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THE NATURE
OF HUMAN
RELATION
Group 13
1.) Soriano, Jezreel Mark
2.) Tamo-o, Leny
3.) Tan, Jason Anthony
4.) Tenajeros, Maria Edralyn
5.) Ventic, Dimple
Learning Objectives
 Explain human relations and its implications for
management.
 Trace the evolution of human relations thinking from
industrialism through scientific management to the
present.
 Compare and contrast the traditional model of the
worker with the modern human resources model.
 Discuss the role of behavioral science in human
relations.
 Describe some of the emerging challenges in the
human relations area.
Human relations is the process
by which management and
workers interact and attain their
objectives
What is Human Relations?
The Evolution of Human Relations
THE
EMERGENCE OF
INDUSTRIALISM
THE
BEHAVIORAL
MANAGEMENT
MOVEMENT
1 3
2
THE SCIENTIFIC
MANAGEMENT
MOVEMENT
THE EMERGENCE OF
INDUSTRIALIZATION
It emerged in England in
the latter half of the
eighteenth century. New
inventions enables wealthy
proprietors of this period to
invest their money in
efficient machinery that
could far outpace people
doing similar work by hand.
01
HUMAN-RELATION.pptx
THE SCIENTIFIC
MANAGEMENT
MOVEMENT
It started in America and
had its genesis during the
post-civil war era. The
scientific managers were,
for the most part,
mechanical engineers.
Applying their technical
expertise in factories and
industrial settings.
01
THE BEHAVIORAL
MANAGEMENT
MOVEMENT
By the 1920s, the breakthrough
began to occur. As scientific
management moved into its
heyday, an interest in the
behavioral side began to grow.
Concern for production brought
out people-related problems and
that the effective managers had
to be interested in both work and
personnel.
Human Resources Era
 The traditional model is the old way of
managing people
 The human resources model views
people as having untapped potential
HUMAN-RELATION.pptx
HUMAN-RELATION.pptx
Rensis Likert’s Four Systems of
Management
SYSTEM
4
SYSTEM
1
Managers are
exploitive
autocrats
Managers are
participative
and democratic
Managers are
benevolent
autocrats
SYSTEM
2
Managers are
consultative
and democratic
SYSTEM
3
HUMAN-RELATION.pptx
HUMAN-RELATION.pptx
HUMAN-RELATION.pptx
Emerging Challenges in Human
Relations
 Managing knowledge workers
 Managing diversity
 Addressing ethics and social
responsibility concerns
 Adapting to international and cultural
challenges
Managing
knowledge
workers
Managing knowledge workers
RECRUITING
TALENTED
EMPLOYEES
UNDERSTANDI
NG
KNOWLEDGE
WORKERS
CREATING A
KNOWLEDGE –
SHARING
CULTURE
USING
TRAINING AND
DEVELOPMENT
HIRING
KNOWLEDGEABLE
PEOPLE
MANAGING
DIVERSITY AND
WORKPLACE
VIOLENCE
MANAGING DIVERSITY AND WORKPLACE
VIOLENCE
MULTI-ETHNIC
AND DIVERSE
WORKFORSE
ISSUES
AGING
WORKFORCE
ISSUES
EQUAL PAY
ISSUES
PERMANENT
TEMPORARY
WORKFORCE
ISSUES
A C
B
D
WOMEN IN POWER
ISSUES
E
WORKPLACE
VIOLENCE ISSUES
F
ADDRESSING
ETHICS AND
SOCIAL
RESPONSIBILITY
CONCERNS
Ethics and Social
Responsibility
Ethics is the study of
standards and moral
judgment
Social responsibility is the
obligations of a business
to society
Ethics
– Code of moral principles.
– Set standards of “good” and “bad” as opposed
to “right” and “wrong.”
Ethical behavior
– What is accepted as good and right in the
context of the governing moral code.
Law, values, and ethical behavior:
– Legal behavior is not necessarily ethical
behavior.
– Personal values help determine individual
ethical behavior.
• Terminal values
• Instrumental values
HUMAN-RELATION.pptx
 Utilitarian view of ethics — greatest good to the
greatest number of people.
 Individualism view of ethics — primary
commitment is to one’s long-term self-interests.
