SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 176
I
EXPLORING THE WONDERS OF AQUATIC MUSEUM AT
KARACHI
(Redesigning of Fish Aquarium at Bin Qasim Park Clifton )
By
KIRAN KANDHRO
(18AR113)
SUPERVISED BY
AR. RIDA HUSSAIN
(LECTURER)
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, JAMSHORO
SINDH
Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Architecture 2023
II
CERTIFICATE
This is certified that the work presented in this thesis titled as “EXPLORING THE
WONDERS OF AQUATIC MUSEUM AT KARACHI” has been carried out by
Kiran Kandhro (18AR113) herself under the supervision and guidance of AR. Rida
Hussain which fulfill requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor’s in Architecture.
KIRAN KANDHRO
18AR113
Thesis/project Supervisor External/Examiner
Ar.Rida Hussain 1.______________
(Lecturer) 2. _____________
Department of Architecture
MUET, Jamshoro
Chairman
MR. MOUZAM ALI PATHAN
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
MUET, JAMSHORO
Dated:_______________
III
DEDICATION
Starting by thanking Almighty Allah without which I wouldn’t be able to make such
efforts.
The thesis dedicated to my parents and best friend who have done their utmost to support
and enable me to seek education and taught me to always have a high regard and
commitment towards it, Whilst always inspiring and motivating me throughout the way
To become a better version of myself.
IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost, praises and thanks to Allah Almighty, for His showers of blessings
throughout my research work to complete the research successfully and secondly to
appreciate the people related to this Thesis and give them their due credit.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my thesis advisor Ar. Rida Hussain for
taking on the daunting task of selecting me even given the complexity of my project and
believing in me and for the continuous support of my thesis study and research, for his
patience, motivation, enthusiasm, encouragement and immense knowledge. His guidance
helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis.
Besides my advisor I would like to thank the respected Chairman Mr. Moazam Ali
Pathan for providing us with a medium to receive education and complete our bachelors
My sincere thanks also goes to all the teachers that have ever taken a single lecture to the
long term association from the foundation to the final year belonging to my department or
any other and taught me everything from my time in the University.
And lastly but in no way the least my Best friend who helped me Muhammad Ali and
my Parents for being there for me through thick and thin and helping me out on
numerous occasions, surely university life would have been a lot difficult without their
love and support.
I thank everyone with the highest gratitude.
V
ABSTRACT
The progression of any society is contingent upon its achievements in education,
awareness, and advancements across various fields. However, Pakistan faces challenges,
including political crises, hindering its development potential. In particular, the
vulnerable conditions of significant aquatic life forms, such as mangroves, green turtles,
and blind dolphins, underscore the need for heightened awareness and conservation
efforts.
This thesis explores the necessity of establishing a public aquarium in Karachi, Pakistan,
as a dedicated facility for showcasing and conserving marine life. By conducting a
comprehensive analysis of the global significance of public aquariums, the study
underscores the immense benefits such an establishment can bring to Karachi and
Pakistan as a whole.
The research made for emphasizes the educational value of public aquariums,
highlighting their role in promoting marine science literacy, environmental awareness,
and conservation ethics. By providing an immersive and interactive learning environment,
a public aquarium can stimulate curiosity, deepen understanding of marine ecosystems,
and foster a sense of stewardship among visitors and also providing modern technologies
of aquarium which are world wide use.
In conclusion, this thesis underscores the criticality of establishing a public aquarium in
Karachi, Pakistan, to address the current void in the country's marine educational and
conservation landscape. By providing a platform for education, economic growth,
research, and cultural enrichment, a modern aquatic museum in Karachi has the potential
to revolutionize perceptions and knowledge about marine life in Pakistan. The resulting
initiatives will significantly contribute to the conservation of marine ecosystems and
foster a sustainable future for aquatic life in the region, thereby ensuring the preservation
of vital species such as green turtles, mangroves and blind dolphins.
VI
TITLE …………………………………………………………………………………….i
CERTIFICATE……………………………………………………………………………ii
DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………………iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………..iv
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………….…v
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………….………....vi-xiv
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………….…..……...xv
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………..………..….…...xv-xx
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 01
INTRODUCTION………..……………………………………………………………1-7
1.1 INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT ..........................................................................................1-2
1.2 MOTIVATION ..................................................................................................................4
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT ...........................................................................................4-5
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH .....................................................................5
1.5 AIM OF RESEARCH................................................................................................................5
1.6 OBJECTIVES..........................................................................................................................5-6
1.7 SCOPE OF PROJECT ..............................................................................................................6
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT..........................................................7
1.9 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..........................................................................................7
VII
CHAPTER 02
LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………8-25
2.1 DEGRADATION OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT ………………………………….……8
2.2 ASSESSMENT OF FISH DIVERSITY OF DOWNSTREAM INDUS RIVER, SINDH
PAKISTAN ............……………………………………......................................................9
2. 3 ASSESSMENT OF FISH DIVERSITY IN THE ARABIAN SEA (SINDH AND
BALOCHISTAN) .................................................................................................………....…..9-10
2.4 BLIND DOLPHIN OF THE INDUS RIVER...................………….............….… …….10-11
2.5 INTEGRATION OF AQUARIUMS WITH TECHNOLOGY……………………….…12-25
2.5.1 SOUTH CORLIN AQURIUM.....................................…………………………………...-13
2.5.2 THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY IN (WASHINGTON DC)…..14
2.5.3 CHIMELONG OCEAN KINGDOM, HENGQIN (CHINA).............................…..…....15-16
2.5.4 UNDERWATER WORLD PATTAYA (THAILAND )..........………………......17-18
2.5.5 DUBAI AQUARIUM AND UNDERWATER ZOO………………..……… 19-20
2.5.6 RIPLEY’S AQUARIUM OF CANADA....................................…………………….....21-23
2.5.7 ART SCIENCE MUSEUM MARINA BAY SANDS SINGAPORE……………….24-25
CHAPTER 03
CASE STUDIES ……………..………………………………………………….….26-63
VIRTUAL CASE STUDIES ……………………………………………………26-48
3.1 SENTOSA ’S S.E.A AQUARIM (SINGAPORE).…..................................……...…...26-36
3.1.1 LOCATION .................................................................……………………............… ..…26
3.1.2 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................…-27
3.1.3 ABOUT RESORTS WORLD SENTOSA.......................................................................…27
VIII
3.1.4 MARINE LIFE PARK.................................................................................................27-28
3.1.5 DRY EXPERIENCE AT MARINE LIFE PARK - THE WORLD’S LARGEST
OCEANARIUM………………………………………………..............................28-29
3.1.6 DRAWINGS AND VIEWS OF AQUARIUM.........................................................29-30
3.1.7 ZONES..............................................................................................………………...30-34
3.1.8 EDUCATION AND CONSERVATION..............................................................…34
3.1.9 MICE AT S.E.A. AQUARIUM......................................................................…….…34-35
3.1.10. SENTOSA'S S.E.A. AQUARIUM RE-BRANDING TO S'PORE OCEANARIUM IN
2024,TO BE 3 TIMES LARGER..……………………………………………………35-36
3.1.11. SERVICES......................................................................................................…………..36
3.2 MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA..........................................................…………….37-47
3.2.1 BASIC DETAILS OF AQUARIUM..............................................................................37-38
3.2.2 LOCATION......................................................................................................……....38
3.2.3 DESCRIPTION .....................................................................................................……39-40
3.2.4 CIRCULATIONS ............................................................................................................40
3.2.5 TECHNOLOGY AT AQUARIUM .........................................................................…..40-41
3.2.6 GEOMETRY & STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING ..............................…....……..41-42
3.2.7 FILTERATION.............................................................................................................42-43
3.2.8 SUSTAINABILITY .......................................................................................................43
3.2.9 QUARANTINE SYSTEM FOR THE ANIMAL RESEARCH AND CARE CENT...43-44
3.2.10 DRAWINGS AND VIEWS......................................................................................44-47
LIVE CASE STUDIES ...................................................…………………….48-62
3.3 MUNICIPAL AQUARIUM KARACHI AT KARACHI ZOO ..................………....48-54
IX
3.3.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................48
3.3.2 LOCATION ..........................................................................………………………...49
3.3.3 KARACHI MUNICIPAL AQUARIUM.......................................…………....49-54
3.3.4 SERVICES.............................................................………………………………….......50
3.3.5 COLLECTION OF FISHES .............................................…………………………50
3.3.6 TYPES OF FISHES...............................................................………………50-53
3.3.7 INFORMATION COLLECTED FROM AQUARIUM..............................................53
3.3.8 OBSERVATION ...........................................................................................................53-54
3.3.9 GALLERIES .............................................................................................................…54
3.4 CLIFTON FISH AQUARIUM....................................................................……………55-62
3.4.1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................……55
3.4.2 HISTORY …………………………………………………………………………..55-57
3.4.2.1 KARACHI’S LARGEST PUBLIC AQUARIUM IS ABOUT TO GET AN RS 100
MILLION FACELIFT (2012)……………………………………………………………...….56
3.4.2.2 KARACHI’S ONLY AQUARIUM TO BE REOPENED …………………..………56
3.4.2.3 ABANDONED PROJECT: CLIFTON AQUARIUM AWAITS FINAL CURTAIN
(2019)………………………………….………………………………..……………..…56
3.4.2.4 CLIFTON AQUARIUM IN 1994………………………………………….56-57
3.4.3 SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCREENING REPORT FOR THE PROPOSED
PROJECT (FEB-2021)…………………………………………………………...58-59
3.4.4 ON-SITE CASE STUDY 23-01-23....................................................…….…………..59-61
3.4.5 INFORMATION COLLECTED FROM SITE.............................................…….……….61
3.4.6 2 OBSERVATION AT SITE ........................................................………………61-62
X
CHAPTER 04
TECHNICAL
DATA …………………………………………………………………..……….…63-122
4.1 KINDS OF SPACES WHERE AQUATIC ECOLOGY IS DISPLAYED............…...63-65
4.1.1 AQUARIUM..............................................………………………............63
4.1.1.1 HISTORY OF AQUARIUMS .......................................................................................63
4.1.2 MARINE NATIONAL PARKS.......................................................................................64
4.1.3 OCEANARIUMS.................................................................…………………………......64
4.1.4 ZOO AND WILDLIFE PARKS.........................................…………………….......64
4.1.5 BEACH AND COASTAL INTERPRETIVE CENTERS: ...................………………....65
4.1.6 NATURE CENTERS AND MUSEUMS: ......................................…………………......65
4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF AQUATIC LIFE:...…………………………......65-69
4.2.1. FRESHWATER ..............................................................................…………….........65
4.2.2 COLDWATER........................................................................……………………….....65
4.2.3 TROPICAL................................................................................……………………..65
4.2.4 SALTWATER REGIONS............................................................................................…..66
4.2.5 BRACKISH WATER OR BRINY WATER.............................................………………..66
4. 3 TYPE S OF FIS HE S .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6
4.3.1 FRESH WATER FISHES..........................................................................66
4.3.1.1 CLASSIFICATION .......................................................................66-67
4.3.1.2 FRESH WATER FISHES OF PAKISTAN .............................................................67-69
4.4 DIET……………………………………………..…………………………………69
4.5 COMMON SALT WATER FISHE S.. ..... .... .. ………… ..... .... ..... ...6 9-70
XI
4.5.1 TYPES OF SALT WATER FISHES...........................................................70-84
4.6 EXHIBIT DESIGN.........................................................................................84-88
4.6.1 STATIC EXHIBIT SPACES..........................................................................................85
4.6.2 LIVE EXHIBIT SPACES ...............................................................................85
4.6.4. TOUCH POOL..............................................................................85
4.6.5. ACRYLIC TUNNEL TANK ......................................................................................86
4.6.6 CORAL REEF TANK.....................................................................86
4.6.7 GAINT OCEAN TANK..........................................................................87
4.6.8. BIOTOPE .................................................................................................87
4.6.9. DOLPHINARIUM.....................................................................................................87
4.6.10. OCEAN SHORE TANK...............................................................................................88
4.6.11 PREDATOR TANK………………………………......................................88
4.6.12. QUARANTINE TANK................................................................................88
4.7 SALTWATER VERSUS FRESHWATER AQUARIUMS.............................................89-90
4.8 AQUARIUM TANK SHAPE.....................................................................90
4.8.1. RECTANGULAR/SQUARE FISH TANK................................................................91
4.8.2 LARGE AQUARIUM SIZES........................................................................91
4.9 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR TANKS ………………………………………91-92
4.9.1 FIBERGLASS: .......................................................................................91-92
4.9.2 GLASS: ..................................................................……..........................92
4.9 ACRYLIC:....………………………………………...............…...............................92
4.10 WATER QUALITY......................................................................................92-96
XII
4.11 WATER SYSTEM .............................................................................................96
4.11.1 OPEN WATER SYSTEM:..........................……………………….......97
4.11. 2 CLOSED WATER SYSTEMS.................................................................................97-98
4.11.3 SEMI-CLOSED WATER SYSTEMS........................................................................98-99
4.12 WATER TREATMENT................................................................................99-100
4.12.1 THERMAL CONTROL...................................................................100
4.13 AERATION................................…...............................................100-101
4.14 FILTRATION SYSTEM..........................................................................101
4.14.1 MECHANICAL FILTRATION: ...........................................................................101-102
4.14.2 CHEMICAL FILTRATION: ................................................................................102-108
4.15 WATER FILTERATION SYSTEM FOR SALT AND FRESHWATER ........108
4.16 AQUATIC NEED...…………………………………........................................108
4.16.1 COMMON INFORMATION ABOUT ………………….…………………108-109
4.16.2 FEEDING INFORMATION………………………..………………..........109
4.16.3 HEALTH CHECKUPS........................................................................................109
4.17 PLUMBING..........................................................................110
4.18 LIGHTING IN EXHIBIT SPACES .....................................................................110-111
4.18.1 FRESHWATER......................................................................................111
4.18.2 BRACKISH...............................................................................111
4.18.3 MARINE..........................................................................................111-112
4.19 TECHNICAL AND NATURAL ELEMENTS OF AQUASCAPING..............112-116
4.19 .1 CARBON DIOXIDE...........................................................................................112
XIII
4.19 .2 LIQUID FERTILIZER............………………….....................................................112
4.19 .3 AQUARIUM DRIFTWOOD........………………...................................112
4.19 .4 SUBSTRATES AND AQUA SOIL……………………………………………...112-113
4.19 .5 STONES.....…………………………………………………………………..........113
4.19.6 LIVE ROCK.......................................…………………………………………...........114
4.19.7 DEAD ROCK OR DRY ROCK..........................…………………….........................114
4.19.8 CORALS AND REEF ………………………………………………………….……114
4.19.9 AQUATIC PLANTS ................................................……………….....................114-15
4.19.10 CLIMATE CONTROL .................................................………….............................115
4.19.11 FISH FEEDERS……………….…………………………………………………….116
4.20 INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGY ..............................................................................116-122
4.20.1 VIRTUAL REALITY ..........................................................................116
4.20.2 TYPES OF VR......................................................................................117-119
4.20.2 AUGMENTED REALITY ..........................................................................119
4.20.2.1 TYPES OF AUGMENT REALITY ....................................................................119-122
CHAPTER 05
SITE SELECTION……………………………………………………..………123-129
5.1 SITE SELECTION CRITERIA.................................………….........................................123
5.2 PROPOSED SITES BASIC INFORMATION.....................……………...124-126
5.2.1 SITE 01..................................................……………………….………....124
5.2.2 SITE 02 .......................................……………………………………….......125
5.2.3 SITE 03................................................………………………..…………126
5.3 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SITE................................................……..…………126-12
5.4 SHORTLISTING OF SITE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS .........................................127
5.5 WHY KARACHI.....................................................................…………………........127-128
5.5.1 SITE ANALYSIS W.R.T NEIGHBOURHOOD CONTEXT.......................…….......…128
XIV
5.5.2 SITE ORENTATION.................................................................………..........128-129
5.2 PROPOSED SITES BASIC INFORMATION............................……………………..…...129
CHAPTER 06
SITE SELECTION………………………………………………………………130-143
6.1 INTRODUCTION .......................................……………….………………….......130
6.2 PROJECT CONCEPT .........................………………………..…………..……………130
6.3 DESIGN CONCEPT..............................................…………………….…...…………130-133
6.4 DESIGN CONSIDERATION...................................……………….....……………........132
6.5 ZONES ................................................………………………………………….........132-133
6.5.1 ZONES STUDY......................……………………………………………………133-139
6.5.1.1 PUBLIC ZONE .................................................………………………………............133
6.5.1.2 DISPLAY ZONE...................…………………………………………………....133-135
6.5.1.3 FUN AND RECREATIONAL ZONE:....……………………………………......135-136
6.5.1.4 EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES ..……………………………………….........136-137
6.5.1.5 SERVICE ZONE....…………………………………………………………..…..…126
6.5.3 .ADMIN ZONE....................................………………………………………….…139
6.6 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARD SIZES.............................................139-143
CHAPTER 07
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION………………………………………….…………144-152
7.1 DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY ...............................……................144
7.2 INTERVIEWS .........……………………………………………………………..…144-146
7.2.1 INTERVIEW WITH KARACHI MUNICIPAL ZOO AQUARIUM ....…….…...144-145
7.2.2 INTERVIEW WITH CLIFTON FISH AQUARIUM ……………….……………145-146
7.3 OBJECTIVES ACHIEVED THROUGH THROUGH SURVEY …………….….....146-147
7.3.1 RESEARCH DATA COLLECTED THOUGH SURREY ……………….…….147-147
7.4 OUT COME OF THE SURVEYS AND INTERVIEW …………………………....147-153
BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………..154
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………155-157
XV
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE:4.1 DATA OF FRESH WATER FISHES……………………………….………...68-69
TABLE:4.2 DATA OF ANGLE FISH………………………………………………………....70
TABLE:4.3 DATA OF ANTHIAS FISH………………………………………………..……..71
TABLE:4.4 DATA OF BASS AND GROPERS……………………………………………....72
TABLE:4.5 DATA OF CLOWN FISH………………………………………..………….….73
TABLE:4.6 DATA OF EELS……………………………………………………..……………..74
TABLE:4.7 DATA OF DRAGNETS …………………………………………..…………...75
TABLE:4.8 DATA OF RABBIT FISH……………………………………….………..…76
TABLE:4.9 DATA OF SEAHORSES…………………………………………..………...…77
TABLE:4.10 DATA OF SHARKS………………………………………………….…………78
TABLE:4.11 DATA OF TURTLES……………………………………………….….………...79
TABLE:4. 12 DATA OF JELLYFISHES…………………………………….……………....80
TABLE:4.13 DATA OF SNAPPERS………………………………………………………...81
TABLE:4.15 DATA OF SPONGES ………………………………………..…………………..82
TABLE :4.16 DATA OF DOLPHINS…………………………………………………..….83-85
TABLE NO : 5.1 SITE SELECTION ANALYSIS CHART ON THE BASIS OF SITE
CONTEXT…………………………………………………………………………………….127
TABLE :6.1 REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARD DIMENSIONS ………………………143
TABLE OF FIGURES
Fig 1.1 simulation motion through virtual reality……………………………………………2
Fig 1.2 VR Head Mounted Display…………………………………………………..……….2
Fig 1.3 A woman using an interactive aquarium exhibit ………………………………………3
Fig 1.4 indoor touch pool ……………………………………………………………….….3
Fig 1.5: Holographic projection of an dolphin………………………………………………4
Fig: 2.1 Rescue of Indus river dolphins…………………………………………...………..…11
FIG 2.2:Students are using technology to learn about turtle……………………………13
XVI
Fig 2.3:Trainee is using technology to learn about turtle.…………………………….….13
Fig.2.4: Elevation of south carolina aquarium…………………………………….………13
Fig:2.5 Holographic projection of whale…………………………………………………….….14
Fig:2.6 Holographic projection national museum……………………………………….………14
Fig:2.7 Holographic projection of whale in national museum………………………………14
Fig: 2.8 display of under water aqua world…………………………………………………….26
Fig: 2.9 Tunnel view of the aquarium…………………………………………………….….16
Fig:2.10 View of Chimelong International Ocean ……………………………..………….16
Fig 2.11 view of inside the tunnel in the aquarium…………………………….………18
Fig 2.12 landscape of underwater world aquarium ……………………………………………18
Fig: 2.13 The location map shows activities in the aquarium……………………………….18
Fig: 2.14 Glass Bottom Boat Rides of Dubai aquarium ………………………………………20
Fig: 2.15 tunnel view of Dubai aquarium ……………………………………………………20
Fig: 2.16 view of aquarium from Dubai mall ………………………………………………20
Fig : 2.17: view of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada ………………………………..……….22
Fig:2.18 Flow diagram of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada ……………………………….…23
Fig: 2.19 exhibition area of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada………………………………….…23
Fig:2.20 Tunnel view of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada……………………………………….23
Fig :2.21 exhibition area of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada………………………………..…..23
Fig 2.22 Interactive responsive floor………………………………………………………..….25
Fig:2.23 Viewers experiencing the sketch aquarium ……………………………………..….25
Fig:3.1 location plan of sea aquarium…………………………………………………….….26
Fig:3.2 elevation of sea aquarium………………………………………………………...….29
Fig:3.3 master plan of sea aquarium………………………………………………….…..….29
Fig:3.4 Floor plans of sea aquarium…………………………………………………………….30
Fig:3.5 Entrance and ticket area of sea aquarium…………………………………………….30
Fig:3.6 scuba diving activity at sea aquarium………………………………………………….31
Fig:3.7 digital information displays at sea aquarium…………………………………………….31
XVII
Fig:3.8 mangroves displays at sea aquarium…………………………………….……….…….32
Fig:3.9 jelly fish display area at sea aquarium…………………………………………………...32
Fig:3.10 The ocean dome at sea aquarium…………………………………………………...33
Fig:3.11 shark tunnel at sea aquarium……………………………………………………...….34
Fig:3.12 view of ocean dome in dining area at sea aquarium…………………………..……35.
Fig :3.13 sea aquarium's main zones details…………………………………………….…..…35
Fig:3.14 : state-of-the-art digital innovation …………………………………………….…….36
Fig :3.15 Artist's impression of singapore …………………………………..………….….36
Fig :3.16-3.life support system of singapore ………………..…………………………..….…36
Fig :3.18 location plan of monetary aquarium ………………………………………………...38
Fig :3.19 digital displays of monetary aquarium ………………………………………….40
Fig :3.20 digital displays of monetary aquarium…………………………………………..….41
Fig :3.21 digital displays of monetary aquarium ……………………………………….….41
Fig :3.22 construction process of monetary aquarium ……………….………………………….42
Fig :3.23 quarantine room of monteray aquarium………………….……………………….….44
Fig :3.24 exterior views of monteray aquarium……………….……………………………..…44.
Fig :3.25 -3.26 Floor plans of monteray aquarium………………..…………………………….45
Fig :3.27 Services plans of monteray aquarium……………….…………………………….….46
Fig :3.28 Sections of monteray aquarium……………………………………………………….467
Fig :3.29 scuba diving of monteray aquarium……………..……………………………….….47
Fig :3.30 information gallery of monteray aquarium……….……………………………...…..47
Fig :3.33 dining area of monteray aquarium……………….………………………………….….47
Fig :3.34 Location plan of Karachi zoo….………………….……………………….….….….48
Fig: 3.35 facade of aquarium …………………….……….…..………………………….….….49
Fig: 3.36 display of aquarium……………………..…………………………………….…..….53
Fig:3.37-46 Different types of fishes at aquarium ………..……………………..………50-53
Fig:3.47 display gallery tanks of aquarium ………………….…………………………….…….54
Fig: 3.48 galleries of Clifton aquarium in 1994………………………………….…………….56
XVIII
Fig: 3.49-3.52 interior condition of Clifton aquarium ………….……………….…………57
Fig: 3.53 rear view of Clifton aquarium…………..……………………………………..…….58
Fig: 3.54 top view of Clifton aquarium…………..…………………………………….…..…58.
Fig: 3.56 roof top of Clifton aquarium ……………….………………………………………….58
Fig: 3.57 meeting held at Clifton aquarium ………….…………………………………….59
Fig: 3.58 project information board………………….……………………………………….59.
Fig:3.59 side view of Clifton aquarium ………………..…………………………………..….60
Fig: 3.60 side view of Clifton aquarium…………………..………………………………..….60
Fig: 3.61 front view of Clifton aquarium………………………...…………………………….60
Fig: 3.62 entrance of Clifton aquarium…………………………….………………………..….60
Fig: 3.63 perspective view of Clifton aquarium…………………..………….……………….61
Fig 4.1 A freshwater aquarium with plants and various tropical fish….……………………64
Fig 4.2 Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park…………………….………………………….64
Fig 4.3 types of aquatic ecosystem ……………….....…………………………………..…..65
Fig:4.4 classification of water types……………….……………………………………..…..65
Fig: 4.5 An interactive area near the entrance to the aquarium………..……………………..85
Fig: 4.6 coral reef tank section………………………………………….…………………..….86
Fig:4.7 Killer whales performing in Shamu stadium at Sea World in Orlando, Florida………88
Fig:4.8 dimension diagram of quarantine tank………….………………………………….88
Fig:4.9 shapes of tanks…………………………………………...……………………………..90
Fig :4.10 sizes of large aquarium tanks…………………..…………………………………….91
Fig:4.11 water filtration process……………………………..………………………………...94
Fig:4.12 National Fisheries Center…………………………….………………………….….99
Fig:4.13 aeration system of aquarium……………………….….………………………….101
Fig:4.14 dimension diagram of zeolite foam frictioner ……….……..……………………….103
Fig:4.15 dimension diagram of protein skimmer…………………………………………….103
Fig:4.16 dimension diagram of zeolite foam frictioner ………..……………………….104
Fig:4.17 dimension diagram of degassing chamber……………………..………………..…104
