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Forecasting HR requirements
• HR Forecasting attempts to determine the
supply and demand for various types of human
resources, and to predict areas within the
organization where there will be labor
shortages or surpluses
There are three major steps to forecasting:
• Forecasting the demand for labor
• Determining labor supply
• Determining labor surpluses and shortages
Forecasting the demand for labor
• How many people need to be working and in what
jobs to implement organizational strategies and
attain organizational objectives.
• Usually an organization forecasts demand for
specific job categories or skill areas.
• After identifying the relevant job categories or
skills, the planner investigates the likely demand for
each.
• The planner must forecast whether the need
for people with the necessary skills and
experience will increase or decrease.
• Constructing and applying statistical models
that predict labor demand for the next year,
given relatively objective statistics from the
previous year.
• Determining labor supply / Predicting Worker Flows
and Availabilities
• Succession or Replacement Charts
Who has been groomed/developed and is ready for promotion right NOW?
• Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS)
An employee database that can be searched when vacancies occur.
• Transition Matrices (Markov Analysis)
A chart that lists job categories held in one period and shows the proportion of employees in each
of those job categories in a future period.
It answers two questions:
1. “Where did people in each job category go?”
2. “Where did people now in each job category come from?
• Personnel / Yield Ratios
How much work will it take to recruit one new accountant?
Determining Labor Surplus or Shortage
• Based on the forecasts for labor demand and
supply, the planner can compare the figures to
determine whether there will be a shortage or
surplus of labor for each job category.
• Determining expected shortages and surpluses
allows the organization to plan how to address
these challenges.
• When forecasting demands for HR, you must also assess
the challenges that you will have in meeting your staffing
need based on the external environment. To determine
external impacts, you may want to consider some of the
following factors:
• How does the current economy affect our work and our
ability to attract new employees?
• How do current technological or cultural shifts impact the
way we work and the skilled labour we require?
• How is our community changing or expected to change in
the near future?
There are many HR strategies for meeting the labor surplus or shortage in the future.
Surplus
• Restructuring strategies
• Hiring freeze
• Layoffs
• Transfer
• Reduce work time
• Reduce part-time
Shortage
• New Hires
• Transfer
• Training/Retrain
• Overtime
• Part-time
Recruitment
According to Edwin Flippo: “Recruitment is the process
of searching the candidates for employment and
stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization “
• Recruitment is the activity that links the employers
and the job seekers
• Recruitment is the first step in filling a vacancy.
Includes:
– Examine the vacancy
– Considering the source of suitable candidates
– Making contacts with the candidates
– Attracting applications from them
selection
• Selection on the other hand is a process
whereby out of the many job applicants the
best are taken to fill the vacancy.
• Selection means whittling down the
application pool by using the screening tools
such as test, assessment centers, background
and reference checks.
Difference between recruitment and selection
RECRUITMENT SELECTION
The recruitment is the process of
searching the candidates for employment
and stimulating them to apply for jobs in
the organisation
Selection involves the series of steps
by which the candidates are
screened for choosing the most
suitable persons for vacant posts.
The basic purpose is to create a talent
pool of candidates to enable the selection
of best candidates for the organisation, by
attracting more and more employees to
apply in the organisation
The basic purpose of selection is to
choose the right candidate
Recruitment selection
A positive process i.e.
encouraging more and more
employees to apply
A negative process as it
involves rejection of the
unsuitable candidates.