 Moral-rights view of ethics — respects and
protects the fundamental rights of all people.
 Justice view of ethics — fair and impartial
treatment of people according to legal rules and
standards.
Four views of ethical behavior.
Cultural issues in ethical behavior:
– Cultural relativism
• Ethical behavior is always determined by cultural
context.
– Cultural universalism
• Behavior that is unacceptable in one’s home
environment should not be acceptable anywhere
else.
The extremes of cultural relativism and ethical imperialism in
international business ethics.
How international businesses can respect core or universal values:
Respect for human dignity
• Create culture that values employees, customers, and suppliers.
• Keep a safe workplace.
• Produce safe products and services.
Respect for basic rights
• Protect rights of employees, customers, and communities.
• Avoid anything that threatening safety, health, education, and living
standards.
Be good citizens
• Support social institutions, including economic and educational
systems.
• Work with local government and institutions to protect environment.
 An ethical dilemma occurs when choices,
although having potential for personal and/or
organizational benefit, may be considered
unethical.
 Ethical dilemmas include:
– Discrimination
– Sexual harassment
– Conflicts of interest
– Customer confidence
– Organizational resources
How do ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace?
 Ethical behavior can be rationalized by convincing
yourself that:
– Behavior is not really illegal.
– Behavior is really in everyone’s best interests.
– Nobody will ever find out.
– The organization will “protect” you.
 Factors influencing ethical behavior include:
– The person
• Family influences, religious values, personal standards, and
personal needs.
– The organization
• Supervisory behavior, peer group norms and behavior, and
policy statements and written rules.
– The environment
• Government laws and regulations, societal norms and values,
and competitive climate in an industry.
HUMAN-RELATION.pptx
Checklist for dealing with ethical dilemmas
Step 1. Recognize the ethical dilemma
Step 2: Get the facts
Step 3. Identify your options
Step 4. Test each option: Is it legal? Is it right? Is it beneficial?
Step 5. Decide which option to follow
Step 6. Double-check decision by asking the “spotlight” questions: “How
would I feel if my family found out about my decision?” “How would
I feel about this if my decision were printed in the local newspaper?”
Step 7. Take action.
Ethics training:
– Structured programs that help participants
to understand ethical aspects of decision
making.
– Helps people incorporate high ethical
standards into daily life.
– Helps people deal with ethical issues
under pressure.
How can high ethical standards be
maintained?
 Whistleblowers
– Expose misdeeds of others to:
• Preserve ethical standards
• Protect against wasteful, harmful, or illegal acts
 Laws protecting whistleblowers vary
Barriers to whistleblowing include:
– Strict chain of command
– Strong work group identities
– Ambiguous priorities
Organizational methods for overcoming
whistleblowing barriers:
– Ethics staff units who serve as ethics advocates
– Moral quality circles
 Ethical role models:
– Top managers serve as ethical role models.
– All managers can influence the ethical behavior of
people who work for and with them.
– Excessive pressure can foster unethical behavior.
– Managers should be realistic in setting performance
goals for others.
Codes of ethics:
– Formal statement of an organization’s values and
ethical principles regarding how to behave in situations
susceptible to the creation of ethical dilemmas.
 Areas often covered by codes of ethics:
– Bribes and kickbacks
– Political contributions
– Honesty of books or records
– Customer/supplier relationships
– Confidentiality of corporate information
Corporate social responsibility:
– Looks at ethical issues on the organization
level.
– Obligates organizations to act in ways that
serve both its own interests and the interests of
society at large.
What is corporate social responsibility?
 Organizational stakeholders
– Those persons, groups, and other organizations directly affected by
the behavior of the organization and holding a stake in its
performance.
 Typical organizational stakeholders
– Employees
– Customers
– Suppliers
– Owners
– Competitors
– Regulators
– Interest groups
Multiple stakeholders in the environment of
an organization.
 Perspectives on corporate social responsibility:
– Classical view—
• Management’s only responsibility is to maximize profits.
– Socioeconomic view—
• Management must be concerned for the broader social welfare,
not just profits.
 Beliefs that guide socially responsible business
practices:
– People do their best with a balance of work and family
life.