XIX
Fig:4.18 dimension diagram of sand filter…………………………………………………….105
Fig:4.19 diagram of UV disinfection……………………………….………………..….105
Fig:4.20 dimension diagram of titanium heat exchanger ……………..……………………105
Fig:4.21 diagram of activated carbon tanks………..………………………………………….106
Fig:4.23 dimension diagram of Skid Mounted LSS…….….……….…………………..….108
Fig:4.24 types of filtration of salt and fresh water…….………………………………….108
Fig:4.25 types of Virtual reality………….…………………..………………………………...117
Fig:4.26 non immersive Virtual reality…………………………...……………………………118
Fig:4.27 semi immersive Virtual reality……………………………………….…………….…119
Fig:4.28 types of augmented reality ……………………….….………………….………….120
Fig:4.29 types of markerless and marker based AR ………………………………….120
Fig:4.30 marker based AR shows 3D projection of buildings………………………..……..…120
Fig:4.31 holographic projection of dolphins ……………………...…….………………..….….121
Fig:4.32 holographic projection generation ………..………….….…………………………....121
Fig:4.32 location based Ar shows track at airport ………………………………………...…122
Fig:4.33 over lay Ar shows sofa designs for rooms….……………….………….…………..….122
Fig:5.1 Zoom out location view………………..…….……….………….…………………..….124
Fig:5.2 zoom in location view…………………………….………….……………………..…124
Fig: 5.3 perspective view aquarium …………………………….………………………...…124
Fig:5.4 side view of aquarium ………………………….……………………..….…….…..124
Fig:5.5 zoom in location view………………………….…………………………………..…..125
Fig:5.6 zoom out location view…………………………….……………..…………………125
Fig:5.7 entrance road of site ……………………….….……………..………………………125
Fig:5.8 site view……………………….……………….……………………………….…...…125
Fig:5.9 zoom in view of site………………………….……………..…………………...…….126
Fig:5.10 zoom out location view………………………….……………..………………….126
Fig:5.11 View of indus river from site ………………………….…………..…………………126
fig:5.12 view of site entrance from Almanzar restaurant……..…………..…………..…….126
XX
Fig:5.13 site analysis w.r.t neighbourhood context………………………………………...….128
Fig:5.14 site orentation………….……………..………………………..……………...….128
Fig:5.15 site plan …………………….……………..…………….………..……………...….129
Fig 6.1 Palau de les Arts Opera House……………………………………….…………………131
1
CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT
In this 21st century, the world is developing day by day and technology plays a great
role in the world perhaps we are going towards smartness and innovation in our lives.
The relationship between technology and human life is too sensitive because of some
negative impacts but also we get a lot of positive innovations with the application of
technology and with this so many creations are settled. the world is made up of
various forms of nature including plants, humans, animals, etc., and the nature of
humans is interrelated with the creation of nature like plants and animals but
nowadays we are away from these beautiful creations because of the human bad act
on the environment and it’s time to re-connect ourselves to the nature. The world is
covered with 2/3rd to water and water is a primary source of life for all living things.
We as a human enjoy the creation of the almighty but we are neglecting the life below
water and having very less attention and consideration to aqua life.
So, to reconnect the interrelation between humans and life below water this project i.e
“EXPLORING THE WONDERS OF AQUATIC MUSEUM AT KARACHI” will
play a great role for fill the gaps between humans and aquatic animals. the project is
deal with 2 interfaces I.e the provision of live aquatic animals in the museum and
another is an interactive technology.
The technology consists of virtual reality and Augmented reality, with the help of
these two technologies I am designing the interactive museum and with the help of
these technologies It adds spark in the form of entertainment and education I.e show
those creations of aqua life which is at a short distance away from us like a blue whale
and other aquatic animals, with the help of these technologies peoples get aware about
marine life and also experiences unexpected entertainment and through the
application of virtual reality I am providing the gaming area of simulation motion to
provide experience of ocean .
2
Interactive technology is flourishing nowadays in every aspect of the world and with
the application of these smart technologies we make our museum smart and
innovative.
Fig 1.1 simulation motion through virtual reality
Source: www.georgiaaquarium.org
Fig 1.2(VR Head Mounted Display)
Source: https://depositphotos.com
Another way to make the aquarium interactive is Sketch aquarium. At Sketch
Aquarium, kids start by picking a fish template and coloring it on paper. From there,
they can scan their drawings, which will instantly appear on the virtual walls of the
aquarium as realistic, animated moving sea creatures. When kids want to get up close
to their creations, the aquarium walls are programmed to make pieces of food pop on-
screen, causing many fish to cluster nearby.
Further, technology that is using in this museum is the interactive floor and wall.
Inside the interactive virtual aquarium, fish, water and other real sea creatures react to
any person's movements on the floor. It is a lot of fun to play with the fish. If touched
the fish try to escape or follow the movements of a person.
3
Not only this but interactive technology also includes a touchscreen display for
information about fishes.
Fig 1.3(A woman using an interactive aquarium exhibit)
Source: nairegon3.wordpress.com
Another way of interaction is with live aquatic animals, where visitors are allowed to
interact with the animals in a controlled environment. This can include the following
activities:
 Touch tanks: visitors can touch and interact with marine animals like starfish.
 Feeding shows: visitors can watch and participate in the feeding of various
fish species.
 Snorkeling/diving experiences: visitors can go snorkeling or diving in a
controlled environment to see and interact with fish and other marine animals.
 Behind-the-scenes tours: visitors can take a guided tour to see how the
aquarium is maintained and learn about the care of the animals.
Fig 1.4 (indoor touch pool)
Source: https://nippyfish.net
4
The augmented reality which I have been using involves holographic projections of
creatures that are not possible to secure in aquariums, such as blue whales, penguins,
sea lions, octopuses, seals, and more. Additionally, graphic projections of mangroves
are displayed to create awareness about protecting these precious creatures. Lastly,
the blind dolphin, also known as the Bullan.
An' dolphin, found in the Indus River at Sukkur, is in a vulnerable situation due to
public unawareness. To provide awareness and promote conservation efforts for these
aquatic animals, I display them as holographic projections.
Fig 1.5:(Holographic projection of an dolphin)
source:www.couriermail.com.au
1.2 MOTIVATION
The world is full of creations that are gifted by the almighty and also have sources to
enjoy those creations. But due to many reasons we are losing the connectivity
between humans and animals such is the case for aquarium culture in Pakistan and
unfortunately, we have very less concepts of aquariums in Pakistan. aqua life is one of
the most beautiful creations in this world but unfortunately, for so many reasons we
are lacking to educate and entertain the aqua life. the world is modernized day by day
and if we are stocking on non-interactivity at our museums and creating just boxes of
concrete we will be unable to come up with a modern world. To add the spark in
aquariums, we are filling that gap with the application of modern technology.
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT
There are 9.7% wetland areas in Pakistan, with nearly 26% coastal and 74%
freshwater wetland areas.34,800 species of fish had been described in 2022 (which is
greater than the sum of all other vertebrate species taken together: birds, reptiles,
5
mammals, and amphibians.)Out of 34,800, 786 marine species of fish and 171
freshwater species of fish were reported from Pakistan. [1]
All negative impacts are implying in the diversity of aqua life and still, we are not
paying attention to them, in the case of Pakistan we have a lot of dominant species but
still, we don’t have any knowledge about aqua life and we are still destroying the
diversity through our negative acts in the form of pollution.
However, in the future, these major problems will be reduced with the help of
awareness provided by this project and also educate humans about aqua life.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH
The progress of any society has never been improved until they have worked with
modern technology to innovate their entire work in the country. Many countries have
very few natural resources, but with the help of technology, their work has become
sustainable. If we have plenty of natural resources and we do not use them smartly,
our country will not be able to become a developed country. In the case of aquariums,
Pakistan has a dearth of aquariums, even though we have many sources of aquatic
animals. Due to the less significance of aquariums, there is a lack of awareness of
securing aqua life and the least knowledge about aqua life among the people. To
eliminate these negative impacts on aqua life, there should be aqua museums with
modern technology to break the monotony of museums. These museums will play a
great role in the economy of Pakistan through tourism and providing leisure space for
the people.
1.5 AIM OF RESEARCH
The research aim is to glorify the presence of aqua life and to add a spark through the
application of advanced interactive technologies to break its monotony of museums.
1.6 OBJECTIVES
1. Exploring the methods and techniques for better versions of aquariums that
will revive the public interest.
2. To provide a platform for awareness of aqua life.
6
3. To educate the public about the significance of Pakistan's aquatic animals and
its impact on the environment and nation’s development.
4. To provide a recreational space for all age groups and also accessible to
people with disabilities to increase the culture of aquariums and promote
tourism in Pakistan.
1.7 SCOPE OF PROJECT
There are only 7 aquariums present in Pakistan from which the Clifton fish
aquarium Karachi was the only separate public aquarium that was closed
permanently, others are in Landhi korangi zoo Karachi, Karachi municipal aquarium
at Karachi zoo, the aquarium section at the maritime museum Karachi, the aquatic
world at Lahore zoo, the aquarium at the zoo of Bahawalpur, and aquarium at
butterfly house Lahore.
Another project is under-construction that’s is The aquatic mall Islamabad .
The Aquatic Mall is a unique blend of trust, investment and opportunities developed
by Al-Bari Group of Companies. It enjoys a prime location in the vicinity of DHA
Islamabad and Bahria Town Rawalpindi. The Aquatic Mall will enhance the shopping
experience, with its gorgeous underwater theme. The Aquatic Mall is the first
underwater themed mall in Pakistan and will feature the world’s tallest aquarium, an
underwater tunnel, a marine-themed restaurant, an indoor water park, a water-zoo, an
infinity pool on the rooftop, and much more.
Thus, this project promotes the presence of aqua life in Pakistan and promote
awareness about marine biodiversity that how our human habits, pollution, and water
materials throne into the sea/river affect these creatures. It teaches us how we can
live in coordination without harming them.
Overall there are fewer concepts of aquariums in Pakistan and every year, the
aquarium industry sees significant new developments. As a result, the facility must be
adaptable enough to accommodate improved technologies for the exhibits and their
7
surroundings. Additionally, this can help prevent the aquariums from becoming
uninteresting to regular visitors.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT
1. There are several species of aqua life present in Pakistan so, this research is
limited only to common and dominant species of aqua life which are present
in Sindh Pakistan and detail research on ocean life.
2. Research is limited in scope as it does not commonly include large aquatic
animals or those that are not easily secured in aquariums. However, with the
use of interactive technology, these types of animals can be projected to
provide a unique and engaging experience.
3. Interactive technology is partially used in the aquarium museum.
1.9 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The following are the main steps in the research phase, in broad terms:
 The research will include the study and observation of existing similar project
conducted by others as a case study .
 The research will involve a descriptive study of books,websites,journals,and
thesis.
 The research will also include surveys.
 The research will included virtual tours.
8
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 DEGRADATION OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT
( Syed Anwar-ul-Haq Gillani January 19, 2019)
The environment and biodiversity are both safeguarded by several international
treaties and conventions to which Pakistan is a party. Pakistan has pledged to
safeguard its marine environment following these treaties and agreements. Despite
everything, environmental degradation is one of Pakistan's biggest problems right
now. Not only does this consume Pakistan's resources, but it also harms human life.
Oceanic pollution is one way in which Pakistan's environment is being damaged.
Pakistan dumps plastic bags, bottles, sewage, and potentially infectious hospital waste
into the sea despite being a signatory to the London Convention on the Prevention of
Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. The natural blue water at
Karachi's Sea View, a well-known tourist destination, has turned black as a result of
this widespread violation of the convention.
The primary source of heavy metal impurities being discharged into the sea in Gadani
is the world-renowned ship-breaking industry. Despite having numerous industrial
zones, Karachi does not have adequate waste management systems. In the end, the
hazardous industrial waste ends up in the sea. Metals, plastic, and other toxic
substances are swallowed by fish and other marine life. These fish are eaten by
humans, completing the food chain, and the toxic substances can severely harm their
immune systems. To put it another way, people are killing themselves.
The fisheries resources are being severely impacted, which in turn harms the
economic conditions of fishing communities that are heavily dependent on these
resources. The increasing dumping of hazardous waste into the sea, which includes
cow dung, untreated water, and industrial waste, as well as a large quantity of plastic,
is contributing to this problem. Plastic bottles, wrappers, bags, disposable utensils,
and other items account for 65% of coastal litter, according to WWF research.[2]
9
2.2 ASSESSMENT OF FISH DIVERSITY OF DOWNSTREAM INDUS
RIVER, SINDH PAKISTAN
(Sheikh, M., Laghari, M. Y., Lashari, P. K., Khooharo, A. R., & Narejo, N. T. (2018)
In the present study fishery sources were investigated quantitatively by studying the
ichthyofaunal biodiversity of the Downstream Indus River, Sindh Pakistan.A
fortnightly sampling was conducted from eight stations during March to October
2015. A total 92 fish species were recorded. Out of which 77 species were fresh water
and 15 were identified as anadromous. Based on their edible values, 52 fishes were
edible and 40 were found as trash fishes. In edible fishes 11 species were export
quality, 24 were standard quality (high value) and 17 were local quality (low value).
The greater fish biodiversity was found in Railo Miyan followed by Branch Morrie
and lowest in Wasi Malook Shah. Overall, morakhi was in abundance (45%)
followed by kororo (38%) and theela was found rare (17%). While in the trash
fishes, Rohu was found in abundant quantity. All of the recorded 92 fishes belonged
to 11 orders and 30 families. The order Khagga was found to be dominant with 29
fish species followed by Cypriniformes (27 species) and Perciformes (13 species).
Out of 30 families, the family mahseer recorded 24 fish species (19%) followed by
Singhara 13 fish species (14%) and Dhumro7 species (8%) and Chali and channa
striata5 species (5%) each. [3]
2.3 ASSESSMENT OF FISH DIVERSITY IN THE ARABIAN SEA (SINDH
AND BALOCHISTAN)
Hassan, H. U., Mahboob, S., Masood, Z., Riaz, M. N., Rizwan, S., Al-Misne, F., ... &
Saeed, W. M. (2023).
In this study, a total fish catch (N) contains 81287 fish samples collected from the
four main stations along Sindh and Baluchistan coasts, which were identified and
were reported as 26 families and 49 species by using their morphological approach.
the occurrence of species at twenty fish-sampling sites. The overall pattern of the
species composition and abundance during the study period across the twenty
sampling stations is reported. Among 49 species, high fish catch (ni=74472) and
10
relative abundance (R=91.6%), were reported for Gaint catfish followed by Arius
arius (ni=2555; R=3.14%), spotted sea catfish (ni=592; R=0.73%), Otolithes
argenteus (ni=340; R=0.42%), black pomfret(ni=286; R=0.35%), Silver pomfret
(ni=272; R=0.33%), Mangrove red snapper (ni=245; R=0.30%), Arabian yellowfin
seabream (ni=241; R=0.30%), Bengal tonguesole arel (ni=234; R=0.29%), Milk
fish(ni=212; R=0.26%), Orange spotted grouper (ni=204; R=0.25%), Northern witing
(ni=181; R=0.22%), Malabar blood snaaper(ni=169; R=0.21%), Goldsilk seabream
(ni=145; R=0.18%), Bridled Seabream (ni=139; R=0.17%), Pomadasys kaakan
(ni=124; R=0.15%), daggertooth pike conger (ni=118; R=0.15%), dusky flathead
(ni=102; R=0.13%), Malabar trevally (ni=78; R=0.10%), Blubberlip snapper (ni=56;
R=0.1%), Indian mackerel (ni=51; R=0.1%), dolphinfish (ni=47; R=0.1%), blacktail
snapper (ni=42; R=0.1%), twobar seabream (ni=37; R=0.1%). While remaining
species such as Japanese threadfin bream, red mullet, greasy grouper, striped
knifejaw, Spinycheek grouper, Talang queenfish, Santer seabream, Malabar trevally,
mud spiny lobster, Malabar trevally, king soldierbream, Jarbua Terapon,mud spiny
lobster,Asian sea bass, Sailfin flying fish, unicorn filefish,Indian halibut,
Acanthopagrus shim, Arabian pandora, striped knifejaw, white seabream, orange
spotted rabbitfish, shortfin mako, Rhabdosargus sarba, Savalani hairtail, Sawtooth
barracuda, and Arabian sea meagre were reported in the less relative frequency of
occurrence.[4]
2.4 BLIND DOLPHIN OF THE INDUS RIVER
Common or local names: Indus blind dolphin, blind river dolphin, and ‘bhulan'.
Indus river dolphins are endemic to the Indus river basin, where their naturally murky
and silt-laden river habitat means that their eyes are of limited use. Indus river
dolphins, therefore, rely on echolocation clicks to navigate and find food. Both Indus
and Ganges river dolphins are considered to be living fossils, as they are the most
ancient dolphin species still alive.
The South Asian river dolphin consisted of two sub-species, the Ganges river dolphin
and the Indus river dolphin. The taxonomy of the group is in the process of being
revised so that they are recognized as separate species in 2021.
11
Indus river dolphins are found mostly in the lower parts of the Indus River in
Pakistan. The dolphins historically swam freely through about 3500 km of the Indus
River system from the Indus estuary, through the plains to the foothills of the
Karakoram mountains. The dolphins’ range has been reduced by approximately 80%
due to the construction of irrigation barrages, and now most of the remaining animals
are in a 690 km stretch of the Indus River in three separated populations. A handful of
Indus river dolphins also occur in the Beas River in India, trapped above an irrigation
dam.
The most recent estimate of abundance for the Indus river dolphin, based on surveys
conducted in 2017, was close to 2000 animals. The largest dolphin population, which
also occurs at very high density, is found between the Guddu and Sukkur barrages in
Sindh province, and smaller populations are found in Punjab and KPK.
The major threats to the Indus river dolphin include water-related infrastructure such
as dams, barrages, and diversions, which cause flow regulation and habitat
fragmentation, as well as mortality from entanglement in fishing nets, and pollution
from domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. Dams and barrages fragment the
dolphins' habitat, reducing population connectivity and isolating animals in river
sections.They also affect river habitats by reducing water availability and habitat
quality and blocking passage for migratory fish. Indus river dolphins, as with most
other cetaceans, frequently become entangled in fishing nets and then drown. They
also become trapped in irrigation canals and die unless they are rescued. As long-lived
top predators, Indus river dolphins are vulnerable to negative health effects from
living in waterways contaminated with heavy metals, industrial pollution, and
agricultural run-off. River cetaceans, including the Indus river dolphin, are considered
to be indicators of river health. [5]
Fig: 2.1 Rescue of Indus river dolphinn
Source: river dolphins.or
12
2.5 INTEGRATION OF AQUARIUMS AND TECHNOLOGY
2.5.1 SOUTH CAROLINA AQUARIUM
The building actually extends into the Charleston Harbor, allowing visitors the chance
to observe bottlenose dolphins and other marine life in the . Exhibits include more
than 10,000 native plants and animals, a touch tank, and the Great Ocean Tank – a
two-story tank containing 385,000 gallons of water and more than 700 animals such
as sharks and loggerhead sea turtles. Divers also interact with visitors while
maintaining the tank and its inhabitants.
Technology and education are often linked in formal education settings but we are
just beginning to explore technology’s role in informal education environments. In
general, people’s attitude towards technology remains positive, with studies revealing
that museums with technology see visitor experience improved. Attitudes toward
technology outside of the educational spectrum remain high as well. These general
attitudes have prompted the South Carolina Aquarium to explore new technologies
within its interpretive design. Interactive iPads have recently been added to existing
exhibit spaces and plans are in the works to invest in additional iPad programming for
use in roaming educational initiatives. This idea is not altogether novel. We have seen
an influx of learning technologies pop up in informal education venues. After decades
of intense promotion by corporations, policymakers, and parents, most people have
far more access to mobile technologies in their daily life than ever before. The social
media buzz has added to this demand, giving rise to the integration of mobile
technologies in many new exhibits at zoos and aquariums.
The South Carolina Aquarium has recently added iPads to its exhibits and plans on
equipping volunteers and staff with additional tablets for mobile interpretation. These
units include touchscreen maps, images, videos, sound bites, and educational
information. To avoid taking away from the escapism that comes with a visit to our
attraction, the Aquarium has developed programs that encourage interaction with the
exhibits themselves. When looking at the results from observational studies conducted
at our facility, it is suggested that iPads within a gallery do not negatively influence
the interactive experience but rather positively supplement the exhibit.[6]
13
FIG 2.2:Students are using technology to learn about turtle.
Source:https://blooloop.com
Fig 2.3:Trainee is using technology to learn about turtle.
Source: https://scaquarium.org
Fig.2.4: Elevation of south carolina aquarium
https://www.scpictureproject.org
14
2.5.2 THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY IN
(WASHINGTON DC)
The National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC has launched a new
holographic experience for visitors that it hopes will shed light on the waters off the
American coast. According to the museum, which is part of the Smithsonian Institute,
the idea is to better educate the public about marine life in the oceans. The museum’s
large holographic displays feature one of the most threatened marine mammals
around, an American sub-species of the killer whale, or orca.
According to Ososky, plastics, and other toxic materials can build up in the orcas’
bodies, something that will frequently cause harm to their vital organs. “These
undesirable effects often have a particularly adverse impact in the early life stages of
whales,” he said. The collections manager also said that the holographic show tried to
explain just how much-localized shipping can cause problems for the orca, too. He
said that all orcas hunt by making use of echolocation to track down their prey.
However, emitting sound waves to reflect off nearby objects was not always possible
when noise from ships prevented them from picking up on their high-pitched noises.
Hopefully, the visitor experience will bring these issues home to people in a way that
means they are more supportive of marine conservation measures in the future.[7]
Fig:2.5 Women enjoying the Fig:2.6 Holographic projection national museum.
interaction of whale
Source: www.museumnext.com
Fig:2.7 Holographic projection of whale in national museum.
Source: https://www.flickr.com
15
2.5.3 CHIMELONG OCEAN KINGDOM, HENGQIN (CHINA)
Designed by PGAV Destinations U.S
Area: 2,072 ha
As the second “world-class” theme park in China for national developers Guangdong
Chimelong Group, Chimelong Ocean Kingdom quickly began gathering accolades for
being the biggest and best. It holds five Guinness World Records for its enormous
whale shark aquarium. With nearly 49 million liters of water, it is the largest
aquarium in the world. This includes both fresh and marine aquariums. It has the
world's largest acrylic panel and the largest front view for an aquarium, measuring
39.6 x 8.3 meters and covering approximately 330 square meters of acrylic; This is in
the aquarium that houses the enormous whale shark, the Whale Shark Exhibit tank.
Another interesting record can be found in the same tank: the world's largest
underwater dome, measuring 12 meters in diameter, can be seen from the surface.
Last but not least, it has the world's largest tank, which always holds 22.7 million
gallons of water.
In addition to being a popular tourist destination, the aquarium is also the location of
numerous studies and research conducted by biologists. Its role is to bridge the gap
between science and the general public by providing a stimulating environment that,
when designed well, can attract, educate, and raise awareness.[8]
There’s a great deal to like about the Ocean Kingdom design. From the giant Manta
Ray, complete with LED screen underbelly, that spans the entire main street precinct,
to the 68-metre (223-foot) whale shark hero sculpture in the background, the scale of
Chimelong’s endeavour is impressive. In the aquarium, exhibits show obvious signs
of cracking and spalling in the concrete work, and in one instance, an entire viewing
window had been removed for “maintenance” after less than 12 months. Combined
with the obvious deficiencies in the water quality, these maintenance issues impact on
the overall enjoyment of the experience.[9]
16
Fig: 2.8 display of under water aqua world
Source: www.domusweb.it
Fig: 2.9 Tunnel view of the aquarium
Source: www.domusweb.it
Fig:2.10 View of Chimelong International Ocean
Source: www.cityofzhuhai.com
17
2.5.4 UNDERWATER WORLD PATTAYA (THAILAND )
Area 4.75 acre
Pattaya Underwater World The first modern aquarium in Thailand, Underwater World
Pattaya officially opened on July 4, 2003. It has a 100-meter-long underwater tunnel
that can hold 3.8 million liters of water. Inside, there are 5,000 fish from 500 species
native to Thailand and this area.[6] Underwater World Pattaya is the only aquarium in
Pattaya. We have a lot of sea creatures, including colorful coral, and you can see them
all 180 degrees as you dive deep into the water through large, clear acrylic tunnels
that extend over 105 meters. There are three zones in the tunnels: the Coral Reef
Zone, the Shark and Stingray Zone, and the Giant of Siam Zone. We also prefer the
new Jellyfish Zone, which has the largest jellyfish collection and display in Thailand.
Additionally, there is history and knowledge in each region to inform you.
Similar to a retreat on a private island, the surrounding area is also adorned with
shores, sandy beaches, and rocky rapids. There are also a lot of other animals to
enjoy, like the Indonesian otter, reptiles from all over the world, and so on. [10]
Underwater World Pattaya is not only a fantastic aquarium that serves as the learning
center for all ages in the family.The concentration on the design and construction of
the location also benefits to make the place is brilliant for the tourist, actually. The so-
called “universal design” concept included in the architect and landscape design of
Underwater World Pattaya, facilitates to the tourist who is restricted in the physical
condition with the wheelchair, seniority or disabled person, for instance. Those of
visitors are accessible to any area in the park by slope path. Unfortunately, the venue
has no wheelchair service, so that the visitor has to bring along at the site.[11]
18
Fig 2.11 view of inside the tunnel in the aquarium
Source: www.viator.com
Fig 2.12 landscape of underwater world aquarium
Source: www.kkday.com
Fig: 2.13 The location map shows activities in the aquarium
Source: www.kkday.com
19
2.5.5 DUBAI AQUARIUM AND UNDERWATER ZOO
 Designed by Peddle Thorp, inspired by "The Underwater Paradise"
 Location: Dubai Mall on Doha Street.
 The Dubai Aquarium and the Dubai Underwater Zoo are both located within
the famous Dubai Mall. While the Aquarium is on the Ground Level of the
mall, the Underwater Zoo is on the second floor.
 Aquarium Tank Size: 51 meters by 20 meters by 11 meters.
 Quantity Of Water Stored: 10 million liters holding capacity.
 Aquarium Tunnel Size: 48 meters long.
 No Of Aquatic Displays: There are 40 separate aquatic displays.
 No Of Aquatic Species: 140 species of aquatic animals, including Otters,
Piranha, Giant Spider Crabs, Lionfish, Seahorses, Garden Eels, Water Rats,
Archerfish, etc.
 Managed By: The Aquarium and Underwater Zoo are managed by Emaar
Entertainment.
 World Records: The aquarium’s acrylic panel, weighing more than 2,45,000