Is concerned with tapping the
sources of human resources
Is concerned with selecting the
most suitable candidate through
various interviews and tests
There is no contract of
recruitment established in
recruitment
Results in a contract of service
between the employer and the
selected employee
Recruitment needs
• Are of three types
– Planned – arising form changes in
organizational structure, policy of
retirement etc
– Anticipated – movement in personnel which
an organization can predict by studying
trends in internal and external environment
– Unexpected – resignation, death, accident,
illness
Purpose and Importance of effective recruitment
• The increasing unemployment means that the
labour market is large, hence the need to
ensure that you attract the right candidates for
the jobs
• High turnover for some occupations are
another problem for recruiting
• Finding the right inducements for attracting
and hiring employees can be a problem also
purpose
• Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in
the organization
• Determine present and future requirements of the
organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and
job analysis activities as
• Minimize unwarranted cost of selection
• Help increase the success rate of selection process by
decreasing the number visibly under qualified or overqualified
job applicants
• Help reduce probability that job applicants once recruited and
selected will leave the organization only after a short period of
time
• Meet the organisaion legal and social obligation regarding
composition of workforce
Recruitment process
• Identifying the vacancy : - post to be filled,
number of persons, duties to be performed,
qualifications required
• Preparing the JD and JS
• Locating and developing the sources of
required number and type of employees
• Short listing
Factors affecting recruitment
• Internal factors
– Recruitment policy
– HR planning
– Size of the firm
– Cost of recruitment
– Growth and expansion
Factors affecting recruitment
• External factors
– Supply and demand
– Labour market
– Image/goodwill
– Political-social-legal environment
– Unemployment rates
– Competitors
Sources of recruitment: internal and external
Internal:
• seeks to fill positions from among the rank of those
currently employed
• Best suitable in succession planning – the process of
ensuring a suitable supply of successors for current
and future senior or key jobs
• Advantages:
1. It is less costly than external recruiting
2. Organizations have a better knowledge of internal
applicants skills and abilities than that which can be
acquired of candidates in an external recruiting
effort
3. Through performance appraisal and other
sources of information about current
personnel, decision makers typically will have
much more extensive knowledge on internal
candidates and thus make more valid selection
decisions
4. An organizational policy of promotion from
within can enhance organizational
commitment and job satisfaction, leading to
lower employee turnover and productivity
5. Best used for succession planning
Disadvantages:
1. If the organization has decided to change its
business strategy, entrenched managers are
problem not the best “change masters”” since
the internal recruitment approach simply
propagate the old way of doing things
2. Complaints of unit poaching good employees
from another unit
3. Politics have a greater impact on internal
recruitment. Personal biased decisions
towards specific candidates not necessarily
based on performance or job requirements
• 4. Employees who apply for jobs and do not
get them may become discontented,: telling
unsuccessful applicants why they were
rejected and what remedial action might take
to be more successful in future is thus crucial
• 5. Although many times managers post job
opening and interviews to all candidates, the
manager often knows ahead of time exactly
whom he or she wants to hire . Requiring the
person to interview a stream of unsuspecting
candidates can be a waste of time for all
concerned
• 6. Groups are sometimes not as satisfied when
their new boss is appointed form within their
own ranks as when he/she is a newcomer. It
may be difficult for the insider to shake off the
reputation of being “one of the gang”
• 7. Inbreeding is another potential drawback.
When all managers come up through the
ranks, they may have a tendency to maintain
the status quo, when a new direction is what is
required. Balancing the benefit of morale and
loyally with the possible inbreeding problem
can be a challenge
Sources of internal recruitment
• Job posting/advertising
• The most efficient way to do it is to have a job-posting system where
announcement for positions is made available to all employees through
newsletters, bulletin boards and so on.
• When properly done, job posting can substantially improve quality of
job placement that are made within the organisations
• Personnel records
• Another way is to examine personnel records which may reveal
employees who are working in job below their education or skill levels,
or/and have potential for further training or who already have the
right background for the opening
External recruitment
• Can be important when:
– A firm cannot get all the employees they
need from the current staff
– When the firm wants to inject a new
perspective into running the organisation
EXTERNAL SOURCES
• External sources
– Advertising
– Colleges
– Agencies
– Head Hunting
– Open Evening
– Referrals and walk –ins
– Recruitment on the internet
Employee selection
• With a pool of applicants, the next step is to
select the best candidate for the job.
• This means whittling down the application
pool by using the screening tools such as test,
assessment centers, background and reference
checks
Why careful selection is important
Selecting the right employee is important for
three main reasons:
1. Performance:
• Your own performance always depends in part
on your subordinates. Employees with the
right skills and attributes will do a better job
for you and the company. Employees without
these skills or who are uncompromising or
obstructionist wont perform effectively and
your won performance and the firm will suffer.
