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Conversation on motivation,
creativity and innovation
Mats Sundgren
I2I week September 10th, 2012
Statements to be further explored
“It is amazing how much can be accomplished if no one
cares who gets the credit – John Wooden”
“Does bonus system enhance creativity/innovation in
organisations?”
“If you reward something do you get more of the
behaviour you want?”
“What kind of motivation is needed for creativity?”
2
Objective
Discuss motivation as influencing creativity and
innovation
Give some examples of the surprising research in this
area
Discuss relations and implications of some of these
findings to the Learner/Player initiative and culture
change in AZ
3
Just a recap on positioning creativity
and innovation
5
Two views of creativity
6
My view
• From a market perspective an innovation in the pharma industry is a
product recognised after launch
• Need at every level of the organisation
- Involves a spectra of connected areas of ideas influenced by: infrastructure, ways of working
organization, culture, leadership, business model etc. AND motivation..and is always in
collaboration with others!!
Commercialization
Realization
R&D Innovation
Organisational creativity
Organisational creativity is what precedes innovation
Some drivers for organisational
creativity
(also part of my own research
in the pharma industry and AZ)
7
8
What makes a pharma company
successful?
How can a company secure a strategy to
become more innovative without losing
effectiveness?
The creativity challenge
Motivation research
One key research question
If you reward something do you get
more of the behaviour you want?
Motivation
To be motivated means to be moved to
do something.
•• Intrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation - refers to
doing something because it is
inherently interesting, challenging
or enjoyable
•• Extrinsic motivationExtrinsic motivation - refers to
doing something because it leads
to a separable outcome
 E.g. incentives, reward, bonus, promotion etc.
Two examples
The Candle problem
The Candle problem
(K.Duncker,1945) is a cognitive
performance test, measuring
the influence of functional
fixedness on a participant's
problem solving capabilities.
Task
Fix the candle to a (cork
board) wall so that it will
burn without dripping
wax
13
The Candle problem
S. Glucksburgh (1962) used the candle problem to investigate the
impact of incentives on a group level
Two groups
1. The faster you solve this
problem the more money you get
(incentivised)
2. Time to establish norms how
much it takes to solve this
problem (no incentives)
14
The non-incentivised group (2)
did it on a significant faster
time compared with group (1).
15 Set area descriptor | Sub level 1
The Candle problem
Outcome
Incentive experiment from MIT
Group and individual levels
(students)
Grouped into three levels of
rewards (money)
Tasks and challenges ranged
from different types:
Physical tasks, mechanical, word
puzzles, spatial puzzles, memorising
strings of digits etc.
16
Incentive experiment from MIT
Outcome
As long as the task involved used only
mechanical skills – bonus worked as
expected
Higher pay = better performance
But once you get above rudimentary
cognitive skills – it is the other way around
Performance was bad – i.e. highest reward
group performed worst.
17
Some rather strong indications from
research
Extrinsic motivation such as
incentives works fine when tasks
are...
BUT Extrinsic motivation such as
incentives does not work well when
tasks are....
How could that be?
..Wait it gets worse....
Extrinsic motivation does not support
creativity
(T. Amabile et al.)
The intrinsic motivation principle
“Specifies that intrinsic motivation (derived from
interest and enjoyment of the activity itself) is
conducive to creativity,
While extrinsic motivation (directed at a goal separate
from the task) can be detrimental.”
24
And even worse....
Incentives (i.e. extrinsic motivation)
does not support....
(A.Kohn)
Harvard Bussiness Review, WHY INCENTIVE PLANS CANNOT WORK
• learning,
• performance
• ...and personal satisfaction
• ….and does not change culture (you may
want)
26
All right...somewhat hard to accept...
So lets go for intrinsic motivation –
everything to win BUT what to do?
Research indicate four factors
that drive intrinsic motivation, support creativity – AND
improve performance, enhance personal satisfaction
Autonomy – the desire to be self-
directed, which creates also increased
engagement and collaboration
Mastery – the desire to get better at
things
Purpose – the desire to see, and be
involved in the larger picture, and not
entirely be profit maximisers.
Feedback - recognition
28
Some examples when these four
factor are combined
29
Open Source
Development
Lab and Linux
Foundation
What to consider
Some reflections from research
(my personal view)
• Creativity, innovation and excellence – are the natural
results of helping people experience intrinsic motivation.
30
OK – what could be guiding principles since this is
not easy….
What to consider
Some reflections from research
(my personal view)
• Pay people enough – and put the issue of extrinsic motivation
off the table.
• Nurture intrinsic motivation (through the four factors) - since it
is the rocket fuel for scientific curiosity that will support creativity
• Be mindful of what extrinsic motivation is expected to achieve.
• Then add to that, (as Lebby & Kohn argue) provide:
• Choice – employees able to participate in decisions
• Collaboration – secure exchange of knowledge and ideas of teams
• Content – refers to what people are asked to do: as F. Hertzberg said -
”If you want people motivated to do a good job, give them a good job to
do.”
31
How does this research findings
relates to AZ on going culture
change?
In my mind there are several
implications
• Learner Player concept –
support intrinsic motivation
and vice versa
• Intrinsic motivation is a
KEY vehicle for sustainable
cultural change
33
Discussion - What do you think?
For those who would like
know more....