kg, has been recognized as the largest of its kind in the world in the 2010
edition of the Guinness Book of World Records.[12]
 The Aquarium Tunnel provides a breathtaking view of the aquatic animals that
occupy the tank. Interact with the animals through one-on-one experiences
such as feeding the sharks, cage diving, underwater scooter rides, and expert-
led scuba diving courses.
The 10 million-liter tank of the aquarium houses more than 400 sharks and rays.
Giant Groupers, sand tiger sharks, and numerous other marine species are also on
display in the aquarium.
One of the world's largest indoor aquariums, the Dubai Aquarium & Underwater Zoo
holds the Guinness World Record for the "Largest Acrylic Pane" in the world.
Visitors can get up close and personal with a variety of our aquatic animals, including
20
sea horses, piranhas, crabs, and others, thanks to this progression of carefully planned
experiences.[13]
Fig: 2.14 Glass Bottom Boat Rides of Dubai aquarium
Source: www.aquarium-tickets.com
Fig: 2.15 tunnel view of Dubai aquarium
Source: www.aquarium-tickets.com
Fig: 2.16 view of aquarium from Dubai mall
Source: https://propsearch.ae/dubai/dubai-aquarium
21
2.5.6 RIPLEY’S AQUARIUM OF CANADA
 Opened: October 16, 2013
 Exhibits: Dangerous Lagoon, Planet Jellies, Shoreline Gallery, MORE
 Number of animals: 20,000
 Province: Ontario
 Floor space: 135,000 sq ft or 3 acre
 Architect : Peter Sollogub and Stantec.
The aquarium has 5.7 million litres (1.25 million gallons) of marine and freshwater
habitats from across the world. The exhibits hold more than 20,000 exotic sea and
freshwater specimens from more than 450 species.
Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada is situated in the heart of downtown Toronto, between
the CN Tower and the Metro Toronto Convention Centre South Building. This
prominent site also lies within a concentration of other significant visitor attractions,
including the Rogers Centre and Air Canada Centre.
Ripley's Aquarium of Canada is a popular tourist attraction located in Toronto,
Canada. The aquarium features over 20,000 marine animals and 450 different species,
making it one of the largest and most technologically advanced aquariums in North
America.
Here are some of the modern technologies used at Ripley's Aquarium of Canada:
The aquarium uses advanced filtration systems to ensure that the water is clean and
safe for the marine animals. These systems use a combination of mechanical,
chemical, and biological filtration techniques to remove waste, debris, and harmful
bacteria from the water.Ripley's Aquarium uses LED lighting throughout the facility
to simulate natural lighting conditions for the marine animals. These lights can be
programmed to mimic different times of day, helping to regulate the animals'
circadian rhythms.
22
The aquarium features interactive touchscreen displays that allow visitors to learn
more about the different marine animals and their habitats.
One of the most popular attractions at Ripley's Aquarium is the underwater tunnels.
These tunnels allow visitors to walk through a glass tunnel while sharks, sea turtles,
and other marine animals swim above and around them. The tunnels are made of
specially designed glass that can withstand the pressure of the water and provide a
clear view of the animals.[14]
Ripley's Aquarium of Canada features both augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality
(VR) technologies that enhance the visitor experience and provide educational
opportunities.
AR technology is used in the aquarium's Explorer App, which is available for
download on visitors' mobile devices. The app uses AR to provide information and
interactive experiences related to the different exhibits and species in the aquarium.
For example, visitors can scan a marker to see a 3D model of a sea turtle or shark and
learn more about their anatomy and behavior.
In addition to AR, the aquarium also offers a VR experience called "Dive with
Sharks." This experience allows visitors to put on a VR headset and immerse
themselves in a virtual underwater environment where they can swim with sharks and
other marine animals. The VR experience uses 3D graphics and motion sensors to
create a realistic and immersive environment. [15]
Fig : 2.17: view of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada
Source: https://torontoist.com
23
Fig:2.18 Flow diagram of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada
Source: https://torontoist.com
Fig: 2.19 exhibition area of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada
Source: https://torontoist.com
Fig:2.20 Tunnel view of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada
Source: https://torontoist.com
Fig :2.21 exhibition area of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada
Source: https://torontoist.com
24
2.5.7 ART SCIENCE MUSEUM MARINA BAY STANDS SINGAPORE
 Location: 6 Bayfront Avenue, Singapore
 Area :1.5 acre
 Architect:Moshe Safdie
 Established date:17 February 2011
 No of gallerias : 21 gallery
It is the world's first ArtScience museum, featuring major exhibitions that blend art,
science, culture and technology.Although a permanent exhibition at the Art Science
Gallery has been planned, the Museum mainly hosts touring exhibitions curated by
other museums.
The architecture is said to be a form reminiscent of a lotus flower. It is designed by
Moshe Safdie. Referred to as "The Welcoming Hand of Singapore" by Las Vegas
Sands chairman Sheldon Adelson.The building’s form is made up of 10 ‘fingers’
anchored by a unique round base in the middle. The design of each finger reveals
different gallery spaces and the skylights at the ‘fingertips’ dramatically illuminate the
curved interior walls.
The use of skylights largely minimizes the need for artificial lighting. This strategy pays off
in terms of energy management, allowing for a highly reduced consumption of power. The
museum is indeed an exemplary intersection of sculpture and sustainability
Future World is a permanent exhibit sprawled over 1500 square meters at the
Museum. It is an interactive landscape spanning multiple rooms, showcasing the
wonder and magic of the universe through AR/VR experiences.
SKETCH AQUARIUM
Visitors can observe the power of their creative imagination through Sketch
Aquarium. Each participant is invited to color a drawing of a sea creature of his or her
preference. Once completed, visitors will be able to see their creation come to life in a
25
giant aquarium and swim with all of the other sea creatures. Visitors may also touch
the fish to see them swim away, or touch the virtual food bag to feed the fish.
VR GALLERY (THE STARRY SAND BEACH)
Combining the complex marvels of these astounding research with the amorphous,
dynamic nature of virtual-reality, artist Hsin-Chien Huang crafts an awe-striking
environment where history, science and legend collide to tell a story of hope: a life as
small as a grain of sand can change the world.[16]
Fig 2.22 Interactive responsive floor
Source:https://www.teamlab.art/th/e/artsciencemuseum/
Fig:2.23 Viewers experiencing the sketch aquarium
Source:https://www.teamlab.art/th/e/artsciencemuseum
26
CHAPTER 3
CASE STUDY
3.1 SENTOSA ’S S.E.A Aquarium (Singapore)
 Designed by: Aquatic Environment Systems Pty Ltd and Crossley Architects Pty
Ltd
 Period of Construction: 2007-2012
 Cost: US $3.6 billion
 Present Status: Open to Public
 Location: Sentosa Island, Singapore
 Site Area: 20 Acre (81,000 sqm)
 System Type Closed re-circulation system using artificial sea water
 Total Water Volume : 60,000,000 liters
3.1.1 LOCATION PLAN
Fig:3.1 location plan of sea aquarium
Source: https://www.googlemaps.com
3.1.2 INTRODUCTION
The S.E.A. Aquarium, the biggest aquarium in the world, will house 100,000 marine
creatures from over 800 species in 45 million gallons of water. The aquarium, which
consists of 10 distinct zones and 49 habitats, offers visitors on an underwater journey
that starts in Southeast Asia and goes on. Through the Open Ocean and the Arabian
Gulf. Visitors can anticipate encounters with beautiful manta rays, hammerhead
sharks, bottlenose dolphins, and other marine life along the way.
27
Grant Willis, senior curator at the S.E.A. Aquarium, said: "S.E.A. Aquarium offers
not just a spectacular display of habitats, but also teaching and conservation activities
that families and visitors can get involved in. Younger visitors will be delighted to
learn that we have specifically created displays like the Discovery Touch Pool, the
Lens Aquarium, and the Floor Aquarium, which will provide them near experiences
with our marine creatures.
The Open Ocean habitat, which is 36 metres wide and 8.3 metres tall and features the
largest viewing screen in the world, is the aquarium's focal point. Visitors watching
the habitat can imagine themselves standing on a vast ocean floor. The habitat is
bordered by the Ocean Restaurant, a business that promotes sustainable seafood
practices, and the Ocean Dome, a 360-degree observation facility. The habitat's other
side is home to eleven Ocean Suites, which give the idea of a sea view a twist by
letting visitors wake up to a view of the ocean below.
In the lead-up to the opening of the SGO, the S.E.A. Aquarium will remain open to
visitors.
3.1.3 ABOUT RESORTS WORLD SENTOSA
On the tourist island of Sentosa is Resorts World Sentosa (RWS), Singapore's first
integrated resort.The 49 hectare resort, which opened in January 2010, saw more than
30 million visitors in its first two years. The Maritime Experiential Museum, the
Resorts World Convention Centre, a casino, six beautiful hotels, the only Universal
Studios theme park in the area, celebrity chef restaurants, a top-notch spa and
speciality shops are all located at RWS. The resort also provides entertainment,
including free events like the Lake of Dreams and the Crane Dance. .[17]
3.1.4 MARINE LIFE PARK
The second main attraction at Resorts World Sentosa is the Marine Life Park (MLP),
which has the biggest volume of water of any oceanarium in the world. The park will
house more than 100,000 marine animals from 800 different species in more than 60
million gallons of water.
Families may embark on an exciting adventure into the underwater world at Marine
Life Park, which combines the best wet and dry activities at one oceanarium with two
Top attractions: Adventure Cove Water park and S.E.A. Aquarium.Embark on an
exciting adventure at Adventure Cove Water park, a tropical haven that offers
28
splashing wet fun for everyone. Visitors to the only water park in the area with marine
life attractions can zoom down adrenaline slides, embark on an epic voyage along
Adventure River, snorkel with 20,000 vibrant reef fish, or participate in immersive
programmers that give them the exceptional chance to meet our marine ambassadors
up close.
Start your educational journey by exploring the world's largest aquarium, S.E.A., and
its breathtaking underwater environment. More than 800 species of wildlife, including
majestic sharks and uncommon fish species, can be seen by visitors in a variety of
habitats, including one that offers a breathtaking view via the world's largest aquarium
viewing panel.
Along with letting visitors see the wonders of the marine world, the MLP hopes to
encourage them to take responsibility for safeguarding the planet's natural resources.
The park, which features more than 50 different animal habitats, strives to make
Singapore a global leader in marine education, conservation, and research through its
programme and qualified personnel.
3.1.5 DRY EXPERIENCE AT MARINE LIFE PARK - THE WORLD’S
LARGEST OCEANARIUM
Southeast Asia Aquarium (S.E.A. Aquarium), the largest aquarium in the world, is
home to thousands of fish and other marine creatures in habitats covering more than
45 million litres of water. Visitors to the aquarium will be awed by the fascinating
marine life beneath the sea as they travel through the oceans and learn about the
inhabitants of the vast oceans.
Visitors will not only learn about the ocean's beauties but also be inspired and given
the tools they need to protect our precious seas because the aquarium is home to more
than 100,000 marine animals from 800 different species.
The centrepiece of the aquarium is the Open Ocean environment, which is visible
through the largest viewing panel in the world, measuring 36 metres long and 8.3
metres high. Through this breathtaking vista, visitors will find themselves submerged
in the captivating marine environment, marvelling at mighty manta rays, zebra sharks,
and a broad variety of other ocean life.The massive goliath grouper, Napoleon wrasse,
and other gentle giants of the sea can be found in the S.E.A. Aquarium. Additionally,
29
it will hold more than 200 sharks so that visitors can dispel preconceptions about
these ocean predators. The guests can access information on our marine residents via
more than 20 touch screens, 50 interpretive panels, and more than 50 interpretive
panels. In S.E.A. Aquarium, wonder and excitement are in abundance.
3.1.6 DRAWINGS AND VIEW OF AQUARIUM
Fig:3.2 elevation of sea aquarium
Source: https://daniaexperiences.com
MASTER PLAN
Fig:3.3 master plan of sea aquarium
Source: https://ebenezeryoon.wordpress.com
30
DETAIL PLAN OF AQUARIUM
Fig:3.4 Floor plans of sea aquarium
Source: https://thesmartlocal.com/read/sea-aquarium-guide/
ENTRANCE VIEWS
Fig:3.5 Entrance and ticket area of sea aquarium
Source: https://daniaexperiences.com/
3.1.7 ZONES
The S.E.A. Aquarium tour takes visitors through 10 distinct zones that represent the
planet's huge waters through 49 ecosystems.
Zone 1. Strait of Karimata and Java Sea
The Strait of Karimata and Java Sea are popular destinations for viewing underwater
caverns, wrecks, coral, sponges and diverse marine life. Shipwrecks often evolve into
thriving marine habitats with sponges and corals colonizing the wrecks, transforming
them into an artificial reef system that develops into a habitat for diverse marine life.
Species to look out for: Batfish, threadfin trevally, golden trevally and pompanos.
31
Fig:3.6 scuba diving activity at sea aquarium
Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com
Zone 2. Strait of Malacca and Andaman Sea
The Strait of Malacca and the Andaman Sea contain a rich variety of habitats and
fauna, from coral reefs to mangroves and seagrass beds. Younger guests will be well
engaged in this zone, with the floor aquarium allowing them to view the habitat up-
close. The lens aquariums are equipped with magnifying orbs that allow children to
peer into the habitats with ease, coming face-to-face with species such as the frogfish,
Mandarin fish and seahorses.
The Discovery Touch Pool will allow guests to learn more about sea stars, sea
cucumbers and other fascinating marine invertebrates.
The Coral Garden in this zone is a cylindrical marine habitat measuring 8m in height
and 7m in diameter, transporting guests into a world of colourful corals and reef
fishes in the Andaman region.
Fig:3.7 digital information displays at sea aquarium
Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com
Zone 3. Bay of Bengal and Laccadive Sea
The mangrove environment, which surrounds the Bay of Bengal and the Laccadive
Sea, exhibits the rich biological diversity present there. Visitors will experience tidal
changes as they learn how these diverse ecosystems support coastal communities by
offering food, wood, and protection to people who live near the sea.
32
Horseshoe crab and archerfish are two species to watch out for.
Fig:3.8 mangroves displays at sea aquarium
Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com
Zone 4. Ocean Journey
Featuring marine animals from various depths of the wide oceans, Ocean Journey
immerses visitors deeper into the wonders of the open waters. The oceans have long
captivated our imagination with their mystique and mysteries, and they have
supported life on our blue globe for ages.
Sea jellies and schooling fish are two species to watch out for.
Fig:3.9 jelly fish display area at sea aquarium
Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com
Zone 5. Open Ocean
The Ocean Gallery features the aquarium's focal point, the Open Ocean Habitat, as
seen via the largest aquarium viewing panel in the world, which is an astounding 36
metres wide, 8.3 metres tall, and 70 centimeters thick.Visitors will be surrounded by
breathtaking vistas of the Open Ocean, which is home to more than 50,000 marine
species and contains more than 18 million litres of water.
The Ocean Dome is located on a seamount that is adjacent to the Ocean Gallery. This
enormous underwater acrylic dome, which has a diameter of 6.2 metres, allows
visitors to feel the thrill of seeing enormous manta rays gliding by above.Visitors will
be treated to a feast for the eyes and the mouth at the Ocean Restaurant. With a
stunning view of the Open Ocean habitat, the restaurant offers all-day international
dining with a variety of creative trademark dishes.
33
The most recent premium accommodations at RWS are the two-story Ocean Suites.
As part of their underwater living experience, visitors to the 11 suites may see the
Open Ocean habitat and see marine life dynamics firsthand. Hammerhead sharks,
manta rays, eagle rays, zebra sharks, goliath groupers, Napolean wrasse, and
bowmouth sharks are among the species to watch out for.
Fig:3.10 The ocean dome at sea aquarium
Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com
Zone 6. Arabian Gulf and Arabian Sea
Visitors will be welcomed by the warm sunshine and beaches of the Arabian Gulf and
Arabian Sea when they return from their voyage to the deep open oceans. Warm,
relatively shallow waters in these areas sustain a wide range of ecosystems, including
coral reefs, mangroves, and sandy and rocky shorelines.The Soft Coral Garden, which
is home to living corals, is also located in this area.
Zone 7. Red Sea
The next stop in the journey is the Red Sea, where clear tropical waters are home to
the planet's northernmost coral reefs. Visitors will also learn more fun facts about
human endeavour in deep-sea diving.Highlights here include the Gorgonian Reef,
Reef Slope, and Fringing Reef.
Zone 8. East Africa
East Africa is among the continent’s most biologically diverse areas, with freshwater
lakes, coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves, lowland forests and savannah woodlands
supporting abundant plant and animal life. Here, guests will also learn how amazing
life forms in freshwater lake ecosystems have evolved to occupy unique niches, and
are found nowhere else on earth.
Zone 9. South China Sea
34
The South China Sea, known for its amazingly rich biodiversity, is a large marine
ecosystem characterized by a tropical climate. Mangrove forests, seagrass beds, reef
overhangs and soft-bottom communities are found here. This zone features a reef cave
where younger guest scan tunnel into to explore and be enthralled by huge moray eels
that live within this mysterious habitat.
Species to look out for: Moray eels, lion fish cardinal fish.
Zone 10. Shark Seas
Shark Seas will showcase more than 200 sharks of 12 species, including the nurse
shark, black-tipped reef shark, bamboo shark and grey reef shark. Guests will get to
uncover common myths about these ocean predators, and learn more about their very
important role in keeping the oceans healthy and vibrant.The shark encounter
programme, part of the immersive experiences at Adventure Cove Water park will
begin in 2013 (separate charges apply).
Fig:3.11 shark tunnel at sea aquarium
Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com
3.1.8 EDUCATION AND CONSERVATION
The Marine Life Park is dedicated to being a pioneer in protecting the oceanic and
freshwater ecosystems of the planet. S.E.A. Aquarium hopes to encourage tourists to
safeguard our blue planet through the exhibition of magnificent aquatic creatures and
creative conservation, teaching, and research projects.
For instance, the Marine Discoverer Tours are guided by knowledgeable Mariner
guides and created to take visitors on a hands-on learning adventure about marine life
and environments.
3.1.9 MICE AT S.E.A. AQUARIUM
The Ocean Gallery, home to the largest aquarium viewing panel in the world,
provides an unmatched setting that transports attendees on a Poseidon adventure
35
presented in its own special way. This three-tiered gallery is ideal for large-scale
meetings, conferences, and events because of its grand scale and inventive design.
Fig:3.12 view of ocean dome in dining area at sea aquarium
Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com
This one-of-a-kind location creates exceptional meetings, whether they involve formal
buffets or business groups. Innovatively created, the Ocean Dome offers a 180°
panoramic view of marine life and is ideal for small groups.
The Ocean Restaurant offers delegates the best in business hospitality as well.
Delegates will encounter the vast range of marine life up close thanks to the large
floor to ceiling observation panels. Unique Food and Cocktail menus can be created
for each special experience for themed event.[18]
DETAILS OF OCEAN ZONE
Fig :3.13 sea aquarium's main zones details
Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com
3.1.10 SENTOSA'S S.E.A. AQUARIUM RE-BRANDING TO S'PORE
OCEANARIUM IN 2024, TO BE 3 TIMES LARGER
One of Sentosa's many attractions will soon see a major revamp.The S.E.A.
Aquarium, home to over 100,000 marine animals from over 1,000 species, will be
rebrand as the Singapore Oceanarium (SGO).The current aquarium will be expanded
to more than three times its size, and the SGO is expected to be completed in end-
2024.
36
MORE IMMERSIVE
State-of-the-art digital innovation and interactive technology
The SGO (Singapore oceanarium)is intended to be a world-class center for education
and research on marine biodiversity, as well as for protecting andrestoring endangered
marine organisms and habitats. Through its experiences, it aims to inspire change and
drive action to protect the oceans.” State-of-the-art digital innovation and interactive
technology" will be used to enhance the "state-of-the-art" content that it will provide,
which will be larger in scale and deeper than that of the S.E.A. Aquarium.
Through "immersive and multi-sensory story-telling," visitors will learn about the
evolution of marine creatures, the various oceanic zones, such as the unexplored deep
ocean, and Singapore's distinctive coastal ecosystem.[19]
Fig:3.14 : state-of-the-art digital innovation Fig :3.15 Artist's impression of singapore
Source: https://mothership.sg
3.1.11 SERVICES
AAT (advances aquarium technology)was contracted during the construction of the
aquarium to supply and commission its all-important Life Support System; no small
undertaking for a facility with 60 million litres of water. AAT’s solution included
foam fractionators, sand filters, bag filters, bio filters, ozone generators and ozone
contact chambers.
Fig :3.16 life support system Fig :3.17 life support system of singapore
oceanarium
Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com
AAT installed several acrylic viewing panels, including the record breaking main
panel which measures 36 x 8.3 metres by 690 millimeters thick.[20]
37
3.2 MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA
3.2.1 BASIC DETAILS OF AQUARIUM
OWNER: City of Long Beach
ARCHITECT: Esherick, Homsey, Dodge, and Davis
CONTRACTOR: Turner/Kajima
COST: $55 Million
NUMBER OF SPECIMEN: It holds 35,000 of plants and animals, representing more
than 600 species on display.
AREA : 3.3 acres
LOCATION: located on the site of a former sardine cannery on cannery row in
Monterey, California, United States.
AIM OF AQUARIUM
1.Aquarium’s mission is "to inspire Conservation of the oceans."
2. To pioneer new ways to explore and understand the ocean.
3. It was built “like the Ancient Pyramid as a portal providing access to a fantastic
world beyond our reach and where the boundaries that separate us from the ocean
are suspended”.
4. To protect threatened animals.
SITE CONNECTIVITY: The site is connected from Wave Street through David
Avenue in cannery row.
WATER BODIES NEAR THE SITE: Monterey Bay is on the rear side of the
aquarium.
CONTOUR: The aquarium is built on flat terrain without any contours.
CLIMATE CONDITIONS:
Average summer temperatures range from 51-68 degree F.
Average winter temperatures range from 44 - 61 degrees F.
MAJOR EXHIBITS: The four largest exhibits are the Open Sea (1 million gallons;
reopens July 2011);the Kelp Forest (335,000 gallons); Monterey Bay Habitats
(326,000 gallons); and Sea Otters along the Rocky Coast (55,000 gallons). One of the
world’s largest jellyfish galleries.
38
LIVE EXHIBITS: More than 35,000 animals and plants representing over 550 species
of fishes, invertebrates, mammals, reptiles, birds and plants found in Monterey Bay
and other marine habitats worldwide.
DIMENSIONS: Site: 3.3 acres
Exhibits and other public areas: 175,064 sq. ft. (excludes decks)
Ocean-view decks: 25,500 sq. ft.
Behind-the-scenes: 125,300 sq. ft.
Total aquarium square footage: 322,000 sq. ft.
STAFF AND ADMINISTRATION:
Approximately 425 full and part-time staff; over 1,000 volunteers.
DISABLED ACCESS: All exhibits and aquarium facilities are accessible to people
with disabilities.Assisted listening devices are available for the deaf and hard of
hearing; most exhibit videos are captioned; wheelchairs are available free for use
during a visit.
THEME: Monterey Bay ranks among the world’s most diverse and spectacular
marine regions. The bay is at the heart of the largest National Marine Sanctuary in the
United States. The aquarium’s permanent exhibits and galleries highlight the colorful
and complex array of marine life found on California’s central coast, from coastal
wetlands to the open ocean and deep sea. Special exhibitions feature marine life from
around the world.
NATURAL HISTORY: From late winter through early fall, currents carry an up
welling of cold, nutrient-rich water into Monterey Bay. This influx of
nutrients is the base of a food web that supports the great diversity of sea life found in
habitats that range from mudflats and kelp forests to a 12,000-foot-deep submarine
canyon—the largest underwater canyon on the west coast of the United States.[21]
3.2.2 LOCATION
Fig :3.18 location plan of monetary aquarium
Source: https://www.google/maps.com
39
3.2.3 DESCRIPTION OF AQUARIUM
As one of the first of its kind, the Monterey Bay Aquarium departed from traditional
aquarium design by focusing on the unique marine ecology of one habitat: the
Monterey Bay and its shoreline. Built over land and water, it embraces views of the
Bay, whose ecosystem it celebrates. The aquarium sits sensitively among the existing
sardine processing plants and cannery buildings, utilizing the foundations—and
rekindling the spirit—of the old Hoyden Cannery.
The building is a light-filled ensemble of varied, well-proportioned spaces through
which the visitor may chart their own course, rather than being locked into a linear
path. The design strategy was to create an immersive experience that excites visitors’
senses and invokes a feeling of wonder. The aquarium presents more than 100
galleries and exhibits recreating the habitats of Monterey Bay. Some of the most
spectacular habitats are constructed in massive acrylic-enclosed tanks, including a
jewel jellyfish tank, a towering giant-kelp forest in a 335,000-gallon three-story tank,
and a million-gallon shark tank. The experience is what amounts to a leisurely stroll
through the ocean without getting wet. Its popularity has led to several changes all
designed by EHDD. In 1996, the 95,000 sq. ft., 1 million gallon Outer Bay Wing
opened, introducing jellyfish, tuna, sharks, and other denizens of the offshore
environment. In 2004, to accommodate increased visitors, a 200 ft., clear-span “Sky
bridge” joined the second floors of the Ocean’s Edge and Outer Bay Wings. The most
recent of periodic renovations of the cafe and sea otter exhibit were completed in
2014.
Monterey Bay Aquarium pre-dates contemporary sustainability goals and programs
such as LEED. Nevertheless, its design included many sustainable design strategies
and innovations that developed out of EHDD’s legacy of attention to environmental
conditions and to project-specific opportunities and imperatives. These include:
building reuse – specifically, the administration building, the seawall and the pump
house; a sea water based heat pump system that provides heating and cooling for both
the building and aquarium systems; and, the use of highly durable materials.
The technical requirements to support such environments are as impressive as the
40
habitats themselves. The water is drawn directly from the bay itself, allowing the
natural organisms that nourish the bay to be emitted into the exhibits during evening
hours (during viewing hours the water is filtered for more clarity). Most remarkable
perhaps of all its technical accomplishments is that the aquarium’s condition has
remained virtually unchanged in over a quarter century. Recent testing of some of the
concrete in the exhibits has indicated that it should conservatively withstand the
corrosive saltwater environment for 490 years.
3.2.4 CIRCULATION
The architect Rhodes and Davis failed in creating a simulated closed movement in the
aquarium so did the Packards and this is why movement through the exhibits seems
random and unstructured instead the architect created a new style of circulation in
which the visitors have Freedom of movement and lack a designated path which
constricts their paths and allows visitors to choose spaces specifically they want to
explore. This informal education Movement Complements the program.
The building is rather free flowing than being locked in a linear path and wet with
and looks assorted, well proportioned spaces through which the visors may drawn
course, the planning strategy was to maintain an immersive experience visits to move
around and provide a sense of wonder to the viewers. The aquarium has 100 galleries
in its premises and exhibits recreating the habitats of Monterey Bay Tanks are
constructed in massive acrylic-enclosed tank, these gigantic tanks include a jewel
jellyfish tank, a towering giant-kelp forest during a 335,000-gallon three-story tanks
and a million-gallon shark tank.
3.2.5 TECHNOLOGY AT AQUARIUM
An interactive display from "Into the Deep" currently at the Monterey Bay Aquarium.
Fig :3.19 digital displays of monetary aquarium
Source: https://www.sfgate.com
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI
INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI

More Related Content

What's hot

Hyderabad international convention centre
Hyderabad international convention centreHyderabad international convention centre
Hyderabad international convention centrericha bihari
 
People Friendly Public Seating: Evolution of the Park Bench
People Friendly Public Seating: Evolution of the Park BenchPeople Friendly Public Seating: Evolution of the Park Bench
People Friendly Public Seating: Evolution of the Park BenchSharon Vander Kaay
 
Case study & Site analysis
Case study & Site analysisCase study & Site analysis
Case study & Site analysisvarungoyal05
 
Hyderabad International Convention Centre (H.I.C.C)
Hyderabad International Convention Centre (H.I.C.C)Hyderabad International Convention Centre (H.I.C.C)
Hyderabad International Convention Centre (H.I.C.C)Manish Agarwal
 
literature review in museum and art gallery design
literature review in museum and art gallery designliterature review in museum and art gallery design
literature review in museum and art gallery designritikchaudhary15
 
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre finalPerforming Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre finalJYOTSNA MISHRA
 
Chinese gardens and landscape
Chinese gardens and landscapeChinese gardens and landscape
Chinese gardens and landscapeNilesh Krishnaa
 
Garden of five senses
Garden of five sensesGarden of five senses
Garden of five sensesDhir Dhwaj
 
Aicte norms for design and performing arts institute
Aicte norms for design and performing arts instituteAicte norms for design and performing arts institute
Aicte norms for design and performing arts instituteKruti Desai
 
Ateliers Jean Nouvel, a new dynamism
Ateliers Jean Nouvel, a new dynamismAteliers Jean Nouvel, a new dynamism
Ateliers Jean Nouvel, a new dynamismolivier schmitt
 
Barcelona International Convention Centre (CCIB) - MICE Presentation 2018
Barcelona International Convention Centre (CCIB) - MICE Presentation 2018Barcelona International Convention Centre (CCIB) - MICE Presentation 2018
Barcelona International Convention Centre (CCIB) - MICE Presentation 2018MICEboard
 
The India Habitat Centre and HANNOVER EXHIBITION CENTER, GERMANY
The India Habitat Centre and HANNOVER EXHIBITION CENTER, GERMANYThe India Habitat Centre and HANNOVER EXHIBITION CENTER, GERMANY
The India Habitat Centre and HANNOVER EXHIBITION CENTER, GERMANYInsiya Ratlamwala
 
Exhibition Design
Exhibition DesignExhibition Design
Exhibition DesignRajan Bhatt
 

What's hot (20)

site & case study
site & case studysite & case study
site & case study
 
Hyderabad international convention centre
Hyderabad international convention centreHyderabad international convention centre
Hyderabad international convention centre
 
People Friendly Public Seating: Evolution of the Park Bench
People Friendly Public Seating: Evolution of the Park BenchPeople Friendly Public Seating: Evolution of the Park Bench
People Friendly Public Seating: Evolution of the Park Bench
 
Case study & Site analysis
Case study & Site analysisCase study & Site analysis
Case study & Site analysis
 
Hyderabad International Convention Centre (H.I.C.C)
Hyderabad International Convention Centre (H.I.C.C)Hyderabad International Convention Centre (H.I.C.C)
Hyderabad International Convention Centre (H.I.C.C)
 
India Heritage Transport Museum
India Heritage Transport MuseumIndia Heritage Transport Museum
India Heritage Transport Museum
 
Museum Case Studies
Museum Case StudiesMuseum Case Studies
Museum Case Studies
 
literature review in museum and art gallery design
literature review in museum and art gallery designliterature review in museum and art gallery design
literature review in museum and art gallery design
 
Climate change and green buildings
Climate change and green buildingsClimate change and green buildings
Climate change and green buildings
 
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre finalPerforming Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
 
Chinese gardens and landscape
Chinese gardens and landscapeChinese gardens and landscape
Chinese gardens and landscape
 
Garden of five senses
Garden of five sensesGarden of five senses
Garden of five senses
 
Aicte norms for design and performing arts institute
Aicte norms for design and performing arts instituteAicte norms for design and performing arts institute
Aicte norms for design and performing arts institute
 
Deconstructivism
DeconstructivismDeconstructivism
Deconstructivism
 
Ateliers Jean Nouvel, a new dynamism
Ateliers Jean Nouvel, a new dynamismAteliers Jean Nouvel, a new dynamism
Ateliers Jean Nouvel, a new dynamism
 
Barcelona International Convention Centre (CCIB) - MICE Presentation 2018
Barcelona International Convention Centre (CCIB) - MICE Presentation 2018Barcelona International Convention Centre (CCIB) - MICE Presentation 2018
Barcelona International Convention Centre (CCIB) - MICE Presentation 2018
 
Michael graves
Michael gravesMichael graves
Michael graves
 
The India Habitat Centre and HANNOVER EXHIBITION CENTER, GERMANY
The India Habitat Centre and HANNOVER EXHIBITION CENTER, GERMANYThe India Habitat Centre and HANNOVER EXHIBITION CENTER, GERMANY
The India Habitat Centre and HANNOVER EXHIBITION CENTER, GERMANY
 
Exhibition Design
Exhibition DesignExhibition Design
Exhibition Design
 
eco-friendly building
eco-friendly building eco-friendly building
eco-friendly building
 

Similar to INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI

BIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE DISSERTATION.pdf
BIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE DISSERTATION.pdfBIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE DISSERTATION.pdf
BIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE DISSERTATION.pdfRachitaDalpati
 
BIRDSEY PHD THESIS-done-NO FIELDCODES
BIRDSEY PHD THESIS-done-NO FIELDCODESBIRDSEY PHD THESIS-done-NO FIELDCODES
BIRDSEY PHD THESIS-done-NO FIELDCODESEmma M. Pinter, PhD
 
MSc Subsea Engineering Final Thesis
MSc Subsea Engineering Final ThesisMSc Subsea Engineering Final Thesis
MSc Subsea Engineering Final ThesisChukwunonso Okereke
 
Abu safwan thesis report
Abu safwan thesis reportAbu safwan thesis report
Abu safwan thesis reportAbu Safwan
 
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...Venkata Vihari K
 
Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a Healthy, Harmonious and Best W...
Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a Healthy, Harmonious and Best W...Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a Healthy, Harmonious and Best W...
Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a Healthy, Harmonious and Best W...Venkata Vihari K
 
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...Venkata Vihari K
 
The Edible Vegetative Roof
The Edible Vegetative RoofThe Edible Vegetative Roof
The Edible Vegetative RoofFarrah85p
 
Thesis Report on Integrated Industrial Park
Thesis Report on Integrated Industrial ParkThesis Report on Integrated Industrial Park
Thesis Report on Integrated Industrial ParkSohailHussain48
 
Rooftop gardens and the greening of cities - a case study of UKZN
Rooftop gardens and the greening of cities - a case study of UKZNRooftop gardens and the greening of cities - a case study of UKZN
Rooftop gardens and the greening of cities - a case study of UKZNFlanna489y
 
Shielding properties of concrete materials
Shielding properties of concrete materialsShielding properties of concrete materials
Shielding properties of concrete materialsNdede .
 