The time to screen out undesirables is before
they are in the door, not after
2. it is costly to recruit and hire employees in
terms of interviewing time, reference
checking, traveling etc
3. legal implication of incompetent hiring can be
costly and lead to court redress. If you hire a
criminal who swindles customers, you will be
liable
Basic tests for selection
For effective recruiting, therefore, the selection
test must be valid and reliable
Validity:
• The test should measure what is supposed to
measure. The evidence that is being tested
should be job related, in other words, the
performance on the test is a valid predictor of
subsequent performance on the job
• There are two ways to demonstrate test
validity: criterion validity and content validity
• Criterion validity – shows that those who do
well in the test also do well on the job and vise
versa
• Content validity – show that the test
constitutes a fair sample of the content of the
job
reliability
• Reliability refers to its consistency.
• It is “the consistency of scores obtained by the
same person when retested with the identical
test or with an equivalent form of test”
• If a person score 90% on Monday, then they
should score the same on Tuesday for the
same test
Types of tests
• We can classify test according to whether they
measure:
– Cognitive (mental) abilities.
– Or psychomotor (motor and physical)
– Personality
– Interest or achievements
Other selection techniques
• Background investigation and reference check
• Polygraph (lie detector) and honesty testing
• Graphology
• Physical examination
• Substance abuse screening
Physical/medical examination
• Takes place once the person is hired or sometimes after
the person is hired
• Reasons:
– To verify that the applicant meets the physical
requirements for the
– Discover any medical limitations you should take
into account in placing the applicants
– To establish a record and baseline of the applicants
health for future insurance or compensation claims
– By identifying health problems, the examination can
reduce absenteeism and accidents and, of course
determine communicable diseases that may be
unknown to the applicant
Interviewing candidates
• An interview is a procedure designed to obtain
information form a person through oral
responses to oral enquires. On the basis of
these responses the interviewer is able to
predict future job performance
• Interview is by far the most widely used
personnel selection method
Types of interviews
• Selection interview
• Appraisal interview
• Exit interview
• We can classify selection interviews according to:
– How they are structured
– Their content – type of questions they contain
– How the firm administers the interview
How they are structured
• Interviews can be :
• Structured or unstructured
• Unstructured or nondirective
– There is generally no set format to follow so
the interview can take various direction
– Lack of structures allow the interviewer to
ask follow up questions and pursue points
of interest as they develop
Structured or directive interviews
• The questions and acceptable responses are specified in advance
and the responses rated for appropriateness of content
• All interviewers generally ask all applicants the same questions, and
hence:
– Tend to be more reliable and valid
– It increases consistency across candidates
– Enhances job relatedness
– Reduces overall subjectivity ( and thus the
potential for bias)
– May enhance ability to withstand legal
challenges
• On the other hand structured interviews do not provide opportunity
to pursue points of interest as they develop
Interview content – type of
questions
• These could be situational interview
questions - asking candidates how they would
behavior in a given hypothetical situation and
evaluating the applicant based on the choice
made
• Behavior interview questions asks
interviewees to describe how they would
reacted to an actual situation in the pasts
• Job related interviews – the interviewer tries
to deduce what the applicant on the job
performance will be base on his or her
answers to questions about past behavior. The
question here do not revolve around
hypothetical questions but ask job related
questions e.g. what does human resources
recruitment and selection involve
• Stress interview – seeks to make the applicant
uncomfortable with occasionally rude
questions
• Aims is supposedly to spot sensitive applicants
and those with low or high level of stress
tolerance
• Stress interviews may help unearth
hypertensive applicants who might overreact
to mild criticism with anger and abuse
• Puzzle questions - meant to see how a
candidates reacts under pressure. Used mainly
for technical and finance related areas
Administering the interview
• Interviews can be administered in several
ways:
• One on one
• A panel interview
• Sequentially or all at once
• Computerized or personally
What can undermine an interviews
usefulness –pitfalls/errors
• First impression – which one gets from the
interviewees application form and personal
appearance
• Misunderstanding of the job - interviewers
who do not know precisely what the job
entails and what sort of candidate is best
suited for it usually make their decisions based
on incorrect stereotype of what a good
applicant is
• Candidates-order (contrast) error and
pressure to hire - The order in which you see
applicants affect how you rate them. After first
evaluating unfavorable candidates, an average
candidate can score quite highly
• Pressure to hire accentuate problems like the
error or contrast
• Non verbal behavior and impressions management - - eye contact,
energy levels , low voice etc can influence the interviewers decision
• Body language, smile, posture may interfere with the interviewers
judgment
• Effect on personal characteristics stereotyping :
• Involves categorizing groups according to general traits then attributing
those traits to a particular individual once the group membership is known
• attractiveness, gender, race - in general, individuals ascribe more
favorable traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive people
• Some see men or women as more suitable or a certain race as more
suitable
• Interviewer’s behavior - some interviewers
talk so much that the applicant have no time
to answer questions. On the other extreme,
some interviewers let the applicant dominate
the interview and so don’t ask questions.
