steel Institution)
Proper ties = Magnetic
AISI Type Cr % Ni % Other
403 11.5 - 13 Nil Nil
410 11.5 – 13.5 Nil Nil
420 12 - 14 Nil Nil
Straight Chrome Stainless Steel
Chromium (11.5% – 14%)
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Ferritic Stainless Steel
AISI Type 400 series
Properties: Magnetic
AISI Type Cr % Ni % Other
430 14-18 Nil Nil
446 23-27 Nil Nil
• Straight Chrome
• Chrome Range (14%-27%)
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Austenitic Stainless Steel
Properties = Non Magnetic
• High Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
• Low Thermal Conductivity
• Weld Decay Occurrence
• High Temp. Application
AISI Type C% Cr% Ni% Other
304 Approx. 0.08 18-20 8-12 Low Temp.
304L <= 0.03 18-20 8-12 Low Temp.
316 C <=0.03 18-20 8-12 2-3% Mo
316L C <=0.03 18-20 8-12 High Temp.
321 5 X C 18-20 8-12 5 X C = Ti
347 5 X C 18-12 8-12 5 X C = Nb
Molybdenum (Mo) = Creep Resistance Element
Titanium (Ti) = Stabilizer
Niobium (Nb) = Stabilizer
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Precipitation Hardening SS:
Property = Non=Magnetic
AISI Type Cr% Ni% Other
329 15 5 Nil
3RE 60 17 4 Nil
44L 17 7 Nil
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
Duplex Stainless Steel
Property = Duel (Magnetic and Non Magnetic)
AISI Type Cr% Ni% Other
329L 25 4.5 Nil
3RE 60 18.5 5 Nil
44LN 25 6 Nil
Duel Phase:
Austinite (High Temp.)
Ferrite (Low Temp.)
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
General Information About Welding
Welding Brazing
Joining of Metal Joining of Metal
Heating Above Melting Temp. of
Base Metal
Heating Below Melting Temp. of
Base Metal
With or Without Filler Metal Only melting with Filler Metal
With or Without Pressure Temp. => 450 Celsius
Soldering Temp. => 450 Celsius
Qualification is Compulsory Qualification not Mandatory
Mechanical Properties Must Match
with Parent Metal
Mechanical Properties may not
Match with Parent Metal
Autogenous Welding or Puddling:
A welding without Filler Metal.
e.g. Pressure and fusion
Welding Courses Institute Pakistan

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Introdustion Lecture.pptx

  • 1. Welding Courses Institute Pakistan- CSWIP and NDT CSWIP 3.1 (Welding Inspector) Introduction Course
  • 2. Introduction Class • CSWIP = Certified Scheme for Welding Inspection Personnel • TWI UK (The Welding Institute Cambridge) • CSWIP 3.0 _______Level 01 • CSWIP 3.1 _______Level 02 • CSWIP 3.2 (3.2.1 , 3.2.2) _________ Level 03 Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 3. Exam Criteria Total Five Papers Exam Papers and Duration Paper Questions Passing Marks Duration General Paper 30 21 45 Technology Paper 60 42 1 hour and 15 mins Macro Paper (A,B) 12 Each 9 30 mins Break Plate Paper 20 14 1 hour and 15 Mins Pipe Paper 20 14 1 hour and 45 Mins Total Time Duration 6 hours Welding Courses Institute Pakistan Certification Expire Time: • Valid for 5 Years • Can be renew by paying Fee. • After 10 years • Re-Exam
  • 5. Materials Technologies Metals: Properties: Crystal Structure Electrical Conductivity Thermal Conductivity High Melting Temperature Example: Fe, Al, Cu, Ni (Pure Metals) Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 6. Metalloids: Properties:  They are semi-conductors  Having some properties of Metals and Non-Metals Example: C (Carbon) Si (Silicon) Br (Boron) etc. Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 7. Non Metals (Non Conductor Insulators) They are Non conductor to Electricity For Example: Inert Gasses: • Argon and Helium Active Gasses: • CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) • H2 (Hydrogen) • N2 (Nitrogen) • O2 (Oxygen) Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 8. Types of Metals There are two types of metals, 1. Ferrous Metals Iron Ore 2. Non-Ferrous Metals Other Metals Base Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 9. Ferrite Metals  Body Central Cubic (B.C.C), Crystal Structure (CS)  Alpha Iron (α) _ Ferrite  Room Temp. Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 10. Austenite Metals  Face Central Cubic (F.C.C) Structure  Gamma Iron (γ)  High Temp. Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 11. Pure Metals Pure Form of Metals E.g. Fe, Al, Cu, Ni • Alloys: Combination of two or more Metals E.g. Steel This is the Alloy of Fe + C + Alloying Elements The Amount of Carbon maximum 1.7% (Minor Quantity of Alloying Elements) Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 12. Types OF Steel Carbon Steel (C.S) Alloy Steel (A.S) Carbon Steel: Properties control by the Percentage of Carbon. Alloy Steel: Properties Control by the Percentage of Alloys. Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 13. Process of Making Iron Reduction Process:  Raw Material (Fe2O4), (Fe2O3)  Removal of Oxygen  Fe Making in Blast Furnace  Product Pig Iron 3-4% Carbon. Process of Making Steel: Oxidation Process:  Addition of Oxygen  Steel making in electric Induction Furnace  Carbon content Max. 1.7% Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 14. Types of Carbon Steel i. Low Carbon Steel ii. Medium Carbon Steel iii. High Carbon Steel I) Low Carbon Steel:  0.01% Carbon to <= 0.3% Carbon II) Medium Carbon Steel:  0.3% Carbon to <= 0.6% Carbon III) High Carbon Steel:  0.6% carbon to <= 1.4% Carbon  Steel ---- Approx. Maximum 1.7% Carbon Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 15. Types of Steel W.R.T Silicon i. Rimming Steel: • Without Silicon • Low Quality Steel used as Electrode wire in MMA/SMAW welding Process ii. Killed Steel: • With Silicon • Killed steels are used in various steel treatments, including alloy steels, forging steels, and carburizing steels iii) Semi-Killed Steel: • Deoxidized Steel Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 16. Types of Alloy Steel 1. Low Allow Steel 2. High Alloy Steel OR Stainless Steel Low Alloy Steel: <= 7% Alloying Elements High Alloy Steel:  7% Alloying Steel  E.g. Stainless Steel Chromium Cr = min 11.5% Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 17. Types of Stainless Steel I. Martensitic II. Ferritic III. Austenitic IV. Precipitation Hardening V. Duplex Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 18. Martensitic Stainless Steel: AISI Series = 400 (American Iron and Steel Institution) Proper ties = Magnetic AISI Type Cr % Ni % Other 403 11.5 - 13 Nil Nil 410 11.5 – 13.5 Nil Nil 420 12 - 14 Nil Nil Straight Chrome Stainless Steel Chromium (11.5% – 14%) Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 19. Ferritic Stainless Steel AISI Type 400 series Properties: Magnetic AISI Type Cr % Ni % Other 430 14-18 Nil Nil 446 23-27 Nil Nil • Straight Chrome • Chrome Range (14%-27%) Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 20. Austenitic Stainless Steel Properties = Non Magnetic • High Coefficient of Thermal Expansion • Low Thermal Conductivity • Weld Decay Occurrence • High Temp. Application AISI Type C% Cr% Ni% Other 304 Approx. 0.08 18-20 8-12 Low Temp. 304L <= 0.03 18-20 8-12 Low Temp. 316 C <=0.03 18-20 8-12 2-3% Mo 316L C <=0.03 18-20 8-12 High Temp. 321 5 X C 18-20 8-12 5 X C = Ti 347 5 X C 18-12 8-12 5 X C = Nb Molybdenum (Mo) = Creep Resistance Element Titanium (Ti) = Stabilizer Niobium (Nb) = Stabilizer Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 21. Precipitation Hardening SS: Property = Non=Magnetic AISI Type Cr% Ni% Other 329 15 5 Nil 3RE 60 17 4 Nil 44L 17 7 Nil Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 22. Duplex Stainless Steel Property = Duel (Magnetic and Non Magnetic) AISI Type Cr% Ni% Other 329L 25 4.5 Nil 3RE 60 18.5 5 Nil 44LN 25 6 Nil Duel Phase: Austinite (High Temp.) Ferrite (Low Temp.) Welding Courses Institute Pakistan
  • 23. General Information About Welding Welding Brazing Joining of Metal Joining of Metal Heating Above Melting Temp. of Base Metal Heating Below Melting Temp. of Base Metal With or Without Filler Metal Only melting with Filler Metal With or Without Pressure Temp. => 450 Celsius Soldering Temp. => 450 Celsius Qualification is Compulsory Qualification not Mandatory Mechanical Properties Must Match with Parent Metal Mechanical Properties may not Match with Parent Metal Autogenous Welding or Puddling: A welding without Filler Metal. e.g. Pressure and fusion Welding Courses Institute Pakistan