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TUTORIAL










words that are formed with verbs but act as nouns
very easy to spot
end in –ing  no exception to this rule
can be used as:
a subject,
direct object,
subject complement,
object of preposition.
can be made negative by adding "not."
Examples:
Not doing anything is worse than doing the wrong thing.
He enjoys not working.
The best thing for your health is not smoking.


Example:
Reading helps you learn English.
- reading is the SUBJECT of learn
- WHAT? + helps you learn English = SUBJECT
Other examples:
Swimming is a good exercise.
- swimming is the SUBJECT of be
Smokingcosts a lot of money .
- learning is the subject of cost


Example:
We can’t afford making the same mistake.
- making the same mistake is the direct object of the
sentence
- We + can’t afford +WHAT? = DIRECT OBJECT
Other examples:
She dislikes learning English grammar.
Have you finished working?
Example:
What I really like is travelling to other countries.
- after a linking verb e.g. TO BE
Other examples:
Knowledge is learning something everday.
My favourite occupation is reading books in
English.

-

Example:
After waiting patiently for an hour I left the office.
- waiting patiently for an hour functions as theobject of the
preposition
Preposition+gerund phrase = OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION
Other examples:
I am looking forward to meeting you.
She managed to pass her exam by learning a lot.
Handouts must be taken before leaving the classroom.
The police arrested him for speeding.


generally descriptive and interesting
can tidy up a messy sentence
Examples:
1) On Sunday afternoons I habitually do laundry.
 Doing laundry on Sunday afternoon has become my habit.
2) On the weekend I clean my kitchen, which I enjoy.
On the weekend I enjoy cleaning my kitchen.
3) My greatest challenge in school is to focus while I read.
My greatest challenge in school is focusing on my reading.
Focusing on my reading is my greatest challenge in school.







the "to" form of the verb
e.g. the infinitive form of:
demand ---- to demand
supply ---- to supply
Examples:
He needs to buy a new mobile phone.
The teacher wants to explain the new lesson.
can be made negative by adding "not.“
Examples:
I decided not to go.
The most important thing is not to give up.
1) After certain verbs, adjectives and nouns.
a. Verb + infinitive
They hope to reach the party on time.
I want to try the new ice-cream flavour.
b. Adjective + infinitive
I’m happy to hear you are well.
She’s delighted to see him.
c. Noun + infinitive
I’ve got some homework to do.
It’s a high price to pay.
It’s time to take a break.
2) To express a purpose
I got up early to do homework.
I have some letters to write.
Some verbs (e.g.love, hate, start, prefer ) can take
gerund or infinitive, with similar meanings
Examples:
a) I loveto eat chocolates.
b)I loveeating chocolates.
a) I startedto polish the car, but then decided not to.
b) I startedpolishing the car, but then decided not to.
a) I hateto get up early.
b) I hategetting up early.
• A few verbs (such as ‘stop’, ‘remember’ and ‘forget’ )
can be followed by either the gerund or the infinitivebut
the meanings are different.
Examples:
STOP
They stopped having lunch at the restaurant.
(They don’t eat at the restaurant anymore)
They stopped to have lunch at the restaurant.
(They stopped another activity in order to have
lunch at the restaurant)
REMEMBER
Remember to bring your portfolio to the class
tomorrow.
(Don’t forget to bring your portfolio...)
I remember collecting marbles in our old
neighbourhood.
(Past memory: I remember that I collected
marbles ...)
REGRET
I regret to tell you that your application has been
rejected.
(To apologise for something bad. To inform
something bad. This is used in moreformal
situations.)
I regret not saying goodbye before leaving.
(To be sorry now for something we did in the past)
BE CAREFUL!
‘to’ can be part of the infinitive or it can be a
preposition
use gerund after the preposition ‘to’
Examples:
I look forward to hearing from you. (√)
I look forward to hear from you. (X)
  After verbs that
express likes/dislikes:
      
            
like, love, enjoy
dislike, hate
don't mind, can't stand
..... doing
 After verbs that  refer to
a future event :   
 want,  hope,  intend
 would like, promise
.........  to do
After certain other
verbs,  such as :  
        
admit             imagine
appreciate    involve
avoid             keep (on)
consider        mention
delay             miss
deny              postpone
finish             suggest
........ doing
After certain other
verbs, such as  :      
         