Neither is good situation
• Others play the role of a judge or psychologist

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Hr requirement

  • 2. • HR Forecasting attempts to determine the supply and demand for various types of human resources, and to predict areas within the organization where there will be labor shortages or surpluses
  • 3. There are three major steps to forecasting: • Forecasting the demand for labor • Determining labor supply • Determining labor surpluses and shortages
  • 4. Forecasting the demand for labor • How many people need to be working and in what jobs to implement organizational strategies and attain organizational objectives. • Usually an organization forecasts demand for specific job categories or skill areas. • After identifying the relevant job categories or skills, the planner investigates the likely demand for each.
  • 5. • The planner must forecast whether the need for people with the necessary skills and experience will increase or decrease. • Constructing and applying statistical models that predict labor demand for the next year, given relatively objective statistics from the previous year.
  • 6. • Determining labor supply / Predicting Worker Flows and Availabilities • Succession or Replacement Charts Who has been groomed/developed and is ready for promotion right NOW? • Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) An employee database that can be searched when vacancies occur. • Transition Matrices (Markov Analysis) A chart that lists job categories held in one period and shows the proportion of employees in each of those job categories in a future period. It answers two questions: 1. “Where did people in each job category go?” 2. “Where did people now in each job category come from? • Personnel / Yield Ratios How much work will it take to recruit one new accountant?
  • 7. Determining Labor Surplus or Shortage • Based on the forecasts for labor demand and supply, the planner can compare the figures to determine whether there will be a shortage or surplus of labor for each job category. • Determining expected shortages and surpluses allows the organization to plan how to address these challenges.
  • 8. • When forecasting demands for HR, you must also assess the challenges that you will have in meeting your staffing need based on the external environment. To determine external impacts, you may want to consider some of the following factors: • How does the current economy affect our work and our ability to attract new employees? • How do current technological or cultural shifts impact the way we work and the skilled labour we require? • How is our community changing or expected to change in the near future?
  • 9. There are many HR strategies for meeting the labor surplus or shortage in the future. Surplus • Restructuring strategies • Hiring freeze • Layoffs • Transfer • Reduce work time • Reduce part-time Shortage • New Hires • Transfer • Training/Retrain • Overtime • Part-time
  • 10. Recruitment According to Edwin Flippo: “Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization “ • Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers • Recruitment is the first step in filling a vacancy. Includes: – Examine the vacancy – Considering the source of suitable candidates – Making contacts with the candidates – Attracting applications from them
  • 11. selection • Selection on the other hand is a process whereby out of the many job applicants the best are taken to fill the vacancy. • Selection means whittling down the application pool by using the screening tools such as test, assessment centers, background and reference checks.