Mebit Mitiku Final Thesis.pdf optimal design
Mebit Mitiku Final Thesis.pdf optimal designMebit Mitiku Final Thesis.pdf optimal design
Mebit Mitiku Final Thesis.pdf optimal designbelay21dessie
 
Nuttall, P. Sailing for Sustainability: The Potential of Sail Technology as ...
Nuttall, P.  Sailing for Sustainability: The Potential of Sail Technology as ...Nuttall, P.  Sailing for Sustainability: The Potential of Sail Technology as ...
Nuttall, P. Sailing for Sustainability: The Potential of Sail Technology as ...Bart Kamphuis
 
Seminar Proceedings_Conservation and Local Development _17.03.2021.pdf
Seminar Proceedings_Conservation and Local Development _17.03.2021.pdfSeminar Proceedings_Conservation and Local Development _17.03.2021.pdf
Seminar Proceedings_Conservation and Local Development _17.03.2021.pdfParas Mongia
 
MERSEA PhD Research Proposal
MERSEA PhD Research Proposal MERSEA PhD Research Proposal
MERSEA PhD Research Proposal MakeNET
 
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)Divya Bhaskara
 
PhD Interface Learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school coll...
PhD Interface Learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school coll...PhD Interface Learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school coll...
PhD Interface Learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school coll...Sally Thorhauge
 

Similar to INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI (20)

FINAL PROJECT 2016
FINAL PROJECT 2016FINAL PROJECT 2016
FINAL PROJECT 2016
 
BIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE DISSERTATION.pdf
BIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE DISSERTATION.pdfBIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE DISSERTATION.pdf
BIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE DISSERTATION.pdf
 
BIRDSEY PHD THESIS-done-NO FIELDCODES
BIRDSEY PHD THESIS-done-NO FIELDCODESBIRDSEY PHD THESIS-done-NO FIELDCODES
BIRDSEY PHD THESIS-done-NO FIELDCODES
 
MSc Subsea Engineering Final Thesis
MSc Subsea Engineering Final ThesisMSc Subsea Engineering Final Thesis
MSc Subsea Engineering Final Thesis
 
GroupFBadolee final.
GroupFBadolee final.GroupFBadolee final.
GroupFBadolee final.
 
Abu safwan thesis report
Abu safwan thesis reportAbu safwan thesis report
Abu safwan thesis report
 
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...
 
Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a Healthy, Harmonious and Best W...
Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a Healthy, Harmonious and Best W...Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a Healthy, Harmonious and Best W...
Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a Healthy, Harmonious and Best W...
 
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...
Identifying the Roles and Responsibilities of HR in creating a healthy, harmo...
 
The Edible Vegetative Roof
The Edible Vegetative RoofThe Edible Vegetative Roof
The Edible Vegetative Roof
 
Thesis Report on Integrated Industrial Park
Thesis Report on Integrated Industrial ParkThesis Report on Integrated Industrial Park
Thesis Report on Integrated Industrial Park
 
Rooftop gardens and the greening of cities - a case study of UKZN
Rooftop gardens and the greening of cities - a case study of UKZNRooftop gardens and the greening of cities - a case study of UKZN
Rooftop gardens and the greening of cities - a case study of UKZN
 
Shielding properties of concrete materials
Shielding properties of concrete materialsShielding properties of concrete materials
Shielding properties of concrete materials
 
Mebit Mitiku Final Thesis.pdf optimal design
Mebit Mitiku Final Thesis.pdf optimal designMebit Mitiku Final Thesis.pdf optimal design
Mebit Mitiku Final Thesis.pdf optimal design
 
Nuttall, P. Sailing for Sustainability: The Potential of Sail Technology as ...
Nuttall, P.  Sailing for Sustainability: The Potential of Sail Technology as ...Nuttall, P.  Sailing for Sustainability: The Potential of Sail Technology as ...
Nuttall, P. Sailing for Sustainability: The Potential of Sail Technology as ...
 
Seminar Proceedings_Conservation and Local Development _17.03.2021.pdf
Seminar Proceedings_Conservation and Local Development _17.03.2021.pdfSeminar Proceedings_Conservation and Local Development _17.03.2021.pdf
Seminar Proceedings_Conservation and Local Development _17.03.2021.pdf
 
MERSEA PhD Research Proposal
MERSEA PhD Research Proposal MERSEA PhD Research Proposal
MERSEA PhD Research Proposal
 
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)
 
PhD Interface Learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school coll...
PhD Interface Learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school coll...PhD Interface Learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school coll...
PhD Interface Learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school coll...
 
Social Inclusion Practices within Museums
Social Inclusion Practices within MuseumsSocial Inclusion Practices within Museums
Social Inclusion Practices within Museums
 

Recently uploaded

Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptxInternet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptxVelmuruganTECE
 
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptxInternship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptxmalikavita731
 
Input Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemInput Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodLevelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodManicka Mamallan Andavar
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxsiddharthjain2303
 
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdfModule-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdfManish Kumar
 
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Romil Mishra
 
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor CatchersTechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catcherssdickerson1
 
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfCh10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfChristianCDAM
 
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdfHafizMudaserAhmad
 
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithm
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithmComputer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithm
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithmDeepika Walanjkar
 
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfImmutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfDrew Moseley
 
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxMine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxRomil Mishra
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionMebane Rash
 
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School CourseKatarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Coursebim.edu.pl
 
DEVICE DRIVERS AND INTERRUPTS SERVICE MECHANISM.pdf
DEVICE DRIVERS AND INTERRUPTS  SERVICE MECHANISM.pdfDEVICE DRIVERS AND INTERRUPTS  SERVICE MECHANISM.pdf
DEVICE DRIVERS AND INTERRUPTS SERVICE MECHANISM.pdfAkritiPradhan2
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Sumanth A
 
Crushers to screens in aggregate production
Crushers to screens in aggregate productionCrushers to screens in aggregate production
Crushers to screens in aggregate productionChinnuNinan
 
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...Erbil Polytechnic University
 
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadhome automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadaditya806802
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptxInternet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
 
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptxInternship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
 
Input Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemInput Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating System
 
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodLevelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
 
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdfModule-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
 
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
 
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor CatchersTechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
 
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfCh10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
 
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
 
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithm
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithmComputer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithm
Computer Graphics Introduction, Open GL, Line and Circle drawing algorithm
 
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfImmutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
 
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxMine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
 
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School CourseKatarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
 
DEVICE DRIVERS AND INTERRUPTS SERVICE MECHANISM.pdf
DEVICE DRIVERS AND INTERRUPTS  SERVICE MECHANISM.pdfDEVICE DRIVERS AND INTERRUPTS  SERVICE MECHANISM.pdf
DEVICE DRIVERS AND INTERRUPTS SERVICE MECHANISM.pdf
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
 
Crushers to screens in aggregate production
Crushers to screens in aggregate productionCrushers to screens in aggregate production
Crushers to screens in aggregate production
 
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...
 
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadhome automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
 