afford           help
agree           learn
arrange        manage
choose         offer
fail               refuse
happen        seem
..............   to do
After certain
expressions: 
it's no use
it's no good
there's no point in
.......... doing
After "too" & "
enough":       
too difficult
easy enough 
...............  to do
After prepositions :  
     
interested in ...   
instead of ...
good at ...
before ...
after
............. doing
After adjectives:       
            
glad 
(ex : glad to know...)
pleased 
(ex : pleased to meet you...)
disappointed 
(ex : disappointed to hear...)
1.    It's obvious he's only interested in (make)
______________ money.
2.    Anne couldn't find a taxi so I offered (drive)
________________ her to the station.
3.   I managed (book) ________________ two seats
on the morning flight.
4.   I promise (send) _______________ you our new
brochure as soon as it's available.  
5.   Peter was delighted (meet) _______________ a
former colleague at the conference.
 
6.   I avoid (take) _______________ the car
whenever possible, especially in big cities.
7.   We finished the job by (work)
_______________ 12 hours a day.  
8.   Bob sent a report to the Chairman instead
of (attend) _______________ the meeting.
9.   A lot of people dislike (drive)
_______________ at night.  
10.  I intend (speak) _______________ to my
boss about your complaint.
1. There’s a lot of work ______ (do) in the new building.
2. ‘What’s this for?’
‘It’s for _______ (cook) the vegetables.’
3. I really love _____ (play) with the children.
4. ______ (swim) is a good form of exercise.
5. I can’t stand _____ (do) the washing-up.
6.We managed ______ (pass) the exam by _____ (test)
each other every evening.
7. We were getting tired, so we stopped _____ (have)
lunch.
8. I was surprised _______ (not hear) about the new baby.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
I want _____ (finish) work early tonight.
I hate ______ (wait) for buses in the rain.
I’m going to the café _____ (meet) Anna.
Sam is really good at _____ (climb).
Thank you for ____ (be) so helpful.
I enjoy _____ (listen) to the radio while cooking.
Let’s go now. I’m worried about _____ (miss) the
train.
He refused _____ (help) me.
Gerund vs.-infinitive