  • 12. Difference between recruitment and selection RECRUITMENT SELECTION The recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation Selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. The basic purpose is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organisation, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organisation The basic purpose of selection is to choose the right candidate
  • 13. Recruitment selection A positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to apply A negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates. Is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources Is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment Results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected employee
  • 14. Recruitment needs • Are of three types – Planned – arising form changes in organizational structure, policy of retirement etc – Anticipated – movement in personnel which an organization can predict by studying trends in internal and external environment – Unexpected – resignation, death, accident, illness
  • 15. Purpose and Importance of effective recruitment • The increasing unemployment means that the labour market is large, hence the need to ensure that you attract the right candidates for the jobs • High turnover for some occupations are another problem for recruiting • Finding the right inducements for attracting and hiring employees can be a problem also
  • 16. purpose • Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organization • Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities as • Minimize unwarranted cost of selection • Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing the number visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants • Help reduce probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time • Meet the organisaion legal and social obligation regarding composition of workforce
  • 17. Recruitment process • Identifying the vacancy : - post to be filled, number of persons, duties to be performed, qualifications required • Preparing the JD and JS • Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees • Short listing
  • 18. Factors affecting recruitment • Internal factors – Recruitment policy – HR planning – Size of the firm – Cost of recruitment – Growth and expansion
  • 19. Factors affecting recruitment • External factors – Supply and demand – Labour market – Image/goodwill – Political-social-legal environment – Unemployment rates – Competitors
  • 20. Sources of recruitment: internal and external Internal: • seeks to fill positions from among the rank of those currently employed • Best suitable in succession planning – the process of ensuring a suitable supply of successors for current and future senior or key jobs • Advantages: 1. It is less costly than external recruiting 2. Organizations have a better knowledge of internal applicants skills and abilities than that which can be acquired of candidates in an external recruiting effort
  • 21. 3. Through performance appraisal and other sources of information about current personnel, decision makers typically will have much more extensive knowledge on internal candidates and thus make more valid selection decisions 4. An organizational policy of promotion from within can enhance organizational commitment and job satisfaction, leading to lower employee turnover and productivity 5. Best used for succession planning
  • 22. Disadvantages: 1. If the organization has decided to change its business strategy, entrenched managers are problem not the best “change masters”” since the internal recruitment approach simply propagate the old way of doing things 2. Complaints of unit poaching good employees from another unit 3. Politics have a greater impact on internal recruitment. Personal biased decisions towards specific candidates not necessarily based on performance or job requirements
  • 23. • 4. Employees who apply for jobs and do not get them may become discontented,: telling unsuccessful applicants why they were rejected and what remedial action might take to be more successful in future is thus crucial • 5. Although many times managers post job opening and interviews to all candidates, the manager often knows ahead of time exactly whom he or she wants to hire . Requiring the person to interview a stream of unsuspecting candidates can be a waste of time for all concerned
  • 24. • 6. Groups are sometimes not as satisfied when their new boss is appointed form within their own ranks as when he/she is a newcomer. It may be difficult for the insider to shake off the reputation of being “one of the gang” • 7. Inbreeding is another potential drawback. When all managers come up through the ranks, they may have a tendency to maintain the status quo, when a new direction is what is required. Balancing the benefit of morale and loyally with the possible inbreeding problem can be a challenge
  • 25. Sources of internal recruitment • Job posting/advertising • The most efficient way to do it is to have a job-posting system where announcement for positions is made available to all employees through newsletters, bulletin boards and so on. • When properly done, job posting can substantially improve quality of job placement that are made within the organisations • Personnel records • Another way is to examine personnel records which may reveal employees who are working in job below their education or skill levels, or/and have potential for further training or who already have the right background for the opening
  • 26. External recruitment • Can be important when: – A firm cannot get all the employees they need from the current staff – When the firm wants to inject a new perspective into running the organisation
  • 27. EXTERNAL SOURCES • External sources – Advertising – Colleges – Agencies – Head Hunting – Open Evening – Referrals and walk –ins – Recruitment on the internet
  • 28. Employee selection • With a pool of applicants, the next step is to select the best candidate for the job. • This means whittling down the application pool by using the screening tools such as test, assessment centers, background and reference checks
  • 29. Why careful selection is important Selecting the right employee is important for three main reasons: 1. Performance: • Your own performance always depends in part on your subordinates. Employees with the right skills and attributes will do a better job for you and the company. Employees without these skills or who are uncompromising or obstructionist wont perform effectively and your won performance and the firm will suffer. The time to screen out undesirables is before they are in the door, not after