INTERACTIVE AQUATIC MUSEUM AT BAGH IBN QASIM CLIFTON KARACHI

  • 1. I EXPLORING THE WONDERS OF AQUATIC MUSEUM AT KARACHI (Redesigning of Fish Aquarium at Bin Qasim Park Clifton ) By KIRAN KANDHRO (18AR113) SUPERVISED BY AR. RIDA HUSSAIN (LECTURER) DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, JAMSHORO SINDH Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Architecture 2023
  • 2. II CERTIFICATE This is certified that the work presented in this thesis titled as “EXPLORING THE WONDERS OF AQUATIC MUSEUM AT KARACHI” has been carried out by Kiran Kandhro (18AR113) herself under the supervision and guidance of AR. Rida Hussain which fulfill requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor’s in Architecture. KIRAN KANDHRO 18AR113 Thesis/project Supervisor External/Examiner Ar.Rida Hussain 1.______________ (Lecturer) 2. _____________ Department of Architecture MUET, Jamshoro Chairman MR. MOUZAM ALI PATHAN DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE MUET, JAMSHORO Dated:_______________
  • 3. III DEDICATION Starting by thanking Almighty Allah without which I wouldn’t be able to make such efforts. The thesis dedicated to my parents and best friend who have done their utmost to support and enable me to seek education and taught me to always have a high regard and commitment towards it, Whilst always inspiring and motivating me throughout the way To become a better version of myself.
  • 4. IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, praises and thanks to Allah Almighty, for His showers of blessings throughout my research work to complete the research successfully and secondly to appreciate the people related to this Thesis and give them their due credit. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my thesis advisor Ar. Rida Hussain for taking on the daunting task of selecting me even given the complexity of my project and believing in me and for the continuous support of my thesis study and research, for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, encouragement and immense knowledge. His guidance helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis. Besides my advisor I would like to thank the respected Chairman Mr. Moazam Ali Pathan for providing us with a medium to receive education and complete our bachelors My sincere thanks also goes to all the teachers that have ever taken a single lecture to the long term association from the foundation to the final year belonging to my department or any other and taught me everything from my time in the University. And lastly but in no way the least my Best friend who helped me Muhammad Ali and my Parents for being there for me through thick and thin and helping me out on numerous occasions, surely university life would have been a lot difficult without their love and support. I thank everyone with the highest gratitude.
  • 5. V ABSTRACT The progression of any society is contingent upon its achievements in education, awareness, and advancements across various fields. However, Pakistan faces challenges, including political crises, hindering its development potential. In particular, the vulnerable conditions of significant aquatic life forms, such as mangroves, green turtles, and blind dolphins, underscore the need for heightened awareness and conservation efforts. This thesis explores the necessity of establishing a public aquarium in Karachi, Pakistan, as a dedicated facility for showcasing and conserving marine life. By conducting a comprehensive analysis of the global significance of public aquariums, the study underscores the immense benefits such an establishment can bring to Karachi and Pakistan as a whole. The research made for emphasizes the educational value of public aquariums, highlighting their role in promoting marine science literacy, environmental awareness, and conservation ethics. By providing an immersive and interactive learning environment, a public aquarium can stimulate curiosity, deepen understanding of marine ecosystems, and foster a sense of stewardship among visitors and also providing modern technologies of aquarium which are world wide use. In conclusion, this thesis underscores the criticality of establishing a public aquarium in Karachi, Pakistan, to address the current void in the country's marine educational and conservation landscape. By providing a platform for education, economic growth, research, and cultural enrichment, a modern aquatic museum in Karachi has the potential to revolutionize perceptions and knowledge about marine life in Pakistan. The resulting initiatives will significantly contribute to the conservation of marine ecosystems and foster a sustainable future for aquatic life in the region, thereby ensuring the preservation of vital species such as green turtles, mangroves and blind dolphins.
  • 6. VI TITLE …………………………………………………………………………………….i CERTIFICATE……………………………………………………………………………ii DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………………iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………..iv ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………….…v TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………….………....vi-xiv LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………….…..……...xv LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………..………..….…...xv-xx TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 01 INTRODUCTION………..……………………………………………………………1-7 1.1 INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT ..........................................................................................1-2 1.2 MOTIVATION ..................................................................................................................4 1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT ...........................................................................................4-5 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH .....................................................................5 1.5 AIM OF RESEARCH................................................................................................................5 1.6 OBJECTIVES..........................................................................................................................5-6 1.7 SCOPE OF PROJECT ..............................................................................................................6 1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT..........................................................7 1.9 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..........................................................................................7
  • 7. VII CHAPTER 02 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………8-25 2.1 DEGRADATION OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT ………………………………….……8 2.2 ASSESSMENT OF FISH DIVERSITY OF DOWNSTREAM INDUS RIVER, SINDH PAKISTAN ............……………………………………......................................................9 2. 3 ASSESSMENT OF FISH DIVERSITY IN THE ARABIAN SEA (SINDH AND BALOCHISTAN) .................................................................................................………....…..9-10 2.4 BLIND DOLPHIN OF THE INDUS RIVER...................………….............….… …….10-11 2.5 INTEGRATION OF AQUARIUMS WITH TECHNOLOGY……………………….…12-25 2.5.1 SOUTH CORLIN AQURIUM.....................................…………………………………...-13 2.5.2 THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY IN (WASHINGTON DC)…..14 2.5.3 CHIMELONG OCEAN KINGDOM, HENGQIN (CHINA).............................…..…....15-16 2.5.4 UNDERWATER WORLD PATTAYA (THAILAND )..........………………......17-18 2.5.5 DUBAI AQUARIUM AND UNDERWATER ZOO………………..……… 19-20 2.5.6 RIPLEY’S AQUARIUM OF CANADA....................................…………………….....21-23 2.5.7 ART SCIENCE MUSEUM MARINA BAY SANDS SINGAPORE……………….24-25 CHAPTER 03 CASE STUDIES ……………..………………………………………………….….26-63 VIRTUAL CASE STUDIES ……………………………………………………26-48 3.1 SENTOSA ’S S.E.A AQUARIM (SINGAPORE).…..................................……...…...26-36 3.1.1 LOCATION .................................................................……………………............… ..…26 3.1.2 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................…-27 3.1.3 ABOUT RESORTS WORLD SENTOSA.......................................................................…27
  • 8. VIII 3.1.4 MARINE LIFE PARK.................................................................................................27-28 3.1.5 DRY EXPERIENCE AT MARINE LIFE PARK - THE WORLD’S LARGEST OCEANARIUM………………………………………………..............................28-29 3.1.6 DRAWINGS AND VIEWS OF AQUARIUM.........................................................29-30 3.1.7 ZONES..............................................................................................………………...30-34 3.1.8 EDUCATION AND CONSERVATION..............................................................…34 3.1.9 MICE AT S.E.A. AQUARIUM......................................................................…….…34-35 3.1.10. SENTOSA'S S.E.A. AQUARIUM RE-BRANDING TO S'PORE OCEANARIUM IN 2024,TO BE 3 TIMES LARGER..……………………………………………………35-36 3.1.11. SERVICES......................................................................................................…………..36 3.2 MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA..........................................................…………….37-47 3.2.1 BASIC DETAILS OF AQUARIUM..............................................................................37-38 3.2.2 LOCATION......................................................................................................……....38 3.2.3 DESCRIPTION .....................................................................................................……39-40 3.2.4 CIRCULATIONS ............................................................................................................40 3.2.5 TECHNOLOGY AT AQUARIUM .........................................................................…..40-41 3.2.6 GEOMETRY & STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING ..............................…....……..41-42 3.2.7 FILTERATION.............................................................................................................42-43 3.2.8 SUSTAINABILITY .......................................................................................................43 3.2.9 QUARANTINE SYSTEM FOR THE ANIMAL RESEARCH AND CARE CENT...43-44 3.2.10 DRAWINGS AND VIEWS......................................................................................44-47 LIVE CASE STUDIES ...................................................…………………….48-62 3.3 MUNICIPAL AQUARIUM KARACHI AT KARACHI ZOO ..................………....48-54
  • 9. IX 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................48 3.3.2 LOCATION ..........................................................................………………………...49 3.3.3 KARACHI MUNICIPAL AQUARIUM.......................................…………....49-54 3.3.4 SERVICES.............................................................………………………………….......50 3.3.5 COLLECTION OF FISHES .............................................…………………………50 3.3.6 TYPES OF FISHES...............................................................………………50-53 3.3.7 INFORMATION COLLECTED FROM AQUARIUM..............................................53 3.3.8 OBSERVATION ...........................................................................................................53-54 3.3.9 GALLERIES .............................................................................................................…54 3.4 CLIFTON FISH AQUARIUM....................................................................……………55-62 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................……55 3.4.2 HISTORY …………………………………………………………………………..55-57 3.4.2.1 KARACHI’S LARGEST PUBLIC AQUARIUM IS ABOUT TO GET AN RS 100 MILLION FACELIFT (2012)……………………………………………………………...….56 3.4.2.2 KARACHI’S ONLY AQUARIUM TO BE REOPENED …………………..………56 3.4.2.3 ABANDONED PROJECT: CLIFTON AQUARIUM AWAITS FINAL CURTAIN (2019)………………………………….………………………………..……………..…56 3.4.2.4 CLIFTON AQUARIUM IN 1994………………………………………….56-57 3.4.3 SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCREENING REPORT FOR THE PROPOSED PROJECT (FEB-2021)…………………………………………………………...58-59 3.4.4 ON-SITE CASE STUDY 23-01-23....................................................…….…………..59-61 3.4.5 INFORMATION COLLECTED FROM SITE.............................................…….……….61 3.4.6 2 OBSERVATION AT SITE ........................................................………………61-62
  • 10. X CHAPTER 04 TECHNICAL DATA …………………………………………………………………..……….…63-122 4.1 KINDS OF SPACES WHERE AQUATIC ECOLOGY IS DISPLAYED............…...63-65 4.1.1 AQUARIUM..............................................………………………............63 4.1.1.1 HISTORY OF AQUARIUMS .......................................................................................63 4.1.2 MARINE NATIONAL PARKS.......................................................................................64 4.1.3 OCEANARIUMS.................................................................…………………………......64 4.1.4 ZOO AND WILDLIFE PARKS.........................................…………………….......64 4.1.5 BEACH AND COASTAL INTERPRETIVE CENTERS: ...................………………....65 4.1.6 NATURE CENTERS AND MUSEUMS: ......................................…………………......65 4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF AQUATIC LIFE:...…………………………......65-69 4.2.1. FRESHWATER ..............................................................................…………….........65 4.2.2 COLDWATER........................................................................……………………….....65 4.2.3 TROPICAL................................................................................……………………..65 4.2.4 SALTWATER REGIONS............................................................................................…..66 4.2.5 BRACKISH WATER OR BRINY WATER.............................................………………..66 4. 3 TYPE S OF FIS HE S .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 4.3.1 FRESH WATER FISHES..........................................................................66 4.3.1.1 CLASSIFICATION .......................................................................66-67 4.3.1.2 FRESH WATER FISHES OF PAKISTAN .............................................................67-69 4.4 DIET……………………………………………..…………………………………69 4.5 COMMON SALT WATER FISHE S.. ..... .... .. ………… ..... .... ..... ...6 9-70
  • 11. XI 4.5.1 TYPES OF SALT WATER FISHES...........................................................70-84 4.6 EXHIBIT DESIGN.........................................................................................84-88 4.6.1 STATIC EXHIBIT SPACES..........................................................................................85 4.6.2 LIVE EXHIBIT SPACES ...............................................................................85 4.6.4. TOUCH POOL..............................................................................85 4.6.5. ACRYLIC TUNNEL TANK ......................................................................................86 4.6.6 CORAL REEF TANK.....................................................................86 4.6.7 GAINT OCEAN TANK..........................................................................87 4.6.8. BIOTOPE .................................................................................................87 4.6.9. DOLPHINARIUM.....................................................................................................87 4.6.10. OCEAN SHORE TANK...............................................................................................88 4.6.11 PREDATOR TANK………………………………......................................88 4.6.12. QUARANTINE TANK................................................................................88 4.7 SALTWATER VERSUS FRESHWATER AQUARIUMS.............................................89-90 4.8 AQUARIUM TANK SHAPE.....................................................................90 4.8.1. RECTANGULAR/SQUARE FISH TANK................................................................91 4.8.2 LARGE AQUARIUM SIZES........................................................................91 4.9 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR TANKS ………………………………………91-92 4.9.1 FIBERGLASS: .......................................................................................91-92 4.9.2 GLASS: ..................................................................……..........................92 4.9 ACRYLIC:....………………………………………...............…...............................92 4.10 WATER QUALITY......................................................................................92-96
  • 12. XII 4.11 WATER SYSTEM .............................................................................................96 4.11.1 OPEN WATER SYSTEM:..........................……………………….......97 4.11. 2 CLOSED WATER SYSTEMS.................................................................................97-98 4.11.3 SEMI-CLOSED WATER SYSTEMS........................................................................98-99 4.12 WATER TREATMENT................................................................................99-100 4.12.1 THERMAL CONTROL...................................................................100 4.13 AERATION................................…...............................................100-101 4.14 FILTRATION SYSTEM..........................................................................101 4.14.1 MECHANICAL FILTRATION: ...........................................................................101-102 4.14.2 CHEMICAL FILTRATION: ................................................................................102-108 4.15 WATER FILTERATION SYSTEM FOR SALT AND FRESHWATER ........108 4.16 AQUATIC NEED...…………………………………........................................108 4.16.1 COMMON INFORMATION ABOUT ………………….…………………108-109 4.16.2 FEEDING INFORMATION………………………..………………..........109 4.16.3 HEALTH CHECKUPS........................................................................................109 4.17 PLUMBING..........................................................................110 4.18 LIGHTING IN EXHIBIT SPACES .....................................................................110-111 4.18.1 FRESHWATER......................................................................................111 4.18.2 BRACKISH...............................................................................111 4.18.3 MARINE..........................................................................................111-112 4.19 TECHNICAL AND NATURAL ELEMENTS OF AQUASCAPING..............112-116 4.19 .1 CARBON DIOXIDE...........................................................................................112
  • 13. XIII 4.19 .2 LIQUID FERTILIZER............………………….....................................................112 4.19 .3 AQUARIUM DRIFTWOOD........………………...................................112 4.19 .4 SUBSTRATES AND AQUA SOIL……………………………………………...112-113 4.19 .5 STONES.....…………………………………………………………………..........113 4.19.6 LIVE ROCK.......................................…………………………………………...........114 4.19.7 DEAD ROCK OR DRY ROCK..........................…………………….........................114 4.19.8 CORALS AND REEF ………………………………………………………….……114 4.19.9 AQUATIC PLANTS ................................................……………….....................114-15 4.19.10 CLIMATE CONTROL .................................................………….............................115 4.19.11 FISH FEEDERS……………….…………………………………………………….116 4.20 INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGY ..............................................................................116-122 4.20.1 VIRTUAL REALITY ..........................................................................116 4.20.2 TYPES OF VR......................................................................................117-119 4.20.2 AUGMENTED REALITY ..........................................................................119 4.20.2.1 TYPES OF AUGMENT REALITY ....................................................................119-122 CHAPTER 05 SITE SELECTION……………………………………………………..………123-129 5.1 SITE SELECTION CRITERIA.................................………….........................................123 5.2 PROPOSED SITES BASIC INFORMATION.....................……………...124-126 5.2.1 SITE 01..................................................……………………….………....124 5.2.2 SITE 02 .......................................……………………………………….......125 5.2.3 SITE 03................................................………………………..…………126 5.3 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SITE................................................……..…………126-12 5.4 SHORTLISTING OF SITE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS .........................................127 5.5 WHY KARACHI.....................................................................…………………........127-128 5.5.1 SITE ANALYSIS W.R.T NEIGHBOURHOOD CONTEXT.......................…….......…128
  • 14. XIV 5.5.2 SITE ORENTATION.................................................................………..........128-129 5.2 PROPOSED SITES BASIC INFORMATION............................……………………..…...129 CHAPTER 06 SITE SELECTION………………………………………………………………130-143 6.1 INTRODUCTION .......................................……………….………………….......130 6.2 PROJECT CONCEPT .........................………………………..…………..……………130 6.3 DESIGN CONCEPT..............................................…………………….…...…………130-133 6.4 DESIGN CONSIDERATION...................................……………….....……………........132 6.5 ZONES ................................................………………………………………….........132-133 6.5.1 ZONES STUDY......................……………………………………………………133-139 6.5.1.1 PUBLIC ZONE .................................................………………………………............133 6.5.1.2 DISPLAY ZONE...................…………………………………………………....133-135 6.5.1.3 FUN AND RECREATIONAL ZONE:....……………………………………......135-136 6.5.1.4 EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES ..……………………………………….........136-137 6.5.1.5 SERVICE ZONE....…………………………………………………………..…..…126 6.5.3 .ADMIN ZONE....................................………………………………………….…139 6.6 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARD SIZES.............................................139-143 CHAPTER 07 RESULTS AND CONCLUSION………………………………………….…………144-152 7.1 DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY ...............................……................144 7.2 INTERVIEWS .........……………………………………………………………..…144-146 7.2.1 INTERVIEW WITH KARACHI MUNICIPAL ZOO AQUARIUM ....…….…...144-145 7.2.2 INTERVIEW WITH CLIFTON FISH AQUARIUM ……………….……………145-146 7.3 OBJECTIVES ACHIEVED THROUGH THROUGH SURVEY …………….….....146-147 7.3.1 RESEARCH DATA COLLECTED THOUGH SURREY ……………….…….147-147 7.4 OUT COME OF THE SURVEYS AND INTERVIEW …………………………....147-153 BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………..154 REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………155-157
  • 15. XV LIST OF TABLES TABLE:4.1 DATA OF FRESH WATER FISHES……………………………….………...68-69 TABLE:4.2 DATA OF ANGLE FISH………………………………………………………....70 TABLE:4.3 DATA OF ANTHIAS FISH………………………………………………..……..71 TABLE:4.4 DATA OF BASS AND GROPERS……………………………………………....72 TABLE:4.5 DATA OF CLOWN FISH………………………………………..………….….73 TABLE:4.6 DATA OF EELS……………………………………………………..……………..74 TABLE:4.7 DATA OF DRAGNETS …………………………………………..…………...75 TABLE:4.8 DATA OF RABBIT FISH……………………………………….………..…76 TABLE:4.9 DATA OF SEAHORSES…………………………………………..………...…77 TABLE:4.10 DATA OF SHARKS………………………………………………….…………78 TABLE:4.11 DATA OF TURTLES……………………………………………….….………...79 TABLE:4. 12 DATA OF JELLYFISHES…………………………………….……………....80 TABLE:4.13 DATA OF SNAPPERS………………………………………………………...81 TABLE:4.15 DATA OF SPONGES ………………………………………..…………………..82 TABLE :4.16 DATA OF DOLPHINS…………………………………………………..….83-85 TABLE NO : 5.1 SITE SELECTION ANALYSIS CHART ON THE BASIS OF SITE CONTEXT…………………………………………………………………………………….127 TABLE :6.1 REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARD DIMENSIONS ………………………143 TABLE OF FIGURES Fig 1.1 simulation motion through virtual reality……………………………………………2 Fig 1.2 VR Head Mounted Display…………………………………………………..……….2 Fig 1.3 A woman using an interactive aquarium exhibit ………………………………………3 Fig 1.4 indoor touch pool ……………………………………………………………….….3 Fig 1.5: Holographic projection of an dolphin………………………………………………4 Fig: 2.1 Rescue of Indus river dolphins…………………………………………...………..…11 FIG 2.2:Students are using technology to learn about turtle……………………………13
  • 16. XVI Fig 2.3:Trainee is using technology to learn about turtle.…………………………….….13 Fig.2.4: Elevation of south carolina aquarium…………………………………….………13 Fig:2.5 Holographic projection of whale…………………………………………………….….14 Fig:2.6 Holographic projection national museum……………………………………….………14 Fig:2.7 Holographic projection of whale in national museum………………………………14 Fig: 2.8 display of under water aqua world…………………………………………………….26 Fig: 2.9 Tunnel view of the aquarium…………………………………………………….….16 Fig:2.10 View of Chimelong International Ocean ……………………………..………….16 Fig 2.11 view of inside the tunnel in the aquarium…………………………….………18 Fig 2.12 landscape of underwater world aquarium ……………………………………………18 Fig: 2.13 The location map shows activities in the aquarium……………………………….18 Fig: 2.14 Glass Bottom Boat Rides of Dubai aquarium ………………………………………20 Fig: 2.15 tunnel view of Dubai aquarium ……………………………………………………20 Fig: 2.16 view of aquarium from Dubai mall ………………………………………………20 Fig : 2.17: view of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada ………………………………..……….22 Fig:2.18 Flow diagram of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada ……………………………….…23 Fig: 2.19 exhibition area of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada………………………………….…23 Fig:2.20 Tunnel view of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada……………………………………….23 Fig :2.21 exhibition area of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada………………………………..…..23 Fig 2.22 Interactive responsive floor………………………………………………………..….25 Fig:2.23 Viewers experiencing the sketch aquarium ……………………………………..….25 Fig:3.1 location plan of sea aquarium…………………………………………………….….26 Fig:3.2 elevation of sea aquarium………………………………………………………...….29 Fig:3.3 master plan of sea aquarium………………………………………………….…..….29 Fig:3.4 Floor plans of sea aquarium…………………………………………………………….30 Fig:3.5 Entrance and ticket area of sea aquarium…………………………………………….30 Fig:3.6 scuba diving activity at sea aquarium………………………………………………….31 Fig:3.7 digital information displays at sea aquarium…………………………………………….31
  • 17. XVII Fig:3.8 mangroves displays at sea aquarium…………………………………….……….…….32 Fig:3.9 jelly fish display area at sea aquarium…………………………………………………...32 Fig:3.10 The ocean dome at sea aquarium…………………………………………………...33 Fig:3.11 shark tunnel at sea aquarium……………………………………………………...….34 Fig:3.12 view of ocean dome in dining area at sea aquarium…………………………..……35. Fig :3.13 sea aquarium's main zones details…………………………………………….…..…35 Fig:3.14 : state-of-the-art digital innovation …………………………………………….…….36 Fig :3.15 Artist's impression of singapore …………………………………..………….….36 Fig :3.16-3.life support system of singapore ………………..…………………………..….…36 Fig :3.18 location plan of monetary aquarium ………………………………………………...38 Fig :3.19 digital displays of monetary aquarium ………………………………………….40 Fig :3.20 digital displays of monetary aquarium…………………………………………..….41 Fig :3.21 digital displays of monetary aquarium ……………………………………….….41 Fig :3.22 construction process of monetary aquarium ……………….………………………….42 Fig :3.23 quarantine room of monteray aquarium………………….……………………….….44 Fig :3.24 exterior views of monteray aquarium……………….……………………………..…44. Fig :3.25 -3.26 Floor plans of monteray aquarium………………..…………………………….45 Fig :3.27 Services plans of monteray aquarium……………….…………………………….….46 Fig :3.28 Sections of monteray aquarium……………………………………………………….467 Fig :3.29 scuba diving of monteray aquarium……………..……………………………….….47 Fig :3.30 information gallery of monteray aquarium……….……………………………...…..47 Fig :3.33 dining area of monteray aquarium……………….………………………………….….47 Fig :3.34 Location plan of Karachi zoo….………………….……………………….….….….48 Fig: 3.35 facade of aquarium …………………….……….…..………………………….….….49 Fig: 3.36 display of aquarium……………………..…………………………………….…..….53 Fig:3.37-46 Different types of fishes at aquarium ………..……………………..………50-53 Fig:3.47 display gallery tanks of aquarium ………………….…………………………….…….54 Fig: 3.48 galleries of Clifton aquarium in 1994………………………………….…………….56
  • 18. XVIII Fig: 3.49-3.52 interior condition of Clifton aquarium ………….……………….…………57 Fig: 3.53 rear view of Clifton aquarium…………..……………………………………..…….58 Fig: 3.54 top view of Clifton aquarium…………..…………………………………….…..…58. Fig: 3.56 roof top of Clifton aquarium ……………….………………………………………….58 Fig: 3.57 meeting held at Clifton aquarium ………….…………………………………….59 Fig: 3.58 project information board………………….……………………………………….59. Fig:3.59 side view of Clifton aquarium ………………..…………………………………..….60 Fig: 3.60 side view of Clifton aquarium…………………..………………………………..….60 Fig: 3.61 front view of Clifton aquarium………………………...…………………………….60 Fig: 3.62 entrance of Clifton aquarium…………………………….………………………..….60 Fig: 3.63 perspective view of Clifton aquarium…………………..………….……………….61 Fig 4.1 A freshwater aquarium with plants and various tropical fish….……………………64 Fig 4.2 Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park…………………….………………………….64 Fig 4.3 types of aquatic ecosystem ……………….....…………………………………..…..65 Fig:4.4 classification of water types……………….……………………………………..…..65 Fig: 4.5 An interactive area near the entrance to the aquarium………..……………………..85 Fig: 4.6 coral reef tank section………………………………………….…………………..….86 Fig:4.7 Killer whales performing in Shamu stadium at Sea World in Orlando, Florida………88 Fig:4.8 dimension diagram of quarantine tank………….………………………………….88 Fig:4.9 shapes of tanks…………………………………………...……………………………..90 Fig :4.10 sizes of large aquarium tanks…………………..…………………………………….91 Fig:4.11 water filtration process……………………………..………………………………...94 Fig:4.12 National Fisheries Center…………………………….………………………….….99 Fig:4.13 aeration system of aquarium……………………….….………………………….101 Fig:4.14 dimension diagram of zeolite foam frictioner ……….……..……………………….103 Fig:4.15 dimension diagram of protein skimmer…………………………………………….103 Fig:4.16 dimension diagram of zeolite foam frictioner ………..……………………….104 Fig:4.17 dimension diagram of degassing chamber……………………..………………..…104