– Organizations perform best in healthy communities.
– Organizations gain by respecting the natural
environment.
– Organizations must be managed and led for long-term
success.
– Organizations must protect their reputations.
 Arguments against
social responsibility:
– Reduced business
profits
– Higher business costs
– Dilution of business
purpose
– Too much social power
for business
– Lack of public
accountability
 Arguments in favor of
social responsibility:
– Adds long-run profits
– Improved public image
– Avoids more
government regulation
– Businesses have
resources and ethical
obligation
Criteria for evaluating corporate social
performance:
– Is the organization’s …
• Economic responsibility met?
• Legal responsibility met?
• Ethical responsibility met?
• Discretionary responsibility met?
Criteria for evaluating corporate social
performance.
Strategies for pursuing social responsibility:
– Obstructionist — meets economic responsibilities.
– Defensive — meets economic and legal
responsibilities.
– Accommodative — meets economic, legal, and
ethical responsibilities.
– Proactive — meets economic, legal, ethical, and
discretionary responsibilities.
HUMAN-RELATION.pptx
How do organizations and governments work
together in society?
How government influences organizations:
– Common areas of government regulation of
business affairs:
• Occupational safety and health
• Fair labor practices
• Consumer protection
• Environmental protection
 How organizations influence governments:
– Personal contacts and networks
– Public relations campaigns
– Lobbying
– Political action committees
– Sometimes by illegal acts, such as bribery or illegal
financial contributions to political campaigns
Centrality of ethics and social responsibility in leadership and
the managerial role.
 Corporate governance:
– The oversight of the top management of an
organization by a board of directors.
 Corporate governance involves:
– Hiring, firing, and compensating the CEO.
– Assessing strategy.
– Verifying financial records.
HUMAN-RELATION.pptx
CURRENT ETHICAL
DELIMMAS
CURRENT ETHICAL DELIMMAS
DOWNSIZING
ISSUES
WORKPLACE
DISCRIMINATION
ISSUES
OBESITY AND
PERSONAL
APPEARANCE
ISSUES
AGE
DISCRIMINATION
ISSUES
A C
B
D
TECHNOLIGICAL
ISSUES
E
BIOSCIENCE
ISSUES
F
CURRENT ETHICAL DELIMMAS
KNOWLEDGE
MANAGEMENT
ISSUES
INEQUALITY
BETWEEN MEN
AND MEN ISSUES
MIGRATION OF
JOBS ISSUES
G I
H
ADAPTING TO
INTERNATIONAL
CHALLENGES
ADAPTING TO INTERNATIONAL CHALLENGES
INTERNATIONAL
HUMAN
RELATIONS
ISSUES
MULTINATIONAL
CORPORATION
EXPANSION
ISSUES
PIRACY AND
CONTERFEITING
ISSUES
A C
B

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HUMAN-RELATION.pptx

  • 2. Group 13 1.) Soriano, Jezreel Mark 2.) Tamo-o, Leny 3.) Tan, Jason Anthony 4.) Tenajeros, Maria Edralyn 5.) Ventic, Dimple
  • 3. Learning Objectives  Explain human relations and its implications for management.  Trace the evolution of human relations thinking from industrialism through scientific management to the present.  Compare and contrast the traditional model of the worker with the modern human resources model.  Discuss the role of behavioral science in human relations.  Describe some of the emerging challenges in the human relations area.
  • 4. Human relations is the process by which management and workers interact and attain their objectives What is Human Relations?
  • 5. The Evolution of Human Relations THE EMERGENCE OF INDUSTRIALISM THE BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT MOVEMENT 1 3 2 THE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT MOVEMENT
  • 6. THE EMERGENCE OF INDUSTRIALIZATION It emerged in England in the latter half of the eighteenth century. New inventions enables wealthy proprietors of this period to invest their money in efficient machinery that could far outpace people doing similar work by hand. 01
  • 8. THE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT MOVEMENT It started in America and had its genesis during the post-civil war era. The scientific managers were, for the most part, mechanical engineers. Applying their technical expertise in factories and industrial settings. 01
  • 9. THE BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT MOVEMENT By the 1920s, the breakthrough began to occur. As scientific management moved into its heyday, an interest in the behavioral side began to grow. Concern for production brought out people-related problems and that the effective managers had to be interested in both work and personnel.
