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CH 4.pptx

  2. 2. 4.1 EMPLOYEE RECRUITING • Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. • Recruitment is the process concerned with the identification of sources from where the personnel can be employed and motivating them to offer themselves for employment. • The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected.
  3. 3. • Recruitment is the process of actively seeking out, finding and hiring candidates for a specific position or job. • the total process of acquiring and placing human resources in the organization, recruitment falls in between different sub processes as shown in figure given below.
  4. 4. Manpower planning Job analysis Placement Selection Recruitment
  5. 5. 4.1.2 Purpose of Recruitment • to create a wide pool of qualified candidates from which one has to choose the most qualified individual for the job. • to attract as many as possible numbers of competent and qualified applicants to job openings. • the organization can make sure that “the right person to the right job” principle is applied.
  6. 6. 4.1.3 Factors Governing Recruitment • EEO Legislation and Affirmative Action Plan: EEO legislation prohibits discrimination in all phases of employment, including recruitment. • If an imbalance already exists among protected classes, such as underutilization or concentration of one type of worker, most employers respond with an affirmative action plan. • Recruitment is then used to achieve the goals of the affirmative action plan, constraining the options available to recruiters.
  7. 7. • Recruiter Habits: recruiter's past success can lead to save time by avoiding decisions that lead to the same results, but they can also reinforce bad habits or prevent the use of better options. • Environmental Conditions: The unemployment rate, spot shortages in specific skills, predictions of the labor force, labor law and the recruiting activities are strongly influence recruitment. • As the economy, sales, and want ads change, recruiters must adjust their efforts accordingly.
  8. 8. • Job Requirements: What does the job require? Specific vocational skills, responsible attitude toward work, the ability to communicate and the capacity to learn is also important. • Costs: Careful HR planning can minimize these expenses. The best solution is to use proactive HR practices to reduce employee turnover, minimizing the need for recruiting.
  9. 9. • Organizational Policies: those are used to achieve consistency, public relations benefits, and other objectives that may be unrelated to recruiting. Policies that may affect recruitment are; – Compensation Policies: To ensure fair/equitable salary, organizations typically set pay ranges for certain jobs. – Employment Status Policies: Some companies have policies on hiring part -time and temporary employees. – International Hiring Policies: Policies may also require that foreign jobs be staffed with local citizens. This help reduces replacement expenses, reduces the probability of nationalization, and if top jobs are When top positions are kept by local citizens, it minimizes charges of economic exploitation. – Promote-from-Within Policies: These policies give present employees the first opportunity for job openings.
  10. 10. 4.1.4 Sources of Recruitment • An organization can fill up its vacancies either through promotion of people available in the organization or through the selection of people from outside. • Thus, there are two sources of supply of manpower - internal and external.
  11. 11. 1. Internal Sources: • Internal sources refer to the present work force of an organization. 1. Promotion/upgraded : Promotion involves shifting of an employee to a higher position carrying higher responsibilities, higher status, and more pay. 2. Transfer: shifting of the employees from one job to another without a drastic change in the responsibilities and the status of the employees. 3. Retired or Ex-Employees: Sometimes the retired persons are re-employed for the token of their loyalty to the organization.
  12. 12. Filling a job opening from within the organization has the following • advantages: – It increases the general level of moral of employee – It reduces labor turnover – It simplifies the selection process – It is likely to encourage employees to prepare themselves for transfers or promotions, • Disadvantages – The scope for initiation of new idea/talent is reduced. – The employee may become tired. – The spirit of competition among the employees may be hindered. – A new enterprise cannot use the internal source of recruitment
  13. 13. 2. External Sources: 1. Advertisement: Newspaper, Journals bulletins are widely used as a method of attracting people. 2. Employment Agencies– There are specialized agencies, which on receiving requisitions from companies 3. On Campus Recruitment – In this method organizations conduct interviews at the campuses of various institute, universities, and collages in search of prospective employees. 4. Employee Recommendations – the individuals who may be their friends, relatives, or acquaintances, particularly at the lower levels. 5. Labor Unions-The unions are asked to make recommendations for employment of people as a matter of goodwill and cooperation. 6. Gate Hiring – some organizations rely upon the concept of gate hiring to select people who approach on their own for employment in the organization. This method is mostly used in case of unskilled and semi- skilled workers.