  • 19. XIX Fig:4.18 dimension diagram of sand filter…………………………………………………….105 Fig:4.19 diagram of UV disinfection……………………………….………………..….105 Fig:4.20 dimension diagram of titanium heat exchanger ……………..……………………105 Fig:4.21 diagram of activated carbon tanks………..………………………………………….106 Fig:4.23 dimension diagram of Skid Mounted LSS…….….……….…………………..….108 Fig:4.24 types of filtration of salt and fresh water…….………………………………….108 Fig:4.25 types of Virtual reality………….…………………..………………………………...117 Fig:4.26 non immersive Virtual reality…………………………...……………………………118 Fig:4.27 semi immersive Virtual reality……………………………………….…………….…119 Fig:4.28 types of augmented reality ……………………….….………………….………….120 Fig:4.29 types of markerless and marker based AR ………………………………….120 Fig:4.30 marker based AR shows 3D projection of buildings………………………..……..…120 Fig:4.31 holographic projection of dolphins ……………………...…….………………..….….121 Fig:4.32 holographic projection generation ………..………….….…………………………....121 Fig:4.32 location based Ar shows track at airport ………………………………………...…122 Fig:4.33 over lay Ar shows sofa designs for rooms….……………….………….…………..….122 Fig:5.1 Zoom out location view………………..…….……….………….…………………..….124 Fig:5.2 zoom in location view…………………………….………….……………………..…124 Fig: 5.3 perspective view aquarium …………………………….………………………...…124 Fig:5.4 side view of aquarium ………………………….……………………..….…….…..124 Fig:5.5 zoom in location view………………………….…………………………………..…..125 Fig:5.6 zoom out location view…………………………….……………..…………………125 Fig:5.7 entrance road of site ……………………….….……………..………………………125 Fig:5.8 site view……………………….……………….……………………………….…...…125 Fig:5.9 zoom in view of site………………………….……………..…………………...…….126 Fig:5.10 zoom out location view………………………….……………..………………….126 Fig:5.11 View of indus river from site ………………………….…………..…………………126 fig:5.12 view of site entrance from Almanzar restaurant……..…………..…………..…….126
  • 20. XX Fig:5.13 site analysis w.r.t neighbourhood context………………………………………...….128 Fig:5.14 site orentation………….……………..………………………..……………...….128 Fig:5.15 site plan …………………….……………..…………….………..……………...….129 Fig 6.1 Palau de les Arts Opera House……………………………………….…………………131
  • 21. 1 CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT In this 21st century, the world is developing day by day and technology plays a great role in the world perhaps we are going towards smartness and innovation in our lives. The relationship between technology and human life is too sensitive because of some negative impacts but also we get a lot of positive innovations with the application of technology and with this so many creations are settled. the world is made up of various forms of nature including plants, humans, animals, etc., and the nature of humans is interrelated with the creation of nature like plants and animals but nowadays we are away from these beautiful creations because of the human bad act on the environment and it’s time to re-connect ourselves to the nature. The world is covered with 2/3rd to water and water is a primary source of life for all living things. We as a human enjoy the creation of the almighty but we are neglecting the life below water and having very less attention and consideration to aqua life. So, to reconnect the interrelation between humans and life below water this project i.e “EXPLORING THE WONDERS OF AQUATIC MUSEUM AT KARACHI” will play a great role for fill the gaps between humans and aquatic animals. the project is deal with 2 interfaces I.e the provision of live aquatic animals in the museum and another is an interactive technology. The technology consists of virtual reality and Augmented reality, with the help of these two technologies I am designing the interactive museum and with the help of these technologies It adds spark in the form of entertainment and education I.e show those creations of aqua life which is at a short distance away from us like a blue whale and other aquatic animals, with the help of these technologies peoples get aware about marine life and also experiences unexpected entertainment and through the application of virtual reality I am providing the gaming area of simulation motion to provide experience of ocean .
  • 22. 2 Interactive technology is flourishing nowadays in every aspect of the world and with the application of these smart technologies we make our museum smart and innovative. Fig 1.1 simulation motion through virtual reality Source: www.georgiaaquarium.org Fig 1.2(VR Head Mounted Display) Source: https://depositphotos.com Another way to make the aquarium interactive is Sketch aquarium. At Sketch Aquarium, kids start by picking a fish template and coloring it on paper. From there, they can scan their drawings, which will instantly appear on the virtual walls of the aquarium as realistic, animated moving sea creatures. When kids want to get up close to their creations, the aquarium walls are programmed to make pieces of food pop on- screen, causing many fish to cluster nearby. Further, technology that is using in this museum is the interactive floor and wall. Inside the interactive virtual aquarium, fish, water and other real sea creatures react to any person's movements on the floor. It is a lot of fun to play with the fish. If touched the fish try to escape or follow the movements of a person.
  • 23. 3 Not only this but interactive technology also includes a touchscreen display for information about fishes. Fig 1.3(A woman using an interactive aquarium exhibit) Source: nairegon3.wordpress.com Another way of interaction is with live aquatic animals, where visitors are allowed to interact with the animals in a controlled environment. This can include the following activities:  Touch tanks: visitors can touch and interact with marine animals like starfish.  Feeding shows: visitors can watch and participate in the feeding of various fish species.  Snorkeling/diving experiences: visitors can go snorkeling or diving in a controlled environment to see and interact with fish and other marine animals.  Behind-the-scenes tours: visitors can take a guided tour to see how the aquarium is maintained and learn about the care of the animals. Fig 1.4 (indoor touch pool) Source: https://nippyfish.net
  • 24. 4 The augmented reality which I have been using involves holographic projections of creatures that are not possible to secure in aquariums, such as blue whales, penguins, sea lions, octopuses, seals, and more. Additionally, graphic projections of mangroves are displayed to create awareness about protecting these precious creatures. Lastly, the blind dolphin, also known as the Bullan. An' dolphin, found in the Indus River at Sukkur, is in a vulnerable situation due to public unawareness. To provide awareness and promote conservation efforts for these aquatic animals, I display them as holographic projections. Fig 1.5:(Holographic projection of an dolphin) source:www.couriermail.com.au 1.2 MOTIVATION The world is full of creations that are gifted by the almighty and also have sources to enjoy those creations. But due to many reasons we are losing the connectivity between humans and animals such is the case for aquarium culture in Pakistan and unfortunately, we have very less concepts of aquariums in Pakistan. aqua life is one of the most beautiful creations in this world but unfortunately, for so many reasons we are lacking to educate and entertain the aqua life. the world is modernized day by day and if we are stocking on non-interactivity at our museums and creating just boxes of concrete we will be unable to come up with a modern world. To add the spark in aquariums, we are filling that gap with the application of modern technology. 1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT There are 9.7% wetland areas in Pakistan, with nearly 26% coastal and 74% freshwater wetland areas.34,800 species of fish had been described in 2022 (which is greater than the sum of all other vertebrate species taken together: birds, reptiles,
  • 25. 5 mammals, and amphibians.)Out of 34,800, 786 marine species of fish and 171 freshwater species of fish were reported from Pakistan. [1] All negative impacts are implying in the diversity of aqua life and still, we are not paying attention to them, in the case of Pakistan we have a lot of dominant species but still, we don’t have any knowledge about aqua life and we are still destroying the diversity through our negative acts in the form of pollution. However, in the future, these major problems will be reduced with the help of awareness provided by this project and also educate humans about aqua life. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH The progress of any society has never been improved until they have worked with modern technology to innovate their entire work in the country. Many countries have very few natural resources, but with the help of technology, their work has become sustainable. If we have plenty of natural resources and we do not use them smartly, our country will not be able to become a developed country. In the case of aquariums, Pakistan has a dearth of aquariums, even though we have many sources of aquatic animals. Due to the less significance of aquariums, there is a lack of awareness of securing aqua life and the least knowledge about aqua life among the people. To eliminate these negative impacts on aqua life, there should be aqua museums with modern technology to break the monotony of museums. These museums will play a great role in the economy of Pakistan through tourism and providing leisure space for the people. 1.5 AIM OF RESEARCH The research aim is to glorify the presence of aqua life and to add a spark through the application of advanced interactive technologies to break its monotony of museums. 1.6 OBJECTIVES 1. Exploring the methods and techniques for better versions of aquariums that will revive the public interest. 2. To provide a platform for awareness of aqua life.
  • 26. 6 3. To educate the public about the significance of Pakistan's aquatic animals and its impact on the environment and nation’s development. 4. To provide a recreational space for all age groups and also accessible to people with disabilities to increase the culture of aquariums and promote tourism in Pakistan. 1.7 SCOPE OF PROJECT There are only 7 aquariums present in Pakistan from which the Clifton fish aquarium Karachi was the only separate public aquarium that was closed permanently, others are in Landhi korangi zoo Karachi, Karachi municipal aquarium at Karachi zoo, the aquarium section at the maritime museum Karachi, the aquatic world at Lahore zoo, the aquarium at the zoo of Bahawalpur, and aquarium at butterfly house Lahore. Another project is under-construction that’s is The aquatic mall Islamabad . The Aquatic Mall is a unique blend of trust, investment and opportunities developed by Al-Bari Group of Companies. It enjoys a prime location in the vicinity of DHA Islamabad and Bahria Town Rawalpindi. The Aquatic Mall will enhance the shopping experience, with its gorgeous underwater theme. The Aquatic Mall is the first underwater themed mall in Pakistan and will feature the world’s tallest aquarium, an underwater tunnel, a marine-themed restaurant, an indoor water park, a water-zoo, an infinity pool on the rooftop, and much more. Thus, this project promotes the presence of aqua life in Pakistan and promote awareness about marine biodiversity that how our human habits, pollution, and water materials throne into the sea/river affect these creatures. It teaches us how we can live in coordination without harming them. Overall there are fewer concepts of aquariums in Pakistan and every year, the aquarium industry sees significant new developments. As a result, the facility must be adaptable enough to accommodate improved technologies for the exhibits and their
  • 27. 7 surroundings. Additionally, this can help prevent the aquariums from becoming uninteresting to regular visitors. 1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT 1. There are several species of aqua life present in Pakistan so, this research is limited only to common and dominant species of aqua life which are present in Sindh Pakistan and detail research on ocean life. 2. Research is limited in scope as it does not commonly include large aquatic animals or those that are not easily secured in aquariums. However, with the use of interactive technology, these types of animals can be projected to provide a unique and engaging experience. 3. Interactive technology is partially used in the aquarium museum. 1.9 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The following are the main steps in the research phase, in broad terms:  The research will include the study and observation of existing similar project conducted by others as a case study .  The research will involve a descriptive study of books,websites,journals,and thesis.  The research will also include surveys.  The research will included virtual tours.
  • 28. 8 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 DEGRADATION OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT ( Syed Anwar-ul-Haq Gillani January 19, 2019) The environment and biodiversity are both safeguarded by several international treaties and conventions to which Pakistan is a party. Pakistan has pledged to safeguard its marine environment following these treaties and agreements. Despite everything, environmental degradation is one of Pakistan's biggest problems right now. Not only does this consume Pakistan's resources, but it also harms human life. Oceanic pollution is one way in which Pakistan's environment is being damaged. Pakistan dumps plastic bags, bottles, sewage, and potentially infectious hospital waste into the sea despite being a signatory to the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. The natural blue water at Karachi's Sea View, a well-known tourist destination, has turned black as a result of this widespread violation of the convention. The primary source of heavy metal impurities being discharged into the sea in Gadani is the world-renowned ship-breaking industry. Despite having numerous industrial zones, Karachi does not have adequate waste management systems. In the end, the hazardous industrial waste ends up in the sea. Metals, plastic, and other toxic substances are swallowed by fish and other marine life. These fish are eaten by humans, completing the food chain, and the toxic substances can severely harm their immune systems. To put it another way, people are killing themselves. The fisheries resources are being severely impacted, which in turn harms the economic conditions of fishing communities that are heavily dependent on these resources. The increasing dumping of hazardous waste into the sea, which includes cow dung, untreated water, and industrial waste, as well as a large quantity of plastic, is contributing to this problem. Plastic bottles, wrappers, bags, disposable utensils, and other items account for 65% of coastal litter, according to WWF research.[2]
  • 29. 9 2.2 ASSESSMENT OF FISH DIVERSITY OF DOWNSTREAM INDUS RIVER, SINDH PAKISTAN (Sheikh, M., Laghari, M. Y., Lashari, P. K., Khooharo, A. R., & Narejo, N. T. (2018) In the present study fishery sources were investigated quantitatively by studying the ichthyofaunal biodiversity of the Downstream Indus River, Sindh Pakistan.A fortnightly sampling was conducted from eight stations during March to October 2015. A total 92 fish species were recorded. Out of which 77 species were fresh water and 15 were identified as anadromous. Based on their edible values, 52 fishes were edible and 40 were found as trash fishes. In edible fishes 11 species were export quality, 24 were standard quality (high value) and 17 were local quality (low value). The greater fish biodiversity was found in Railo Miyan followed by Branch Morrie and lowest in Wasi Malook Shah. Overall, morakhi was in abundance (45%) followed by kororo (38%) and theela was found rare (17%). While in the trash fishes, Rohu was found in abundant quantity. All of the recorded 92 fishes belonged to 11 orders and 30 families. The order Khagga was found to be dominant with 29 fish species followed by Cypriniformes (27 species) and Perciformes (13 species). Out of 30 families, the family mahseer recorded 24 fish species (19%) followed by Singhara 13 fish species (14%) and Dhumro7 species (8%) and Chali and channa striata5 species (5%) each. [3] 2.3 ASSESSMENT OF FISH DIVERSITY IN THE ARABIAN SEA (SINDH AND BALOCHISTAN) Hassan, H. U., Mahboob, S., Masood, Z., Riaz, M. N., Rizwan, S., Al-Misne, F., ... & Saeed, W. M. (2023). In this study, a total fish catch (N) contains 81287 fish samples collected from the four main stations along Sindh and Baluchistan coasts, which were identified and were reported as 26 families and 49 species by using their morphological approach. the occurrence of species at twenty fish-sampling sites. The overall pattern of the species composition and abundance during the study period across the twenty sampling stations is reported. Among 49 species, high fish catch (ni=74472) and
  • 30. 10 relative abundance (R=91.6%), were reported for Gaint catfish followed by Arius arius (ni=2555; R=3.14%), spotted sea catfish (ni=592; R=0.73%), Otolithes argenteus (ni=340; R=0.42%), black pomfret(ni=286; R=0.35%), Silver pomfret (ni=272; R=0.33%), Mangrove red snapper (ni=245; R=0.30%), Arabian yellowfin seabream (ni=241; R=0.30%), Bengal tonguesole arel (ni=234; R=0.29%), Milk fish(ni=212; R=0.26%), Orange spotted grouper (ni=204; R=0.25%), Northern witing (ni=181; R=0.22%), Malabar blood snaaper(ni=169; R=0.21%), Goldsilk seabream (ni=145; R=0.18%), Bridled Seabream (ni=139; R=0.17%), Pomadasys kaakan (ni=124; R=0.15%), daggertooth pike conger (ni=118; R=0.15%), dusky flathead (ni=102; R=0.13%), Malabar trevally (ni=78; R=0.10%), Blubberlip snapper (ni=56; R=0.1%), Indian mackerel (ni=51; R=0.1%), dolphinfish (ni=47; R=0.1%), blacktail snapper (ni=42; R=0.1%), twobar seabream (ni=37; R=0.1%). While remaining species such as Japanese threadfin bream, red mullet, greasy grouper, striped knifejaw, Spinycheek grouper, Talang queenfish, Santer seabream, Malabar trevally, mud spiny lobster, Malabar trevally, king soldierbream, Jarbua Terapon,mud spiny lobster,Asian sea bass, Sailfin flying fish, unicorn filefish,Indian halibut, Acanthopagrus shim, Arabian pandora, striped knifejaw, white seabream, orange spotted rabbitfish, shortfin mako, Rhabdosargus sarba, Savalani hairtail, Sawtooth barracuda, and Arabian sea meagre were reported in the less relative frequency of occurrence.[4] 2.4 BLIND DOLPHIN OF THE INDUS RIVER Common or local names: Indus blind dolphin, blind river dolphin, and ‘bhulan'. Indus river dolphins are endemic to the Indus river basin, where their naturally murky and silt-laden river habitat means that their eyes are of limited use. Indus river dolphins, therefore, rely on echolocation clicks to navigate and find food. Both Indus and Ganges river dolphins are considered to be living fossils, as they are the most ancient dolphin species still alive. The South Asian river dolphin consisted of two sub-species, the Ganges river dolphin and the Indus river dolphin. The taxonomy of the group is in the process of being revised so that they are recognized as separate species in 2021.
  • 31. 11 Indus river dolphins are found mostly in the lower parts of the Indus River in Pakistan. The dolphins historically swam freely through about 3500 km of the Indus River system from the Indus estuary, through the plains to the foothills of the Karakoram mountains. The dolphins’ range has been reduced by approximately 80% due to the construction of irrigation barrages, and now most of the remaining animals are in a 690 km stretch of the Indus River in three separated populations. A handful of Indus river dolphins also occur in the Beas River in India, trapped above an irrigation dam. The most recent estimate of abundance for the Indus river dolphin, based on surveys conducted in 2017, was close to 2000 animals. The largest dolphin population, which also occurs at very high density, is found between the Guddu and Sukkur barrages in Sindh province, and smaller populations are found in Punjab and KPK. The major threats to the Indus river dolphin include water-related infrastructure such as dams, barrages, and diversions, which cause flow regulation and habitat fragmentation, as well as mortality from entanglement in fishing nets, and pollution from domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. Dams and barrages fragment the dolphins' habitat, reducing population connectivity and isolating animals in river sections.They also affect river habitats by reducing water availability and habitat quality and blocking passage for migratory fish. Indus river dolphins, as with most other cetaceans, frequently become entangled in fishing nets and then drown. They also become trapped in irrigation canals and die unless they are rescued. As long-lived top predators, Indus river dolphins are vulnerable to negative health effects from living in waterways contaminated with heavy metals, industrial pollution, and agricultural run-off. River cetaceans, including the Indus river dolphin, are considered to be indicators of river health. [5] Fig: 2.1 Rescue of Indus river dolphinn Source: river dolphins.or
  • 32. 12 2.5 INTEGRATION OF AQUARIUMS AND TECHNOLOGY 2.5.1 SOUTH CAROLINA AQUARIUM The building actually extends into the Charleston Harbor, allowing visitors the chance to observe bottlenose dolphins and other marine life in the . Exhibits include more than 10,000 native plants and animals, a touch tank, and the Great Ocean Tank – a two-story tank containing 385,000 gallons of water and more than 700 animals such as sharks and loggerhead sea turtles. Divers also interact with visitors while maintaining the tank and its inhabitants. Technology and education are often linked in formal education settings but we are just beginning to explore technology’s role in informal education environments. In general, people’s attitude towards technology remains positive, with studies revealing that museums with technology see visitor experience improved. Attitudes toward technology outside of the educational spectrum remain high as well. These general attitudes have prompted the South Carolina Aquarium to explore new technologies within its interpretive design. Interactive iPads have recently been added to existing exhibit spaces and plans are in the works to invest in additional iPad programming for use in roaming educational initiatives. This idea is not altogether novel. We have seen an influx of learning technologies pop up in informal education venues. After decades of intense promotion by corporations, policymakers, and parents, most people have far more access to mobile technologies in their daily life than ever before. The social media buzz has added to this demand, giving rise to the integration of mobile technologies in many new exhibits at zoos and aquariums. The South Carolina Aquarium has recently added iPads to its exhibits and plans on equipping volunteers and staff with additional tablets for mobile interpretation. These units include touchscreen maps, images, videos, sound bites, and educational information. To avoid taking away from the escapism that comes with a visit to our attraction, the Aquarium has developed programs that encourage interaction with the exhibits themselves. When looking at the results from observational studies conducted at our facility, it is suggested that iPads within a gallery do not negatively influence the interactive experience but rather positively supplement the exhibit.[6]
  • 33. 13 FIG 2.2:Students are using technology to learn about turtle. Source:https://blooloop.com Fig 2.3:Trainee is using technology to learn about turtle. Source: https://scaquarium.org Fig.2.4: Elevation of south carolina aquarium https://www.scpictureproject.org
  • 34. 14 2.5.2 THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY IN (WASHINGTON DC) The National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC has launched a new holographic experience for visitors that it hopes will shed light on the waters off the American coast. According to the museum, which is part of the Smithsonian Institute, the idea is to better educate the public about marine life in the oceans. The museum’s large holographic displays feature one of the most threatened marine mammals around, an American sub-species of the killer whale, or orca. According to Ososky, plastics, and other toxic materials can build up in the orcas’ bodies, something that will frequently cause harm to their vital organs. “These undesirable effects often have a particularly adverse impact in the early life stages of whales,” he said. The collections manager also said that the holographic show tried to explain just how much-localized shipping can cause problems for the orca, too. He said that all orcas hunt by making use of echolocation to track down their prey. However, emitting sound waves to reflect off nearby objects was not always possible when noise from ships prevented them from picking up on their high-pitched noises. Hopefully, the visitor experience will bring these issues home to people in a way that means they are more supportive of marine conservation measures in the future.[7] Fig:2.5 Women enjoying the Fig:2.6 Holographic projection national museum. interaction of whale Source: www.museumnext.com Fig:2.7 Holographic projection of whale in national museum. Source: https://www.flickr.com
  • 35. 15 2.5.3 CHIMELONG OCEAN KINGDOM, HENGQIN (CHINA) Designed by PGAV Destinations U.S Area: 2,072 ha As the second “world-class” theme park in China for national developers Guangdong Chimelong Group, Chimelong Ocean Kingdom quickly began gathering accolades for being the biggest and best. It holds five Guinness World Records for its enormous whale shark aquarium. With nearly 49 million liters of water, it is the largest aquarium in the world. This includes both fresh and marine aquariums. It has the world's largest acrylic panel and the largest front view for an aquarium, measuring 39.6 x 8.3 meters and covering approximately 330 square meters of acrylic; This is in the aquarium that houses the enormous whale shark, the Whale Shark Exhibit tank. Another interesting record can be found in the same tank: the world's largest underwater dome, measuring 12 meters in diameter, can be seen from the surface. Last but not least, it has the world's largest tank, which always holds 22.7 million gallons of water. In addition to being a popular tourist destination, the aquarium is also the location of numerous studies and research conducted by biologists. Its role is to bridge the gap between science and the general public by providing a stimulating environment that, when designed well, can attract, educate, and raise awareness.[8] There’s a great deal to like about the Ocean Kingdom design. From the giant Manta Ray, complete with LED screen underbelly, that spans the entire main street precinct, to the 68-metre (223-foot) whale shark hero sculpture in the background, the scale of Chimelong’s endeavour is impressive. In the aquarium, exhibits show obvious signs of cracking and spalling in the concrete work, and in one instance, an entire viewing window had been removed for “maintenance” after less than 12 months. Combined with the obvious deficiencies in the water quality, these maintenance issues impact on the overall enjoyment of the experience.[9]
  • 36. 16 Fig: 2.8 display of under water aqua world Source: www.domusweb.it Fig: 2.9 Tunnel view of the aquarium Source: www.domusweb.it Fig:2.10 View of Chimelong International Ocean Source: www.cityofzhuhai.com
  • 37. 17 2.5.4 UNDERWATER WORLD PATTAYA (THAILAND ) Area 4.75 acre Pattaya Underwater World The first modern aquarium in Thailand, Underwater World Pattaya officially opened on July 4, 2003. It has a 100-meter-long underwater tunnel that can hold 3.8 million liters of water. Inside, there are 5,000 fish from 500 species native to Thailand and this area.[6] Underwater World Pattaya is the only aquarium in Pattaya. We have a lot of sea creatures, including colorful coral, and you can see them all 180 degrees as you dive deep into the water through large, clear acrylic tunnels that extend over 105 meters. There are three zones in the tunnels: the Coral Reef Zone, the Shark and Stingray Zone, and the Giant of Siam Zone. We also prefer the new Jellyfish Zone, which has the largest jellyfish collection and display in Thailand. Additionally, there is history and knowledge in each region to inform you. Similar to a retreat on a private island, the surrounding area is also adorned with shores, sandy beaches, and rocky rapids. There are also a lot of other animals to enjoy, like the Indonesian otter, reptiles from all over the world, and so on. [10] Underwater World Pattaya is not only a fantastic aquarium that serves as the learning center for all ages in the family.The concentration on the design and construction of the location also benefits to make the place is brilliant for the tourist, actually. The so- called “universal design” concept included in the architect and landscape design of Underwater World Pattaya, facilitates to the tourist who is restricted in the physical condition with the wheelchair, seniority or disabled person, for instance. Those of visitors are accessible to any area in the park by slope path. Unfortunately, the venue has no wheelchair service, so that the visitor has to bring along at the site.[11]
  • 38. 18 Fig 2.11 view of inside the tunnel in the aquarium Source: www.viator.com Fig 2.12 landscape of underwater world aquarium Source: www.kkday.com Fig: 2.13 The location map shows activities in the aquarium Source: www.kkday.com