  • 10. Human Resources Era  The traditional model is the old way of managing people  The human resources model views people as having untapped potential
  • 13. Rensis Likert’s Four Systems of Management SYSTEM 4 SYSTEM 1 Managers are exploitive autocrats Managers are participative and democratic Managers are benevolent autocrats SYSTEM 2 Managers are consultative and democratic SYSTEM 3
  • 17. Emerging Challenges in Human Relations  Managing knowledge workers  Managing diversity  Addressing ethics and social responsibility concerns  Adapting to international and cultural challenges
  • 19. Managing knowledge workers RECRUITING TALENTED EMPLOYEES UNDERSTANDI NG KNOWLEDGE WORKERS CREATING A KNOWLEDGE – SHARING CULTURE USING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT HIRING KNOWLEDGEABLE PEOPLE
  • 21. MANAGING DIVERSITY AND WORKPLACE VIOLENCE MULTI-ETHNIC AND DIVERSE WORKFORSE ISSUES AGING WORKFORCE ISSUES EQUAL PAY ISSUES PERMANENT TEMPORARY WORKFORCE ISSUES A C B D WOMEN IN POWER ISSUES E WORKPLACE VIOLENCE ISSUES F
  • 23. Ethics and Social Responsibility Ethics is the study of standards and moral judgment Social responsibility is the obligations of a business to society
  • 24. Ethics – Code of moral principles. – Set standards of “good” and “bad” as opposed to “right” and “wrong.” Ethical behavior – What is accepted as good and right in the context of the governing moral code.
  • 25. Law, values, and ethical behavior: – Legal behavior is not necessarily ethical behavior. – Personal values help determine individual ethical behavior. • Terminal values • Instrumental values
  • 27.  Utilitarian view of ethics — greatest good to the greatest number of people.  Individualism view of ethics — primary commitment is to one’s long-term self-interests.  Moral-rights view of ethics — respects and protects the fundamental rights of all people.  Justice view of ethics — fair and impartial treatment of people according to legal rules and standards.
  • 28. Four views of ethical behavior.
  • 29. Cultural issues in ethical behavior: – Cultural relativism • Ethical behavior is always determined by cultural context. – Cultural universalism • Behavior that is unacceptable in one’s home environment should not be acceptable anywhere else.
  • 30. The extremes of cultural relativism and ethical imperialism in international business ethics.
  • 31. How international businesses can respect core or universal values: Respect for human dignity • Create culture that values employees, customers, and suppliers. • Keep a safe workplace. • Produce safe products and services. Respect for basic rights • Protect rights of employees, customers, and communities. • Avoid anything that threatening safety, health, education, and living standards. Be good citizens • Support social institutions, including economic and educational systems. • Work with local government and institutions to protect environment.
  • 32.  An ethical dilemma occurs when choices, although having potential for personal and/or organizational benefit, may be considered unethical.  Ethical dilemmas include: – Discrimination – Sexual harassment – Conflicts of interest – Customer confidence – Organizational resources How do ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace?
  • 33.  Ethical behavior can be rationalized by convincing yourself that: – Behavior is not really illegal. – Behavior is really in everyone’s best interests. – Nobody will ever find out. – The organization will “protect” you.
  • 34.  Factors influencing ethical behavior include: – The person • Family influences, religious values, personal standards, and personal needs. – The organization • Supervisory behavior, peer group norms and behavior, and policy statements and written rules. – The environment • Government laws and regulations, societal norms and values, and competitive climate in an industry.
  • 36. Checklist for dealing with ethical dilemmas Step 1. Recognize the ethical dilemma Step 2: Get the facts Step 3. Identify your options Step 4. Test each option: Is it legal? Is it right? Is it beneficial? Step 5. Decide which option to follow Step 6. Double-check decision by asking the “spotlight” questions: “How would I feel if my family found out about my decision?” “How would I feel about this if my decision were printed in the local newspaper?” Step 7. Take action.
  • 37. Ethics training: – Structured programs that help participants to understand ethical aspects of decision making. – Helps people incorporate high ethical standards into daily life. – Helps people deal with ethical issues under pressure. How can high ethical standards be maintained?
