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  GRACE	
  APPLICATIONS	
  TO	
  REGIONAL	
  HYDROLOGY	
  AND	
  
                         WATER	
  RESOURCES

               Realizing the Applications Benefits from NASA’s
                       Pathfinding EOS Missions,
                                IGARSS 2010
                                 Honolulu, HI
                               July 25-30, 2010


                    Byron Tapley , Srinivas Bettadpur ,
                    University of Texas Center for Space Research

                    Frank Flechtner
                    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences

                    Michael Watkins
                    CalTech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory




1-08-2008
Grace Mission Concept	


GPS Satellites




                               ACC
                                                        ACC
                                            HAIRS
                           GRACE 1
                                                      GRACE 2


  Ground-Based
  GPS Receiver
                                     Mass Anomalies
Secular/Episodic Gravity Changes

               Difference of two 2-year means (2003-2004 and 2005-2006)
                         (degree/order 30 or ~700 km resolution)




         GIA over Canada;
                                  Lake Victoria basin         Sumatra-Andaman
        Greenland & Alaska
                                      mass loss	

              Earthquake	

          ice mass losses	





                                         microgal
  1-08-2008
Regional Seasonal and Interannual Variability




  1-08-2008
Resent Results: The Global Water Cycle

                                                            Global Gravity Measurements
                                                            are Used to Determine Mean
                                                            Global Mass Distribution and the
                                                            Temporal Variations. which
                                                            measures change in water mass
                                                            of land and oceans




                                                               GRACE measures the change
                                                               in all forms of the water stored
                                                               on land after precipitation has
                                                               been stored as snow, filtrated
                                                               into the ground, evaporated or
                                                               left a basin as stream flow




Storage Change = Inflow (Precipitation) – Outflow (Evaporation + Streamflow)
GRACE DETERMINED GLOBAL MASS FLUX
           CM of Water
Sea Level Rise from Altimetry – 17 Year Trend




Jason-1




GRACE



   Global SL Rate = 3.1 ± 0.4 mm
   (Nerem, 2009)


          Global SL Trend Distribution
          Courtesy Esselborn, GFZ


                                                      7   7
GRACE Mass Estimate

                  Trends (mm/yr)
                      Ocean = 1.2± 0.3
                      Land = 0.3 ± 0.5
                      Greenland = -0.60 ± 0.1
                      Antarctica = -0.40 ± 0.2

                               Famiglietti, 2009




                      GRACE/Jason/Argo Closure

                       Grace Trend(2003-2009.5) =
                       1.3+/- 0.8 mm/yr

                               Chambers, 2009
Variability in Ice-Mass Change


104 Gt/yr




                     246 Gt/yr




                      .




 137Gt/yr
                                      2004   2005   2006   2007   2008     2009



                          286 Gt/yr




                                                            From Watkins et al, 2009
       (from Velicogna et al, 2009)
Groundwater Monitoring
            Estimates match groundwater well measurements



                                                               Illinois




            Illinois

                                                              280,000 sq km

                       Swenson, 2007

Method is applied in regions where groundwater is not well monitored, but
                depletion is likely: Africa, Middle East, etc.
GRACE DETECTS UNSUSTAINABLE GROUNDWATER LOSS
                                          Water Storage Anomaly

                                                                  Drawdown by 31 km3
                                                                  (= 1 Lake Mead)
                                                                  in 66 months

                                                                  Famiglietti et al., 2009




  Observed trends in Sacramento and
  San Joaquin River basins
  in California. Sierra Nevada October,
  2003 – March, 2009
                                                                      Loss of 109 km3
                                                                      (3 Lake Meads)
                                                                      over 72 months

                                                                      Rodell et al., 2009

 Pattern of groundwater depletion in NW
                  India
WE1.L10 - GRACE Applications to Regional Hydrology and Water Resources
WE1.L10 - GRACE Applications to Regional Hydrology and Water Resources
WE1.L10 - GRACE Applications to Regional Hydrology and Water Resources
GRACE Follow-On Status: 2007-10

•    NASA accepted GRACE-II as a Decadal Survey mission, but the
     launch date (~>2020) would create a significant gap in this critical
     climate dataset.

•    Science Community has expressed concern about the loss in
     measurement continuity.

