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GE8073 - FUNDAMENTALS OF
NANOSCIENCE
UNIT 1
• Nanoscale Science and Technology- Implications
for Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Engineering-
Classifications of nano-structured materials- nano
particles- quantum dots, nano-wires-ultra-thin
films- multilayered materials. Length Scales
involved and effect on properties: Mechanical,
Electronic, Optical, Magnetic and Thermal
properties. Introduction to properties and
motivation for study (qualitative only).
What is Nanoscience?
• The study of objects and phenomena at a very small
scale, roughly 1-100 nanometers (nm) is called as
Nanoscale science or Nanoscience.
What is Nanotechnology?
• Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the
study and application of extremely small
things and can be used across all the other
science fields, such as chemistry, biology,
physics, materials science, and engineering.
• Nanoscience and nanotechnology involve the
ability to see and to control individual atoms
and molecules.
• Everything on Earth is made up of atoms—the
food we eat, the clothes we wear, the
buildings and houses we live in, and our own
bodies.
Characteristics of Nanoscale materials
• Fiber that is stronger than spider web
• Metal 100 times stronger than steel and 1/6 of its weight
• Catalysts that respond more quickly and to more agents
• Plastics that conduct electricity.
• Coatings that are nearly frictionless –(Shipping Industry)
• Materials that change color and transparency on demand.
• Materials that are self repairing, self cleaning, and never
need repainting.
• Nanoscale powders that are five times as light as plastic but
provide the same radiation protection as metal.
IMPLICATIONS
FOR PHYSICS
• The construction of specific molecules is governed
by the physical forces between the individual atoms
composing them.
– Nanoscale materials mass is extremely small
– Gravitational forces become negligible
– Electromagnetic forces are dominant
– Wave-Particle duality of matter
– Quantum confinement: originate when a critical
threshold size is reached (due to the restriction of charge
carrier motion to a small volume comparable to the
wavelength of the electron).
Contd…
– Quantization of Energy Levels: As the size of a particle
decreases till nanoscale, the confinement effect makes
the energy levels discrete and this increases up the
bandgap and ultimately the bandgap energy also
increases. Bandgap and wavelength are inversely
proportional to each other. The bandgap energy is
inversely proportional to the size.
Contd…
– Increased Surface Area to Volume Ratio: the amount
of surface area per unit volume of an object or
collection of objects
– Reactivity is increased
Contd…
– Nanoparticle reinforced polymers (or) Nanocomposites:
– Requirements for increased fuel economy in motor vehicles, demand the use
of new, light weight materials — typically plastics — that can replace metal.
– Nanocomposites, a new class of materials, consist of traditional polymers
reinforced by nanometer-scale particles dispersed throughout.
– These reinforced polymers present an economical solution to metal
replacement.
– These nanocomposites can be easily extruded or molded to near-final shape,
provide stiffness and strength approaching that of metals, and reduce weight.
– Corrosion resistance, noise dampening, parts consolidation, and recyclability
all would be improved.
– The weight reduction of motor vehicles from proposed potential applications
are expected to save fuel and thereby reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Contd…
– The current generation of lithium ion batteries will be
replaced by nanotechnology power sources.
– Because lithium ion batteries work just fine for a cell phone
used for the occasional short phone call.
– However, if used to power future smart phones, such a
battery is likely to run down quite quickly.
– Nanotechnology will help enable new kinds of power
sources, such as better batteries, miniature fuel cells, and
tiny photovoltaic panels that will have greater power
densities than today’s batteries.
FOR CHEMISTRY
• The interaction of different molecules is governed
by chemical forces.
– Nanomaterial is formed of at least a cluster of atoms or
cluster of molecules.
– It follows all types of bindings that are important in
chemistry which are important in Nanoscience.
– They are generally classified as:
– Intra-molecular bonding (chemical interactions): These
are bondings that involve changes in the chemical
structure of the molecules. They include: ionic bonds,
covalent bonds and metallic bonds;
Contd…..
– Inter-molecular bonding (physical interaction): These
are bondings that do not involve changes in the
chemical structure of the molecules. They include ion-
ion and ion-dipole interactions; Van der Waals
interactions; hydrogen bonds; hydrophobic interactions;
repulsive forces.
– Nanoscale particles exhibit greater equilibrium vapor
pressures, chemical potentials and solubility’s relative
to bulk materials. This is due to high surface energy of
such small particles.
– Ionization potential increases as the transition-metal-
atom cluster drops to nano scale
Contd…..
– Ionization potential increases as the transition-metal-
atom cluster drops to nano scale
– Nanofluidics is the study of the behavior, manipulation,
and control of fluids that are confined to structures of
nanometer (typically 1-100 nm) characteristic
– A dendrimer is a synthetic, three-dimensional
macromolecule. It is built up from a monomer, with new
branches added in steps until a tree-like structure is
created (dendrimer comes from the Greek dendra,
meaning tree). They can also be made with specific
functions, such as efficient fluorophores or as carriers,
e.g. for drugs.