  • 39. 19 2.5.5 DUBAI AQUARIUM AND UNDERWATER ZOO  Designed by Peddle Thorp, inspired by "The Underwater Paradise"  Location: Dubai Mall on Doha Street.  The Dubai Aquarium and the Dubai Underwater Zoo are both located within the famous Dubai Mall. While the Aquarium is on the Ground Level of the mall, the Underwater Zoo is on the second floor.  Aquarium Tank Size: 51 meters by 20 meters by 11 meters.  Quantity Of Water Stored: 10 million liters holding capacity.  Aquarium Tunnel Size: 48 meters long.  No Of Aquatic Displays: There are 40 separate aquatic displays.  No Of Aquatic Species: 140 species of aquatic animals, including Otters, Piranha, Giant Spider Crabs, Lionfish, Seahorses, Garden Eels, Water Rats, Archerfish, etc.  Managed By: The Aquarium and Underwater Zoo are managed by Emaar Entertainment.  World Records: The aquarium’s acrylic panel, weighing more than 2,45,000 kg, has been recognized as the largest of its kind in the world in the 2010 edition of the Guinness Book of World Records.[12]  The Aquarium Tunnel provides a breathtaking view of the aquatic animals that occupy the tank. Interact with the animals through one-on-one experiences such as feeding the sharks, cage diving, underwater scooter rides, and expert- led scuba diving courses. The 10 million-liter tank of the aquarium houses more than 400 sharks and rays. Giant Groupers, sand tiger sharks, and numerous other marine species are also on display in the aquarium. One of the world's largest indoor aquariums, the Dubai Aquarium & Underwater Zoo holds the Guinness World Record for the "Largest Acrylic Pane" in the world. Visitors can get up close and personal with a variety of our aquatic animals, including
  • 40. 20 sea horses, piranhas, crabs, and others, thanks to this progression of carefully planned experiences.[13] Fig: 2.14 Glass Bottom Boat Rides of Dubai aquarium Source: www.aquarium-tickets.com Fig: 2.15 tunnel view of Dubai aquarium Source: www.aquarium-tickets.com Fig: 2.16 view of aquarium from Dubai mall Source: https://propsearch.ae/dubai/dubai-aquarium
  • 41. 21 2.5.6 RIPLEY’S AQUARIUM OF CANADA  Opened: October 16, 2013  Exhibits: Dangerous Lagoon, Planet Jellies, Shoreline Gallery, MORE  Number of animals: 20,000  Province: Ontario  Floor space: 135,000 sq ft or 3 acre  Architect : Peter Sollogub and Stantec. The aquarium has 5.7 million litres (1.25 million gallons) of marine and freshwater habitats from across the world. The exhibits hold more than 20,000 exotic sea and freshwater specimens from more than 450 species. Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada is situated in the heart of downtown Toronto, between the CN Tower and the Metro Toronto Convention Centre South Building. This prominent site also lies within a concentration of other significant visitor attractions, including the Rogers Centre and Air Canada Centre. Ripley's Aquarium of Canada is a popular tourist attraction located in Toronto, Canada. The aquarium features over 20,000 marine animals and 450 different species, making it one of the largest and most technologically advanced aquariums in North America. Here are some of the modern technologies used at Ripley's Aquarium of Canada: The aquarium uses advanced filtration systems to ensure that the water is clean and safe for the marine animals. These systems use a combination of mechanical, chemical, and biological filtration techniques to remove waste, debris, and harmful bacteria from the water.Ripley's Aquarium uses LED lighting throughout the facility to simulate natural lighting conditions for the marine animals. These lights can be programmed to mimic different times of day, helping to regulate the animals' circadian rhythms.
  • 42. 22 The aquarium features interactive touchscreen displays that allow visitors to learn more about the different marine animals and their habitats. One of the most popular attractions at Ripley's Aquarium is the underwater tunnels. These tunnels allow visitors to walk through a glass tunnel while sharks, sea turtles, and other marine animals swim above and around them. The tunnels are made of specially designed glass that can withstand the pressure of the water and provide a clear view of the animals.[14] Ripley's Aquarium of Canada features both augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies that enhance the visitor experience and provide educational opportunities. AR technology is used in the aquarium's Explorer App, which is available for download on visitors' mobile devices. The app uses AR to provide information and interactive experiences related to the different exhibits and species in the aquarium. For example, visitors can scan a marker to see a 3D model of a sea turtle or shark and learn more about their anatomy and behavior. In addition to AR, the aquarium also offers a VR experience called "Dive with Sharks." This experience allows visitors to put on a VR headset and immerse themselves in a virtual underwater environment where they can swim with sharks and other marine animals. The VR experience uses 3D graphics and motion sensors to create a realistic and immersive environment. [15] Fig : 2.17: view of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada Source: https://torontoist.com
  • 43. 23 Fig:2.18 Flow diagram of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada Source: https://torontoist.com Fig: 2.19 exhibition area of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada Source: https://torontoist.com Fig:2.20 Tunnel view of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada Source: https://torontoist.com Fig :2.21 exhibition area of Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada Source: https://torontoist.com
  • 44. 24 2.5.7 ART SCIENCE MUSEUM MARINA BAY STANDS SINGAPORE  Location: 6 Bayfront Avenue, Singapore  Area :1.5 acre  Architect:Moshe Safdie  Established date:17 February 2011  No of gallerias : 21 gallery It is the world's first ArtScience museum, featuring major exhibitions that blend art, science, culture and technology.Although a permanent exhibition at the Art Science Gallery has been planned, the Museum mainly hosts touring exhibitions curated by other museums. The architecture is said to be a form reminiscent of a lotus flower. It is designed by Moshe Safdie. Referred to as "The Welcoming Hand of Singapore" by Las Vegas Sands chairman Sheldon Adelson.The building’s form is made up of 10 ‘fingers’ anchored by a unique round base in the middle. The design of each finger reveals different gallery spaces and the skylights at the ‘fingertips’ dramatically illuminate the curved interior walls. The use of skylights largely minimizes the need for artificial lighting. This strategy pays off in terms of energy management, allowing for a highly reduced consumption of power. The museum is indeed an exemplary intersection of sculpture and sustainability Future World is a permanent exhibit sprawled over 1500 square meters at the Museum. It is an interactive landscape spanning multiple rooms, showcasing the wonder and magic of the universe through AR/VR experiences. SKETCH AQUARIUM Visitors can observe the power of their creative imagination through Sketch Aquarium. Each participant is invited to color a drawing of a sea creature of his or her preference. Once completed, visitors will be able to see their creation come to life in a
  • 45. 25 giant aquarium and swim with all of the other sea creatures. Visitors may also touch the fish to see them swim away, or touch the virtual food bag to feed the fish. VR GALLERY (THE STARRY SAND BEACH) Combining the complex marvels of these astounding research with the amorphous, dynamic nature of virtual-reality, artist Hsin-Chien Huang crafts an awe-striking environment where history, science and legend collide to tell a story of hope: a life as small as a grain of sand can change the world.[16] Fig 2.22 Interactive responsive floor Source:https://www.teamlab.art/th/e/artsciencemuseum/ Fig:2.23 Viewers experiencing the sketch aquarium Source:https://www.teamlab.art/th/e/artsciencemuseum
  • 46. 26 CHAPTER 3 CASE STUDY 3.1 SENTOSA ’S S.E.A Aquarium (Singapore)  Designed by: Aquatic Environment Systems Pty Ltd and Crossley Architects Pty Ltd  Period of Construction: 2007-2012  Cost: US $3.6 billion  Present Status: Open to Public  Location: Sentosa Island, Singapore  Site Area: 20 Acre (81,000 sqm)  System Type Closed re-circulation system using artificial sea water  Total Water Volume : 60,000,000 liters 3.1.1 LOCATION PLAN Fig:3.1 location plan of sea aquarium Source: https://www.googlemaps.com 3.1.2 INTRODUCTION The S.E.A. Aquarium, the biggest aquarium in the world, will house 100,000 marine creatures from over 800 species in 45 million gallons of water. The aquarium, which consists of 10 distinct zones and 49 habitats, offers visitors on an underwater journey that starts in Southeast Asia and goes on. Through the Open Ocean and the Arabian Gulf. Visitors can anticipate encounters with beautiful manta rays, hammerhead sharks, bottlenose dolphins, and other marine life along the way.
  • 47. 27 Grant Willis, senior curator at the S.E.A. Aquarium, said: "S.E.A. Aquarium offers not just a spectacular display of habitats, but also teaching and conservation activities that families and visitors can get involved in. Younger visitors will be delighted to learn that we have specifically created displays like the Discovery Touch Pool, the Lens Aquarium, and the Floor Aquarium, which will provide them near experiences with our marine creatures. The Open Ocean habitat, which is 36 metres wide and 8.3 metres tall and features the largest viewing screen in the world, is the aquarium's focal point. Visitors watching the habitat can imagine themselves standing on a vast ocean floor. The habitat is bordered by the Ocean Restaurant, a business that promotes sustainable seafood practices, and the Ocean Dome, a 360-degree observation facility. The habitat's other side is home to eleven Ocean Suites, which give the idea of a sea view a twist by letting visitors wake up to a view of the ocean below. In the lead-up to the opening of the SGO, the S.E.A. Aquarium will remain open to visitors. 3.1.3 ABOUT RESORTS WORLD SENTOSA On the tourist island of Sentosa is Resorts World Sentosa (RWS), Singapore's first integrated resort.The 49 hectare resort, which opened in January 2010, saw more than 30 million visitors in its first two years. The Maritime Experiential Museum, the Resorts World Convention Centre, a casino, six beautiful hotels, the only Universal Studios theme park in the area, celebrity chef restaurants, a top-notch spa and speciality shops are all located at RWS. The resort also provides entertainment, including free events like the Lake of Dreams and the Crane Dance. .[17] 3.1.4 MARINE LIFE PARK The second main attraction at Resorts World Sentosa is the Marine Life Park (MLP), which has the biggest volume of water of any oceanarium in the world. The park will house more than 100,000 marine animals from 800 different species in more than 60 million gallons of water. Families may embark on an exciting adventure into the underwater world at Marine Life Park, which combines the best wet and dry activities at one oceanarium with two Top attractions: Adventure Cove Water park and S.E.A. Aquarium.Embark on an exciting adventure at Adventure Cove Water park, a tropical haven that offers
  • 48. 28 splashing wet fun for everyone. Visitors to the only water park in the area with marine life attractions can zoom down adrenaline slides, embark on an epic voyage along Adventure River, snorkel with 20,000 vibrant reef fish, or participate in immersive programmers that give them the exceptional chance to meet our marine ambassadors up close. Start your educational journey by exploring the world's largest aquarium, S.E.A., and its breathtaking underwater environment. More than 800 species of wildlife, including majestic sharks and uncommon fish species, can be seen by visitors in a variety of habitats, including one that offers a breathtaking view via the world's largest aquarium viewing panel. Along with letting visitors see the wonders of the marine world, the MLP hopes to encourage them to take responsibility for safeguarding the planet's natural resources. The park, which features more than 50 different animal habitats, strives to make Singapore a global leader in marine education, conservation, and research through its programme and qualified personnel. 3.1.5 DRY EXPERIENCE AT MARINE LIFE PARK - THE WORLD’S LARGEST OCEANARIUM Southeast Asia Aquarium (S.E.A. Aquarium), the largest aquarium in the world, is home to thousands of fish and other marine creatures in habitats covering more than 45 million litres of water. Visitors to the aquarium will be awed by the fascinating marine life beneath the sea as they travel through the oceans and learn about the inhabitants of the vast oceans. Visitors will not only learn about the ocean's beauties but also be inspired and given the tools they need to protect our precious seas because the aquarium is home to more than 100,000 marine animals from 800 different species. The centrepiece of the aquarium is the Open Ocean environment, which is visible through the largest viewing panel in the world, measuring 36 metres long and 8.3 metres high. Through this breathtaking vista, visitors will find themselves submerged in the captivating marine environment, marvelling at mighty manta rays, zebra sharks, and a broad variety of other ocean life.The massive goliath grouper, Napoleon wrasse, and other gentle giants of the sea can be found in the S.E.A. Aquarium. Additionally,
  • 49. 29 it will hold more than 200 sharks so that visitors can dispel preconceptions about these ocean predators. The guests can access information on our marine residents via more than 20 touch screens, 50 interpretive panels, and more than 50 interpretive panels. In S.E.A. Aquarium, wonder and excitement are in abundance. 3.1.6 DRAWINGS AND VIEW OF AQUARIUM Fig:3.2 elevation of sea aquarium Source: https://daniaexperiences.com MASTER PLAN Fig:3.3 master plan of sea aquarium Source: https://ebenezeryoon.wordpress.com
  • 50. 30 DETAIL PLAN OF AQUARIUM Fig:3.4 Floor plans of sea aquarium Source: https://thesmartlocal.com/read/sea-aquarium-guide/ ENTRANCE VIEWS Fig:3.5 Entrance and ticket area of sea aquarium Source: https://daniaexperiences.com/ 3.1.7 ZONES The S.E.A. Aquarium tour takes visitors through 10 distinct zones that represent the planet's huge waters through 49 ecosystems. Zone 1. Strait of Karimata and Java Sea The Strait of Karimata and Java Sea are popular destinations for viewing underwater caverns, wrecks, coral, sponges and diverse marine life. Shipwrecks often evolve into thriving marine habitats with sponges and corals colonizing the wrecks, transforming them into an artificial reef system that develops into a habitat for diverse marine life. Species to look out for: Batfish, threadfin trevally, golden trevally and pompanos.
  • 51. 31 Fig:3.6 scuba diving activity at sea aquarium Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com Zone 2. Strait of Malacca and Andaman Sea The Strait of Malacca and the Andaman Sea contain a rich variety of habitats and fauna, from coral reefs to mangroves and seagrass beds. Younger guests will be well engaged in this zone, with the floor aquarium allowing them to view the habitat up- close. The lens aquariums are equipped with magnifying orbs that allow children to peer into the habitats with ease, coming face-to-face with species such as the frogfish, Mandarin fish and seahorses. The Discovery Touch Pool will allow guests to learn more about sea stars, sea cucumbers and other fascinating marine invertebrates. The Coral Garden in this zone is a cylindrical marine habitat measuring 8m in height and 7m in diameter, transporting guests into a world of colourful corals and reef fishes in the Andaman region. Fig:3.7 digital information displays at sea aquarium Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com Zone 3. Bay of Bengal and Laccadive Sea The mangrove environment, which surrounds the Bay of Bengal and the Laccadive Sea, exhibits the rich biological diversity present there. Visitors will experience tidal changes as they learn how these diverse ecosystems support coastal communities by offering food, wood, and protection to people who live near the sea.
  • 52. 32 Horseshoe crab and archerfish are two species to watch out for. Fig:3.8 mangroves displays at sea aquarium Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com Zone 4. Ocean Journey Featuring marine animals from various depths of the wide oceans, Ocean Journey immerses visitors deeper into the wonders of the open waters. The oceans have long captivated our imagination with their mystique and mysteries, and they have supported life on our blue globe for ages. Sea jellies and schooling fish are two species to watch out for. Fig:3.9 jelly fish display area at sea aquarium Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com Zone 5. Open Ocean The Ocean Gallery features the aquarium's focal point, the Open Ocean Habitat, as seen via the largest aquarium viewing panel in the world, which is an astounding 36 metres wide, 8.3 metres tall, and 70 centimeters thick.Visitors will be surrounded by breathtaking vistas of the Open Ocean, which is home to more than 50,000 marine species and contains more than 18 million litres of water. The Ocean Dome is located on a seamount that is adjacent to the Ocean Gallery. This enormous underwater acrylic dome, which has a diameter of 6.2 metres, allows visitors to feel the thrill of seeing enormous manta rays gliding by above.Visitors will be treated to a feast for the eyes and the mouth at the Ocean Restaurant. With a stunning view of the Open Ocean habitat, the restaurant offers all-day international dining with a variety of creative trademark dishes.
  • 53. 33 The most recent premium accommodations at RWS are the two-story Ocean Suites. As part of their underwater living experience, visitors to the 11 suites may see the Open Ocean habitat and see marine life dynamics firsthand. Hammerhead sharks, manta rays, eagle rays, zebra sharks, goliath groupers, Napolean wrasse, and bowmouth sharks are among the species to watch out for. Fig:3.10 The ocean dome at sea aquarium Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com Zone 6. Arabian Gulf and Arabian Sea Visitors will be welcomed by the warm sunshine and beaches of the Arabian Gulf and Arabian Sea when they return from their voyage to the deep open oceans. Warm, relatively shallow waters in these areas sustain a wide range of ecosystems, including coral reefs, mangroves, and sandy and rocky shorelines.The Soft Coral Garden, which is home to living corals, is also located in this area. Zone 7. Red Sea The next stop in the journey is the Red Sea, where clear tropical waters are home to the planet's northernmost coral reefs. Visitors will also learn more fun facts about human endeavour in deep-sea diving.Highlights here include the Gorgonian Reef, Reef Slope, and Fringing Reef. Zone 8. East Africa East Africa is among the continent’s most biologically diverse areas, with freshwater lakes, coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves, lowland forests and savannah woodlands supporting abundant plant and animal life. Here, guests will also learn how amazing life forms in freshwater lake ecosystems have evolved to occupy unique niches, and are found nowhere else on earth. Zone 9. South China Sea
  • 54. 34 The South China Sea, known for its amazingly rich biodiversity, is a large marine ecosystem characterized by a tropical climate. Mangrove forests, seagrass beds, reef overhangs and soft-bottom communities are found here. This zone features a reef cave where younger guest scan tunnel into to explore and be enthralled by huge moray eels that live within this mysterious habitat. Species to look out for: Moray eels, lion fish cardinal fish. Zone 10. Shark Seas Shark Seas will showcase more than 200 sharks of 12 species, including the nurse shark, black-tipped reef shark, bamboo shark and grey reef shark. Guests will get to uncover common myths about these ocean predators, and learn more about their very important role in keeping the oceans healthy and vibrant.The shark encounter programme, part of the immersive experiences at Adventure Cove Water park will begin in 2013 (separate charges apply). Fig:3.11 shark tunnel at sea aquarium Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com 3.1.8 EDUCATION AND CONSERVATION The Marine Life Park is dedicated to being a pioneer in protecting the oceanic and freshwater ecosystems of the planet. S.E.A. Aquarium hopes to encourage tourists to safeguard our blue planet through the exhibition of magnificent aquatic creatures and creative conservation, teaching, and research projects. For instance, the Marine Discoverer Tours are guided by knowledgeable Mariner guides and created to take visitors on a hands-on learning adventure about marine life and environments. 3.1.9 MICE AT S.E.A. AQUARIUM The Ocean Gallery, home to the largest aquarium viewing panel in the world, provides an unmatched setting that transports attendees on a Poseidon adventure
  • 55. 35 presented in its own special way. This three-tiered gallery is ideal for large-scale meetings, conferences, and events because of its grand scale and inventive design. Fig:3.12 view of ocean dome in dining area at sea aquarium Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com This one-of-a-kind location creates exceptional meetings, whether they involve formal buffets or business groups. Innovatively created, the Ocean Dome offers a 180° panoramic view of marine life and is ideal for small groups. The Ocean Restaurant offers delegates the best in business hospitality as well. Delegates will encounter the vast range of marine life up close thanks to the large floor to ceiling observation panels. Unique Food and Cocktail menus can be created for each special experience for themed event.[18] DETAILS OF OCEAN ZONE Fig :3.13 sea aquarium's main zones details Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com 3.1.10 SENTOSA'S S.E.A. AQUARIUM RE-BRANDING TO S'PORE OCEANARIUM IN 2024, TO BE 3 TIMES LARGER One of Sentosa's many attractions will soon see a major revamp.The S.E.A. Aquarium, home to over 100,000 marine animals from over 1,000 species, will be rebrand as the Singapore Oceanarium (SGO).The current aquarium will be expanded to more than three times its size, and the SGO is expected to be completed in end- 2024.
  • 56. 36 MORE IMMERSIVE State-of-the-art digital innovation and interactive technology The SGO (Singapore oceanarium)is intended to be a world-class center for education and research on marine biodiversity, as well as for protecting andrestoring endangered marine organisms and habitats. Through its experiences, it aims to inspire change and drive action to protect the oceans.” State-of-the-art digital innovation and interactive technology" will be used to enhance the "state-of-the-art" content that it will provide, which will be larger in scale and deeper than that of the S.E.A. Aquarium. Through "immersive and multi-sensory story-telling," visitors will learn about the evolution of marine creatures, the various oceanic zones, such as the unexplored deep ocean, and Singapore's distinctive coastal ecosystem.[19] Fig:3.14 : state-of-the-art digital innovation Fig :3.15 Artist's impression of singapore Source: https://mothership.sg 3.1.11 SERVICES AAT (advances aquarium technology)was contracted during the construction of the aquarium to supply and commission its all-important Life Support System; no small undertaking for a facility with 60 million litres of water. AAT’s solution included foam fractionators, sand filters, bag filters, bio filters, ozone generators and ozone contact chambers. Fig :3.16 life support system Fig :3.17 life support system of singapore oceanarium Source: https://www.rwsentosa.com AAT installed several acrylic viewing panels, including the record breaking main panel which measures 36 x 8.3 metres by 690 millimeters thick.[20]
  • 57. 37 3.2 MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA 3.2.1 BASIC DETAILS OF AQUARIUM OWNER: City of Long Beach ARCHITECT: Esherick, Homsey, Dodge, and Davis CONTRACTOR: Turner/Kajima COST: $55 Million NUMBER OF SPECIMEN: It holds 35,000 of plants and animals, representing more than 600 species on display. AREA : 3.3 acres LOCATION: located on the site of a former sardine cannery on cannery row in Monterey, California, United States. AIM OF AQUARIUM 1.Aquarium’s mission is "to inspire Conservation of the oceans." 2. To pioneer new ways to explore and understand the ocean. 3. It was built “like the Ancient Pyramid as a portal providing access to a fantastic world beyond our reach and where the boundaries that separate us from the ocean are suspended”. 4. To protect threatened animals. SITE CONNECTIVITY: The site is connected from Wave Street through David Avenue in cannery row. WATER BODIES NEAR THE SITE: Monterey Bay is on the rear side of the aquarium. CONTOUR: The aquarium is built on flat terrain without any contours. CLIMATE CONDITIONS: Average summer temperatures range from 51-68 degree F. Average winter temperatures range from 44 - 61 degrees F. MAJOR EXHIBITS: The four largest exhibits are the Open Sea (1 million gallons; reopens July 2011);the Kelp Forest (335,000 gallons); Monterey Bay Habitats (326,000 gallons); and Sea Otters along the Rocky Coast (55,000 gallons). One of the world’s largest jellyfish galleries.
  • 58. 38 LIVE EXHIBITS: More than 35,000 animals and plants representing over 550 species of fishes, invertebrates, mammals, reptiles, birds and plants found in Monterey Bay and other marine habitats worldwide. DIMENSIONS: Site: 3.3 acres Exhibits and other public areas: 175,064 sq. ft. (excludes decks) Ocean-view decks: 25,500 sq. ft. Behind-the-scenes: 125,300 sq. ft. Total aquarium square footage: 322,000 sq. ft. STAFF AND ADMINISTRATION: Approximately 425 full and part-time staff; over 1,000 volunteers. DISABLED ACCESS: All exhibits and aquarium facilities are accessible to people with disabilities.Assisted listening devices are available for the deaf and hard of hearing; most exhibit videos are captioned; wheelchairs are available free for use during a visit. THEME: Monterey Bay ranks among the world’s most diverse and spectacular marine regions. The bay is at the heart of the largest National Marine Sanctuary in the United States. The aquarium’s permanent exhibits and galleries highlight the colorful and complex array of marine life found on California’s central coast, from coastal wetlands to the open ocean and deep sea. Special exhibitions feature marine life from around the world. NATURAL HISTORY: From late winter through early fall, currents carry an up welling of cold, nutrient-rich water into Monterey Bay. This influx of nutrients is the base of a food web that supports the great diversity of sea life found in habitats that range from mudflats and kelp forests to a 12,000-foot-deep submarine canyon—the largest underwater canyon on the west coast of the United States.[21] 3.2.2 LOCATION Fig :3.18 location plan of monetary aquarium Source: https://www.google/maps.com
  • 59. 39 3.2.3 DESCRIPTION OF AQUARIUM As one of the first of its kind, the Monterey Bay Aquarium departed from traditional aquarium design by focusing on the unique marine ecology of one habitat: the Monterey Bay and its shoreline. Built over land and water, it embraces views of the Bay, whose ecosystem it celebrates. The aquarium sits sensitively among the existing sardine processing plants and cannery buildings, utilizing the foundations—and rekindling the spirit—of the old Hoyden Cannery. The building is a light-filled ensemble of varied, well-proportioned spaces through which the visitor may chart their own course, rather than being locked into a linear path. The design strategy was to create an immersive experience that excites visitors’ senses and invokes a feeling of wonder. The aquarium presents more than 100 galleries and exhibits recreating the habitats of Monterey Bay. Some of the most spectacular habitats are constructed in massive acrylic-enclosed tanks, including a jewel jellyfish tank, a towering giant-kelp forest in a 335,000-gallon three-story tank, and a million-gallon shark tank. The experience is what amounts to a leisurely stroll through the ocean without getting wet. Its popularity has led to several changes all designed by EHDD. In 1996, the 95,000 sq. ft., 1 million gallon Outer Bay Wing opened, introducing jellyfish, tuna, sharks, and other denizens of the offshore environment. In 2004, to accommodate increased visitors, a 200 ft., clear-span “Sky bridge” joined the second floors of the Ocean’s Edge and Outer Bay Wings. The most recent of periodic renovations of the cafe and sea otter exhibit were completed in 2014. Monterey Bay Aquarium pre-dates contemporary sustainability goals and programs such as LEED. Nevertheless, its design included many sustainable design strategies and innovations that developed out of EHDD’s legacy of attention to environmental conditions and to project-specific opportunities and imperatives. These include: building reuse – specifically, the administration building, the seawall and the pump house; a sea water based heat pump system that provides heating and cooling for both the building and aquarium systems; and, the use of highly durable materials. The technical requirements to support such environments are as impressive as the
  • 60. 40 habitats themselves. The water is drawn directly from the bay itself, allowing the natural organisms that nourish the bay to be emitted into the exhibits during evening hours (during viewing hours the water is filtered for more clarity). Most remarkable perhaps of all its technical accomplishments is that the aquarium’s condition has remained virtually unchanged in over a quarter century. Recent testing of some of the concrete in the exhibits has indicated that it should conservatively withstand the corrosive saltwater environment for 490 years. 3.2.4 CIRCULATION The architect Rhodes and Davis failed in creating a simulated closed movement in the aquarium so did the Packards and this is why movement through the exhibits seems random and unstructured instead the architect created a new style of circulation in which the visitors have Freedom of movement and lack a designated path which constricts their paths and allows visitors to choose spaces specifically they want to explore. This informal education Movement Complements the program. The building is rather free flowing than being locked in a linear path and wet with and looks assorted, well proportioned spaces through which the visors may drawn course, the planning strategy was to maintain an immersive experience visits to move around and provide a sense of wonder to the viewers. The aquarium has 100 galleries in its premises and exhibits recreating the habitats of Monterey Bay Tanks are constructed in massive acrylic-enclosed tank, these gigantic tanks include a jewel jellyfish tank, a towering giant-kelp forest during a 335,000-gallon three-story tanks and a million-gallon shark tank. 3.2.5 TECHNOLOGY AT AQUARIUM An interactive display from "Into the Deep" currently at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Fig :3.19 digital displays of monetary aquarium Source: https://www.sfgate.com