  • 30. 2. it is costly to recruit and hire employees in terms of interviewing time, reference checking, traveling etc 3. legal implication of incompetent hiring can be costly and lead to court redress. If you hire a criminal who swindles customers, you will be liable
  • 31. Basic tests for selection For effective recruiting, therefore, the selection test must be valid and reliable Validity: • The test should measure what is supposed to measure. The evidence that is being tested should be job related, in other words, the performance on the test is a valid predictor of subsequent performance on the job
  • 32. • There are two ways to demonstrate test validity: criterion validity and content validity • Criterion validity – shows that those who do well in the test also do well on the job and vise versa • Content validity – show that the test constitutes a fair sample of the content of the job
  • 33. reliability • Reliability refers to its consistency. • It is “the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with the identical test or with an equivalent form of test” • If a person score 90% on Monday, then they should score the same on Tuesday for the same test
  • 34. Types of tests • We can classify test according to whether they measure: – Cognitive (mental) abilities. – Or psychomotor (motor and physical) – Personality – Interest or achievements
  • 35. Other selection techniques • Background investigation and reference check • Polygraph (lie detector) and honesty testing • Graphology • Physical examination • Substance abuse screening
  • 36. Physical/medical examination • Takes place once the person is hired or sometimes after the person is hired • Reasons: – To verify that the applicant meets the physical requirements for the – Discover any medical limitations you should take into account in placing the applicants – To establish a record and baseline of the applicants health for future insurance or compensation claims – By identifying health problems, the examination can reduce absenteeism and accidents and, of course determine communicable diseases that may be unknown to the applicant
  • 37. Interviewing candidates • An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information form a person through oral responses to oral enquires. On the basis of these responses the interviewer is able to predict future job performance • Interview is by far the most widely used personnel selection method
  • 38. Types of interviews • Selection interview • Appraisal interview • Exit interview • We can classify selection interviews according to: – How they are structured – Their content – type of questions they contain – How the firm administers the interview
  • 39. How they are structured • Interviews can be : • Structured or unstructured • Unstructured or nondirective – There is generally no set format to follow so the interview can take various direction – Lack of structures allow the interviewer to ask follow up questions and pursue points of interest as they develop
  • 40. Structured or directive interviews • The questions and acceptable responses are specified in advance and the responses rated for appropriateness of content • All interviewers generally ask all applicants the same questions, and hence: – Tend to be more reliable and valid – It increases consistency across candidates – Enhances job relatedness – Reduces overall subjectivity ( and thus the potential for bias) – May enhance ability to withstand legal challenges • On the other hand structured interviews do not provide opportunity to pursue points of interest as they develop
  • 41. Interview content – type of questions • These could be situational interview questions - asking candidates how they would behavior in a given hypothetical situation and evaluating the applicant based on the choice made • Behavior interview questions asks interviewees to describe how they would reacted to an actual situation in the pasts
  • 42. • Job related interviews – the interviewer tries to deduce what the applicant on the job performance will be base on his or her answers to questions about past behavior. The question here do not revolve around hypothetical questions but ask job related questions e.g. what does human resources recruitment and selection involve
  • 43. • Stress interview – seeks to make the applicant uncomfortable with occasionally rude questions • Aims is supposedly to spot sensitive applicants and those with low or high level of stress tolerance • Stress interviews may help unearth hypertensive applicants who might overreact to mild criticism with anger and abuse
  • 44. • Puzzle questions - meant to see how a candidates reacts under pressure. Used mainly for technical and finance related areas
  • 45. Administering the interview • Interviews can be administered in several ways: • One on one • A panel interview • Sequentially or all at once • Computerized or personally
  • 46. What can undermine an interviews usefulness –pitfalls/errors • First impression – which one gets from the interviewees application form and personal appearance • Misunderstanding of the job - interviewers who do not know precisely what the job entails and what sort of candidate is best suited for it usually make their decisions based on incorrect stereotype of what a good applicant is
  • 47. • Candidates-order (contrast) error and pressure to hire - The order in which you see applicants affect how you rate them. After first evaluating unfavorable candidates, an average candidate can score quite highly • Pressure to hire accentuate problems like the error or contrast
  • 48. • Non verbal behavior and impressions management - - eye contact, energy levels , low voice etc can influence the interviewers decision • Body language, smile, posture may interfere with the interviewers judgment • Effect on personal characteristics stereotyping : • Involves categorizing groups according to general traits then attributing those traits to a particular individual once the group membership is known • attractiveness, gender, race - in general, individuals ascribe more favorable traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive people • Some see men or women as more suitable or a certain race as more suitable
  • 49. • Interviewer’s behavior - some interviewers talk so much that the applicant have no time to answer questions. On the other extreme, some interviewers let the applicant dominate the interview and so don’t ask questions. Neither is good situation • Others play the role of a judge or psychologist