You Tube
Dan Pink - The surprising truth about what
motivates us
35 Set area descriptor | Sub level 1
Thank you for your attention

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Innovation seminar i2 i sept_sundgren

  • 1. Conversation on motivation, creativity and innovation Mats Sundgren I2I week September 10th, 2012
  • 2. Statements to be further explored “It is amazing how much can be accomplished if no one cares who gets the credit – John Wooden” “Does bonus system enhance creativity/innovation in organisations?” “If you reward something do you get more of the behaviour you want?” “What kind of motivation is needed for creativity?” 2
  • 3. Objective Discuss motivation as influencing creativity and innovation Give some examples of the surprising research in this area Discuss relations and implications of some of these findings to the Learner/Player initiative and culture change in AZ 3
  • 4. Just a recap on positioning creativity and innovation
  • 5. 5 Two views of creativity
  • 6. 6 My view • From a market perspective an innovation in the pharma industry is a product recognised after launch • Need at every level of the organisation - Involves a spectra of connected areas of ideas influenced by: infrastructure, ways of working organization, culture, leadership, business model etc. AND motivation..and is always in collaboration with others!! Commercialization Realization R&D Innovation Organisational creativity Organisational creativity is what precedes innovation
  • 7. Some drivers for organisational creativity (also part of my own research in the pharma industry and AZ) 7
  • 8. 8 What makes a pharma company successful? How can a company secure a strategy to become more innovative without losing effectiveness? The creativity challenge
  • 10. One key research question If you reward something do you get more of the behaviour you want?
  • 11. Motivation To be motivated means to be moved to do something. •• Intrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation - refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting, challenging or enjoyable •• Extrinsic motivationExtrinsic motivation - refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome  E.g. incentives, reward, bonus, promotion etc.
  • 13. The Candle problem The Candle problem (K.Duncker,1945) is a cognitive performance test, measuring the influence of functional fixedness on a participant's problem solving capabilities. Task Fix the candle to a (cork board) wall so that it will burn without dripping wax 13
  • 14. The Candle problem S. Glucksburgh (1962) used the candle problem to investigate the impact of incentives on a group level Two groups 1. The faster you solve this problem the more money you get (incentivised) 2. Time to establish norms how much it takes to solve this problem (no incentives) 14
  • 15. The non-incentivised group (2) did it on a significant faster time compared with group (1). 15 Set area descriptor | Sub level 1 The Candle problem Outcome
  • 16. Incentive experiment from MIT Group and individual levels (students) Grouped into three levels of rewards (money) Tasks and challenges ranged from different types: Physical tasks, mechanical, word puzzles, spatial puzzles, memorising strings of digits etc. 16
  • 17. Incentive experiment from MIT Outcome As long as the task involved used only mechanical skills – bonus worked as expected Higher pay = better performance But once you get above rudimentary cognitive skills – it is the other way around Performance was bad – i.e. highest reward group performed worst. 17
  • 18. Some rather strong indications from research
  • 19. Extrinsic motivation such as incentives works fine when tasks are...
  • 20.
  • 21. BUT Extrinsic motivation such as incentives does not work well when tasks are....
  • 22.
  • 23. How could that be? ..Wait it gets worse....
  • 24. Extrinsic motivation does not support creativity (T. Amabile et al.) The intrinsic motivation principle “Specifies that intrinsic motivation (derived from interest and enjoyment of the activity itself) is conducive to creativity, While extrinsic motivation (directed at a goal separate from the task) can be detrimental.” 24
  • 26. Incentives (i.e. extrinsic motivation) does not support.... (A.Kohn) Harvard Bussiness Review, WHY INCENTIVE PLANS CANNOT WORK • learning, • performance • ...and personal satisfaction • ….and does not change culture (you may want) 26
  • 27. All right...somewhat hard to accept... So lets go for intrinsic motivation – everything to win BUT what to do?
  • 28. Research indicate four factors that drive intrinsic motivation, support creativity – AND improve performance, enhance personal satisfaction Autonomy – the desire to be self- directed, which creates also increased engagement and collaboration Mastery – the desire to get better at things Purpose – the desire to see, and be involved in the larger picture, and not entirely be profit maximisers. Feedback - recognition 28
  • 29. Some examples when these four factor are combined 29 Open Source Development Lab and Linux Foundation
  • 30. What to consider Some reflections from research (my personal view) • Creativity, innovation and excellence – are the natural results of helping people experience intrinsic motivation. 30 OK – what could be guiding principles since this is not easy….
  • 31. What to consider Some reflections from research (my personal view) • Pay people enough – and put the issue of extrinsic motivation off the table. • Nurture intrinsic motivation (through the four factors) - since it is the rocket fuel for scientific curiosity that will support creativity • Be mindful of what extrinsic motivation is expected to achieve. • Then add to that, (as Lebby & Kohn argue) provide: • Choice – employees able to participate in decisions • Collaboration – secure exchange of knowledge and ideas of teams • Content – refers to what people are asked to do: as F. Hertzberg said - ”If you want people motivated to do a good job, give them a good job to do.” 31
  • 32. How does this research findings relates to AZ on going culture change?
  • 33. In my mind there are several implications • Learner Player concept – support intrinsic motivation and vice versa • Intrinsic motivation is a KEY vehicle for sustainable cultural change 33
  • 34. Discussion - What do you think?
  • 35. For those who would like know more.... You Tube Dan Pink - The surprising truth about what motivates us 35 Set area descriptor | Sub level 1
  • 36. Thank you for your attention