  14. 14. 1. Advantage of external recruitment  Qualified personnel- By using external source of recruitment the management can attract qualified and trained people to apply for the vacant job in the organization.  Wider choice- The management has a wider choice when selecting the candidates using external sources of recruitment.  Fresh talent- External recruitment brings new blood in the organization and updated talents and technology.  Competitive spirit- If a company taps external sources, the existing staff will have to compete with the new staff for better performances and results.  Motivational Force: It helps in motivating internal employees to work hard and complete with external candidates while seeking career growth.
  15. 15. 2. Disadvantage external recruitment • Dissatisfaction among existing employee Recruitment from outside may cause dissatisfaction among the existing employees. They may feel that their chances of promotion are reduced. • Costly process or Expensive - A lot of money has to be spent on advertisement, tests, interviews etc. therefore this is costly process. • Lengthy process- External recruitment takes more time for giving notification, receipt of applications, conducting tests, interviews etc. • Demotivating: Existing employees who have put in considerable service may resist the process of filling up vacancies from outside
  16. 16. 4.2 Employee Selection • Selection; is the process of choosing from a group of applicants the individuals best suited for a particular position. • The selection process is a series of specific steps used to decide which recruits should be hired. The process begins when recruits apply for employment and end with hiring decision. • Though the final hiring decision is made by the managers, the HRD evaluates applicants in regard to their potential suitability though the use of valid procedures.
  17. 17. 4.2.1 Criteria of Selection • Selection decisions are usually based on how an applicant is rated in terms of the likelihood of success on the job. • The key job dimensions identified in job analysis and job description provide the basis for determining relevant criteria. • The educational qualifications, technical skills and achievements are used frequently as the basis for selection.
  18. 18. 4.2.2 The Selection Process • Selection establishes a best fit between job requirements and qualifications. • The ability of an organization to achieve its goals, and to survive and grow in a dynamic environment depends to a large extent on the effectiveness of its selection process. • Good selection is the basic request for employee’s productivity. • If good employees are hired, subsequent functions of personnel work and of supervision are easier to be performed. • The selection process tries to match the qualifications of the candidate with the requirement of job.
  19. 19. Step 1. Screening of Applications: • These forms have variety of information about the applicants like his personal bio-data, achievements, experience, educational qualifications etc. • Based on the screening of applications, only those candidates are called for further process of selection, who is found to be suitable to meet the job standards of the organization.
  20. 20. Step 2. Selection Tests: • Selection tests are organized by the organizations to know more about the candidates or to reject the candidates who cannot be called for interview, etc. • Selection tests provide information about the attitude, interest, and personality of the candidate, which cannot be known by application forms. • These selection tests have different objectives and measure different attributes.
  21. 21. These tests may be classified as follows: Achievement Test: also called performance test or trade test. Achievement is concerned with what one has accomplished.  The achievement tests are conducted to measure how well the candidates know the things.  Trade tests are designed to measure an applicant’s knowledge of a specific trade and to measure what the applicant can do currently. Intelligence Test - Intelligence test tries to measure the level of intelligence of a candidate. This test generally includes verbal understanding, word fluency, memory, reasoning.
  22. 22. Personality Test – like; interpersonal competence, dominance-submission, and extroversion. Introversion, self-confidence, leadership ability, patience, ambition are measured through personality tests. Aptitude Test – These tests are designed to assess the special aptitudes of the applicants such as clerical aptitude, mechanical aptitude, mathematical aptitude manual dexterity, abilities and skills.. Interest Test – interest test is conducted to discover a person’s area of interest and to identify the kind of jobs that will satisfy him. Interest test generally measures interest in outdoor activities, mechanical, scientific, artistic, literary, musical, social service etc.
  23. 23. Step 3. Interview  Interview is selection technique that enables the interviewer to view the total individual.  It consists of interaction between interviewer and applicant.  This is the way of finding out overall suitability of candidates for the job.  Interview also provides opportunity to give relevant information about the organization to the candidates.
  24. 24. Types of Interviews 1. Unstructured Interviews: you ask questions as they come to mind. There is no set format to follow. but There is lacks the reliability of a structured interview because each applicant is asked a different series of questions; and may overlook key areas of the applicant's skills or background. 2. Structured Interviews: It rely on a programmed set of questions and developed before the interview begins and are asked of every applicant. 3. Mixed Interviews: It use a combination of structured and unstructured questions. 4. Behavioral Interviews: focuses on a problem or a hypothetical situation that the applicant is asked the ability to solve the types of problems presented. 5. Stress Interviews: It attempts to learn how the applicant will respond to job pressures.