  • 38.  Whistleblowers – Expose misdeeds of others to: • Preserve ethical standards • Protect against wasteful, harmful, or illegal acts  Laws protecting whistleblowers vary
  • 39. Barriers to whistleblowing include: – Strict chain of command – Strong work group identities – Ambiguous priorities Organizational methods for overcoming whistleblowing barriers: – Ethics staff units who serve as ethics advocates – Moral quality circles
  • 40.  Ethical role models: – Top managers serve as ethical role models. – All managers can influence the ethical behavior of people who work for and with them. – Excessive pressure can foster unethical behavior. – Managers should be realistic in setting performance goals for others.
  • 41. Codes of ethics: – Formal statement of an organization’s values and ethical principles regarding how to behave in situations susceptible to the creation of ethical dilemmas.  Areas often covered by codes of ethics: – Bribes and kickbacks – Political contributions – Honesty of books or records – Customer/supplier relationships – Confidentiality of corporate information
  • 42. Corporate social responsibility: – Looks at ethical issues on the organization level. – Obligates organizations to act in ways that serve both its own interests and the interests of society at large. What is corporate social responsibility?
  • 43.  Organizational stakeholders – Those persons, groups, and other organizations directly affected by the behavior of the organization and holding a stake in its performance.  Typical organizational stakeholders – Employees – Customers – Suppliers – Owners – Competitors – Regulators – Interest groups
  • 44. Multiple stakeholders in the environment of an organization.
  • 45.  Perspectives on corporate social responsibility: – Classical view— • Management’s only responsibility is to maximize profits. – Socioeconomic view— • Management must be concerned for the broader social welfare, not just profits.
  • 46.  Beliefs that guide socially responsible business practices: – People do their best with a balance of work and family life. – Organizations perform best in healthy communities. – Organizations gain by respecting the natural environment. – Organizations must be managed and led for long-term success. – Organizations must protect their reputations.
  • 47.  Arguments against social responsibility: – Reduced business profits – Higher business costs – Dilution of business purpose – Too much social power for business – Lack of public accountability  Arguments in favor of social responsibility: – Adds long-run profits – Improved public image – Avoids more government regulation – Businesses have resources and ethical obligation
  • 48. Criteria for evaluating corporate social performance: – Is the organization’s … • Economic responsibility met? • Legal responsibility met? • Ethical responsibility met? • Discretionary responsibility met?
  • 49. Criteria for evaluating corporate social performance.
  • 50. Strategies for pursuing social responsibility: – Obstructionist — meets economic responsibilities. – Defensive — meets economic and legal responsibilities. – Accommodative — meets economic, legal, and ethical responsibilities. – Proactive — meets economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary responsibilities.
  • 52. How do organizations and governments work together in society? How government influences organizations: – Common areas of government regulation of business affairs: • Occupational safety and health • Fair labor practices • Consumer protection • Environmental protection
  • 53.  How organizations influence governments: – Personal contacts and networks – Public relations campaigns – Lobbying – Political action committees – Sometimes by illegal acts, such as bribery or illegal financial contributions to political campaigns
  • 54. Centrality of ethics and social responsibility in leadership and the managerial role.
  • 55.  Corporate governance: – The oversight of the top management of an organization by a board of directors.  Corporate governance involves: – Hiring, firing, and compensating the CEO. – Assessing strategy. – Verifying financial records.
  • 58. CURRENT ETHICAL DELIMMAS DOWNSIZING ISSUES WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION ISSUES OBESITY AND PERSONAL APPEARANCE ISSUES AGE DISCRIMINATION ISSUES A C B D TECHNOLIGICAL ISSUES E BIOSCIENCE ISSUES F
  • 59. CURRENT ETHICAL DELIMMAS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ISSUES INEQUALITY BETWEEN MEN AND MEN ISSUES MIGRATION OF JOBS ISSUES G I H
  • 61. ADAPTING TO INTERNATIONAL CHALLENGES INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RELATIONS ISSUES MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION EXPANSION ISSUES PIRACY AND CONTERFEITING ISSUES A C B