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Gerund vs.-infinitive

  • 2.           words that are formed with verbs but act as nouns very easy to spot end in –ing  no exception to this rule can be used as: a subject, direct object, subject complement, object of preposition. can be made negative by adding "not." Examples: Not doing anything is worse than doing the wrong thing. He enjoys not working. The best thing for your health is not smoking.
  • 3.   Example: Reading helps you learn English. - reading is the SUBJECT of learn - WHAT? + helps you learn English = SUBJECT Other examples: Swimming is a good exercise. - swimming is the SUBJECT of be Smokingcosts a lot of money . - learning is the subject of cost
  • 4.   Example: We can’t afford making the same mistake. - making the same mistake is the direct object of the sentence - We + can’t afford +WHAT? = DIRECT OBJECT Other examples: She dislikes learning English grammar. Have you finished working?
  • 5. Example: What I really like is travelling to other countries. - after a linking verb e.g. TO BE Other examples: Knowledge is learning something everday. My favourite occupation is reading books in English.
  • 6.  -  Example: After waiting patiently for an hour I left the office. - waiting patiently for an hour functions as theobject of the preposition Preposition+gerund phrase = OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION Other examples: I am looking forward to meeting you. She managed to pass her exam by learning a lot. Handouts must be taken before leaving the classroom. The police arrested him for speeding.
  • 7.   generally descriptive and interesting can tidy up a messy sentence Examples: 1) On Sunday afternoons I habitually do laundry.  Doing laundry on Sunday afternoon has become my habit. 2) On the weekend I clean my kitchen, which I enjoy. On the weekend I enjoy cleaning my kitchen. 3) My greatest challenge in school is to focus while I read. My greatest challenge in school is focusing on my reading. Focusing on my reading is my greatest challenge in school.
  • 8.        the "to" form of the verb e.g. the infinitive form of: demand ---- to demand supply ---- to supply Examples: He needs to buy a new mobile phone. The teacher wants to explain the new lesson. can be made negative by adding "not.“ Examples: I decided not to go. The most important thing is not to give up.
  • 9. 1) After certain verbs, adjectives and nouns. a. Verb + infinitive They hope to reach the party on time. I want to try the new ice-cream flavour. b. Adjective + infinitive I’m happy to hear you are well. She’s delighted to see him. c. Noun + infinitive I’ve got some homework to do. It’s a high price to pay. It’s time to take a break. 2) To express a purpose I got up early to do homework. I have some letters to write.
  • 10. Some verbs (e.g.love, hate, start, prefer ) can take gerund or infinitive, with similar meanings Examples: a) I loveto eat chocolates. b)I loveeating chocolates. a) I startedto polish the car, but then decided not to. b) I startedpolishing the car, but then decided not to. a) I hateto get up early. b) I hategetting up early.
  • 11. • A few verbs (such as ‘stop’, ‘remember’ and ‘forget’ ) can be followed by either the gerund or the infinitivebut the meanings are different. Examples: STOP They stopped having lunch at the restaurant. (They don’t eat at the restaurant anymore) They stopped to have lunch at the restaurant. (They stopped another activity in order to have lunch at the restaurant)
  • 12. REMEMBER Remember to bring your portfolio to the class tomorrow. (Don’t forget to bring your portfolio...) I remember collecting marbles in our old neighbourhood. (Past memory: I remember that I collected marbles ...)
  • 13. REGRET I regret to tell you that your application has been rejected. (To apologise for something bad. To inform something bad. This is used in moreformal situations.) I regret not saying goodbye before leaving. (To be sorry now for something we did in the past)
  • 14. BE CAREFUL! ‘to’ can be part of the infinitive or it can be a preposition use gerund after the preposition ‘to’ Examples: I look forward to hearing from you. (√) I look forward to hear from you. (X)
  • 15.   After verbs that express likes/dislikes:                     like, love, enjoy dislike, hate don't mind, can't stand ..... doing  After verbs that  refer to a future event :     want,  hope,  intend  would like, promise .........  to do
  • 16. After certain other verbs,  such as :            admit             imagine appreciate    involve avoid             keep (on) consider        mention delay             miss deny              postpone finish             suggest ........ doing After certain other verbs, such as  :                 afford           help agree           learn arrange        manage choose         offer fail               refuse happen        seem ..............   to do
  • 17. After certain expressions:  it's no use it's no good there's no point in .......... doing After "too" & " enough":        too difficult easy enough  ...............  to do
  • 18. After prepositions :         interested in ...    instead of ... good at ... before ... after ............. doing After adjectives:                     glad  (ex : glad to know...) pleased  (ex : pleased to meet you...) disappointed  (ex : disappointed to hear...)
  • 19. 1.    It's obvious he's only interested in (make) ______________ money. 2.    Anne couldn't find a taxi so I offered (drive) ________________ her to the station. 3.   I managed (book) ________________ two seats on the morning flight. 4.   I promise (send) _______________ you our new brochure as soon as it's available.   5.   Peter was delighted (meet) _______________ a former colleague at the conference.  
  • 20. 6.   I avoid (take) _______________ the car whenever possible, especially in big cities. 7.   We finished the job by (work) _______________ 12 hours a day.   8.   Bob sent a report to the Chairman instead of (attend) _______________ the meeting. 9.   A lot of people dislike (drive) _______________ at night.   10.  I intend (speak) _______________ to my boss about your complaint.
  • 21. 1. There’s a lot of work ______ (do) in the new building. 2. ‘What’s this for?’ ‘It’s for _______ (cook) the vegetables.’ 3. I really love _____ (play) with the children. 4. ______ (swim) is a good form of exercise. 5. I can’t stand _____ (do) the washing-up. 6.We managed ______ (pass) the exam by _____ (test) each other every evening. 7. We were getting tired, so we stopped _____ (have) lunch. 8. I was surprised _______ (not hear) about the new baby.
  • 22. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I want _____ (finish) work early tonight. I hate ______ (wait) for buses in the rain. I’m going to the café _____ (meet) Anna. Sam is really good at _____ (climb). Thank you for ____ (be) so helpful. I enjoy _____ (listen) to the radio while cooking. Let’s go now. I’m worried about _____ (miss) the train. He refused _____ (help) me.