  25. 25. The Interview Process: • The sequential steps for interview process are: interviewer preparation, creation of rapport, information exchange, termination, and evaluation.
  26. 26. 1. Interviewer Preparation: The interviewer should review the application and JD information to prepare specific questions before beginning the interview. Interviewers need to be able to explain job duties, performance standards, pay, benefits, and other areas of interest. 2. Creation of Rapport: The interviewer may use body language to help relax the applicant. A smile, a handshake, a relaxed posture, and the moving aside of paperwork-all communicate without words. 3. Information Exchange: An interviewer will ask questions begin with how, what, why, compare, describe, or expand are more likely to elicit an open response.
  27. 27. • Termination: As the list of questions dwindles or the available time ends, the interviewer must draw the session to close. – nonverbal communication is useful Like Sitting erect, turning toward the door, glancing at a watch or clock-all – tell the applicant that the end is near which may be to wait for a call or letter. – The applicant should not be given an indication of his/her prospects for getting the job. • Evaluation: Immediately after the interview ends, the interviewer should record specific answers by and general impressions about the candidate. • This can improve the reliability of the interview as a selection technique.
  28. 28. Step 4. Checking of References • References are intended to investigate the candidate’s background and can be obtained from school and collage officials, previous employer or other persons of prominence who may be aware of the candidate’s behavior and ability. • Through references more information about the candidates can be asked to select the right type of a person for a job.
  29. 29. Step 5. Medical Examination: • The medical examination is designed to match the applicant’s physical capabilities to job requirements. Medical examination also serves the following purposes. – To reject those whose physical qualification are insufficient to meet the requirements of the work – To obtain the record of the physical condition of the person at the time of hiring. – To prevent the employment of those with communicable disease.
  30. 30. Step 6. Approval by Appropriate Authority: • Then suitable candidates are recommended for selection by the selection committee or personal department. • For top level managers, Board of Directors may be approving authority, for lower levels, functional heads concerned may be approving authority. • When the approval is received, the candidates are informed about their selection and asked to report for duty.
  31. 31. Step 7. Placement: • After the completion of all formalities, the candidates are placed on their jobs initially on probation basis. • During the probation period, employees are observed strongly and when they complete this period successfully, they become the permanent employees of the organization.
  32. 32. 4.2.3 Factors Governing Selection • The challenges in the selection process include; – Slow growth in the labor markets, – Equal employment laws, – legal limitations, – credential distortion, and – ethical considerations
  33. 33. 4.3 Orientation/Induction • Orientation; is the formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their job, and their work unit. • In order to reduce the anxiety that new employees may experience, attempts should be made to integrate the person into the informal organization. • Socialization is the guided adjustment of new employees to the company, the job, and the work group.
  34. 34. 4.3.1 Purposes of Socialization • The Employment Situation: to have the new employee become productive as quickly as possible. • Company Policies and Rules: Employees must have an understanding and considering the guidelines of Policies or the rule in workplace. • Compensation and Benefits: Employees will have a special interest in obtaining information about the reward system. • Corporate Culture:, how we do things around firm’s culture and dress to the way they talk. • Employee Development: Employees should know exactly what is expected of them and what is required by the firm for advancement in the job or via promotion. • Dealing with Change: Employees at all levels must learn to effectively deal with change in order to survive in their jobs.
  35. 35. 4.3.2 Levels of Socialization • HRM Department: HRM department can conduct the orientation in order to socialize the newly hired employees with; The working environment of the organization, the role of coordination, Explain when to report to work. • Supervisor: Immediate supervisor of particular department can also be the source of informing the employees about the culture, rules, procedures and policies of the organization. • Peers: Peers and coworkers of the new hires can perform the orientation function in order to tell the expectation of employers and requirements of the organization as can also answer the queries raised from the employee side.
  36. 36. • Organizational culture: Organizational culture itself can express the do’s and don’ts of any organization. Every organization has its own unique culture. This culture includes – Longstanding and often unwritten, – Rules and regulation – How members should relate to peers, employees, bosses and outsiders • CEO: The CEO’s first responsibility is – to welcome new employees aboard and – talk to them about what a good job choice they made and – to inspire these new employees by talking about what it is like to work for the organization.