•    GRACE Follow-On studies were split into two parts
     –  Focus on quick gap-filling for GRACE continuity, building on the
        GRACE heritage and to be launched ~2015.
     –  Longer term more for improved measurement precision to be >~2020.


•    NASA included the GRACE Climate Continuity mission, Grace
     FO, in the President’s FY 2011 Budget Initiative
     –  Planned as a possible NASA/ DLR Implementation for launch in
        2016
7/28/10                                                                     15
1-08-2008

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WE1.L10 - GRACE Applications to Regional Hydrology and Water Resources

  • 1.    GRACE  APPLICATIONS  TO  REGIONAL  HYDROLOGY  AND   WATER  RESOURCES Realizing the Applications Benefits from NASA’s Pathfinding EOS Missions, IGARSS 2010 Honolulu, HI July 25-30, 2010 Byron Tapley , Srinivas Bettadpur , University of Texas Center for Space Research Frank Flechtner GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences Michael Watkins CalTech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1-08-2008
  • 2. Grace Mission Concept GPS Satellites ACC ACC HAIRS GRACE 1 GRACE 2 Ground-Based GPS Receiver Mass Anomalies
  • 3. Secular/Episodic Gravity Changes Difference of two 2-year means (2003-2004 and 2005-2006) (degree/order 30 or ~700 km resolution) GIA over Canada; Lake Victoria basin Sumatra-Andaman Greenland & Alaska mass loss Earthquake ice mass losses microgal 1-08-2008
  • 4. Regional Seasonal and Interannual Variability 1-08-2008
  • 5. Resent Results: The Global Water Cycle Global Gravity Measurements are Used to Determine Mean Global Mass Distribution and the Temporal Variations. which measures change in water mass of land and oceans GRACE measures the change in all forms of the water stored on land after precipitation has been stored as snow, filtrated into the ground, evaporated or left a basin as stream flow Storage Change = Inflow (Precipitation) – Outflow (Evaporation + Streamflow)
  • 6. GRACE DETERMINED GLOBAL MASS FLUX CM of Water
  • 7. Sea Level Rise from Altimetry – 17 Year Trend Jason-1 GRACE Global SL Rate = 3.1 ± 0.4 mm (Nerem, 2009) Global SL Trend Distribution Courtesy Esselborn, GFZ 7 7
  • 8. GRACE Mass Estimate Trends (mm/yr) Ocean = 1.2± 0.3 Land = 0.3 ± 0.5 Greenland = -0.60 ± 0.1 Antarctica = -0.40 ± 0.2 Famiglietti, 2009 GRACE/Jason/Argo Closure Grace Trend(2003-2009.5) = 1.3+/- 0.8 mm/yr Chambers, 2009
  • 9. Variability in Ice-Mass Change 104 Gt/yr 246 Gt/yr . 137Gt/yr 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 286 Gt/yr From Watkins et al, 2009 (from Velicogna et al, 2009)
  • 10. Groundwater Monitoring Estimates match groundwater well measurements Illinois Illinois 280,000 sq km Swenson, 2007 Method is applied in regions where groundwater is not well monitored, but depletion is likely: Africa, Middle East, etc.
  • 11. GRACE DETECTS UNSUSTAINABLE GROUNDWATER LOSS Water Storage Anomaly Drawdown by 31 km3 (= 1 Lake Mead) in 66 months Famiglietti et al., 2009 Observed trends in Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins in California. Sierra Nevada October, 2003 – March, 2009 Loss of 109 km3 (3 Lake Meads) over 72 months Rodell et al., 2009 Pattern of groundwater depletion in NW India
  • 15. GRACE Follow-On Status: 2007-10 •  NASA accepted GRACE-II as a Decadal Survey mission, but the launch date (~>2020) would create a significant gap in this critical climate dataset. •  Science Community has expressed concern about the loss in measurement continuity. •  GRACE Follow-On studies were split into two parts –  Focus on quick gap-filling for GRACE continuity, building on the GRACE heritage and to be launched ~2015. –  Longer term more for improved measurement precision to be >~2020. •  NASA included the GRACE Climate Continuity mission, Grace FO, in the President’s FY 2011 Budget Initiative –  Planned as a possible NASA/ DLR Implementation for launch in 2016 7/28/10 15