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Automotive
Bootloader
From Tech Agile
Purpose of Bootloader
Update the Application
• Add new Features
• Remove Bugs
Update Bootloader
• Add new Features
• Remove Bugs
Exchange of Informationwith Application
Type of Bootloader
Single Level Bootloader
• Primary Bootloader, There is not Secondary Bootloader (PBL)
• Primary Bootloader will be placed in Flash Memory, which is required to be
flashed using debugger.
Two Level Bootloader
• Primary and Secondary Bootloader both are available (SBL)
• PBL is required to be flashed using Debugger, It will be placed in Flash
Memory of the controller
• SBL can be loaded into RAM Area using PBL.
Type of Bootloader
1. Download Over CAN, LIN, FlexRay, Ethernet (DOIP)
❑ We use UDS services to Transfer the data over the bus
2. Download Over Serial Bus
Single Level Bootloader
ISystem - WinIDEA Debugger
Two Level Bootloader
Advantage of Two Level Bootloader
• SBL will be loaded into RAM Memory, which will not be accessing after
successfulApplication, which make is more secure.
• Many of Controller will not support Flash to Flash erase and Programming, in
such condition, Two Level Bootloader is necessary
• Assume there is bug in Bootloader, and because of which we can’t
download/update the applicable which make the ECU non usable.
• Special SBL will be capable to updating PBL as well using which we can resolve
bug of PBL as well.
Where does Bootloader Reside ?
SBL
PBL
Application
Memory
ECU
Flash Memory
• PBL can contain multiple block of Flash Memory. Each Block is required to be
flashed correctly.
• SBL can also have multiple blocks. Each Block is required to be flashed
correctly.
• Application can also have multiple blocks. In most cases, definitely app will
have more numbers of block. Each Block is required to validated before
Flashing into memory. Unlock of ECU, CRC Check and ECU specific Application
Validated is required.
Where does Bootloader Reside ?
PBL
Application
Memory
ECU
SBL
SBL
SBL
PBL
Application
Application
Application
Memory Alignment
• You always need to Erase the Complete block of Memory, controller doesn’t
support erase of only specific bytes in most cases.
• Read and write of only specific bytes is possible, However it will depends on
controller alignment for read and write operation.
Flash Memory
• Signal Database: Generally there will be separate block for Signal Database,
where all the CAN, LIN Signal will be stored.
• Fault Memory: DTS Information and Snapshot Record will be stored in Flash
Memory at specified address.
Communication Bootloader <-> APP
• Bootloader need to give controller to Application once Validation Application
is successful.
• Application need to communicationwith Bootloader in case of Application
update is require, while valid application is running.
❑ This is case of Reprogramming
Bootloader Application
Flag Set/Clear
Download Sequence
Programming or
Reprogramming
Session Request
: 10 02
/10 80
Security
Access to
Unlock the ECU
OEM Specific
Read Data By
Identified or
other
diagnostic
request
Erase Request
using Routine
Control or
other
diagnostic
service
Programming
Request
Download Request :
0x34
Data Transfer :
0x36
Transfer Exit :
0x37
OEM
Specific
Application
Validation
ECU Reset
Download Sequence
Prog Session Req
Security Access
PBL
Erase
Application
SBL
Program
Application
ECU Reset
Startup Sequence
Power on Self Test
Startup Code
PBL
Application
No ValidApp Present
ValidApp Present
• Stack Pointer
Initialization
• RAM Initialization
• Jump to PBL

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Introduction to Automotive Bootloader | Programming Sequence

  • 2. Purpose of Bootloader Update the Application • Add new Features • Remove Bugs Update Bootloader • Add new Features • Remove Bugs Exchange of Informationwith Application
  • 3. Type of Bootloader Single Level Bootloader • Primary Bootloader, There is not Secondary Bootloader (PBL) • Primary Bootloader will be placed in Flash Memory, which is required to be flashed using debugger. Two Level Bootloader • Primary and Secondary Bootloader both are available (SBL) • PBL is required to be flashed using Debugger, It will be placed in Flash Memory of the controller • SBL can be loaded into RAM Area using PBL.
  • 4. Type of Bootloader 1. Download Over CAN, LIN, FlexRay, Ethernet (DOIP) ❑ We use UDS services to Transfer the data over the bus 2. Download Over Serial Bus
  • 5. Single Level Bootloader ISystem - WinIDEA Debugger
  • 7. Advantage of Two Level Bootloader • SBL will be loaded into RAM Memory, which will not be accessing after successfulApplication, which make is more secure. • Many of Controller will not support Flash to Flash erase and Programming, in such condition, Two Level Bootloader is necessary • Assume there is bug in Bootloader, and because of which we can’t download/update the applicable which make the ECU non usable. • Special SBL will be capable to updating PBL as well using which we can resolve bug of PBL as well.
  • 8. Where does Bootloader Reside ? SBL PBL Application Memory ECU
  • 9. Flash Memory • PBL can contain multiple block of Flash Memory. Each Block is required to be flashed correctly. • SBL can also have multiple blocks. Each Block is required to be flashed correctly. • Application can also have multiple blocks. In most cases, definitely app will have more numbers of block. Each Block is required to validated before Flashing into memory. Unlock of ECU, CRC Check and ECU specific Application Validated is required.
  • 10. Where does Bootloader Reside ? PBL Application Memory ECU SBL SBL SBL PBL Application Application Application
  • 11. Memory Alignment • You always need to Erase the Complete block of Memory, controller doesn’t support erase of only specific bytes in most cases. • Read and write of only specific bytes is possible, However it will depends on controller alignment for read and write operation.
  • 12. Flash Memory • Signal Database: Generally there will be separate block for Signal Database, where all the CAN, LIN Signal will be stored. • Fault Memory: DTS Information and Snapshot Record will be stored in Flash Memory at specified address.
  • 13. Communication Bootloader <-> APP • Bootloader need to give controller to Application once Validation Application is successful. • Application need to communicationwith Bootloader in case of Application update is require, while valid application is running. ❑ This is case of Reprogramming Bootloader Application Flag Set/Clear
  • 14. Download Sequence Programming or Reprogramming Session Request : 10 02 /10 80 Security Access to Unlock the ECU OEM Specific Read Data By Identified or other diagnostic request Erase Request using Routine Control or other diagnostic service Programming Request Download Request : 0x34 Data Transfer : 0x36 Transfer Exit : 0x37 OEM Specific Application Validation ECU Reset
  • 15. Download Sequence Prog Session Req Security Access PBL Erase Application SBL Program Application ECU Reset
  • 16. Startup Sequence Power on Self Test Startup Code PBL Application No ValidApp Present ValidApp Present • Stack Pointer Initialization • RAM Initialization • Jump to PBL