Contd…..
– Catalysis: A catalyst is a substance that increases a
chemical reaction rate without being consumed or
chemically altered.
– One of the most important properties of a catalyst is its
activesurface where the reaction takes place.
– The ‘active surface’ increases when the size of the
catalysts is decreased: the smaller the catalyst particles,
the greater the ratio of surface-to-volume.
– The higher is the catalysts’ active surface, the greater is
the surface reactivity.
Contd…..
– Sustainability: Nanotechnology will improve agricultural
yields for an increased population, provide more
economical water filtration and desalination, and enable
renewable energy sources such as highly efficient solar
energy conversion; it will reduce the need for scarce
material resources and diminish pollution for a cleaner
environment.
– Basic studies of cell biology and pathology, to
characterize the chemical and mechanical properties of
cells (including processes such as cell division and
locomotion) and to measure properties of single
molecules.
FOR BIOLOGY
– Nanotechnology can provide new formulations and
routes for drug delivery, enormously broadening the
drugs’ therapeutic potential.
– It follows all types of bindings that are important in
chemistry which are important in Nanoscience.
– Advanced drug delivery systems, including implantable
devices that automatically administering drugs and
capable of sensoring drug level.
– Medical diagnostic tools, such as cancer-tagging
mechanisms and "lab-on-a-chip", real time diagnostics
for physicians.
Contd…..
– Basic studies of cell biology and pathology, to
characterize the chemical and mechanical properties of
cells (including processes such as cell division and
locomotion) and to measure properties of single
molecules.
– Artificial inorganic and organic nanoscale materials are
introduced into cells to play roles in diagnostics
– Nano-engineered gels and other materials are used to
replace lost tissue or to provide structure for the
regeneration of natural tissue. Current applications
include bone replacement and nanostructures that help
in the re-growth of nerves.
Contd…..
– Detection: The detection of a specific chemical or
biological compound within a mixture represents the
basis for the operation of numerous devices, like
chemical sensors, biosensors and microarrays.
– As with catalysis, a detection reaction occurs at the
material interface.
– The rate, specificity and accuracy of this reaction can be
improved using nanomaterials rather than bulk materials
in the detection area.
– The higher surface to volume ratio of nanomaterials
increases the surface area available for detection with a
positive effect on the rate and on the limit of detection
of the reaction.
Contd…..
• Nanotechnology will contribute directly to
advancements in agriculture in a number of ways:
– (1) molecularly engineered biodegradable chemicals for
nourishing plants and protecting against insects;
– (2) genetic improvement for animals and plants;
– (3) delivery of genes and drugs to animals; and
– (4) nano-array-based technologies for DNA testing, which, for
example, will allow a scientist to know which genes are expressed
in a plant when it is exposed to salt or drought stress.
FOR ENGINEERING
– Nanotechnology Nano-engineering is leading to better
fuel cells and photovoltaics, as a better alternative
energy sources into new and bigger markets.
– Nanotech has the potential to create new ways to store
and transport energy, which, in turn, will enable entirely
new architectures for the power grid.
– Nano-engineered catalysts can be used to better extract
oil, or turn oil into fuel for cars.
– The replacement of carbon black in tires by nanometer-
scale particles of inorganic clays and polymers is a new
technology that is leading to the production of
environmentally friendly, wear-resistant tires.
Contd…..
– Significant changes in lighting technologies are expected in
the next ten years.
– The potential importance of nano-engineered drug delivery
systems can be easily understood by the apparent ability of
nano-engineering to replace chemotherapy with an injection
of specially prepared nanoparticles that kill cancer cells with
minimal side effects for the patient.
– Mobile communications using the latest smart-phones and
notebook computers have transformed the way that
business is done and personal relationships are conducted.
– Nanotech is also improving medical imaging with improved
diagnostic imaging techniques.
NANOMATERIALS
What is it?
• A nanomaterial is a material made up of nano-
structures between 1 and 100nm in size.
• These materials can be quantum dots, nano wires,
nano tubes, nano crystals etc.,
CLASSIFICATION OF
NANOMATERIALS
What is it?
• Classification is based on the number of
dimensions, which are not confined to the
nanoscale range.
Examples
• 0-Dimensional – Quantum Dots, Nano-particles
• 1- Dimensional – Nano-wires, Nano-tubes, Nano-
rods
• 2- Dimensional – Nano-films, Nano-layers, Nano-
coatings
• 3- Dimensional – bundle of nano-wires,
nanocomposites
LOTUS LEAF EFFECT
What is it?
• The lotus effect refers to self-cleaning
properties that are a result
of ultrahydrophobicity as exhibited by the
leaves of Nelumbo, the lotus flower.
• Dirt particles are picked up by water droplets
due to the micro- and nanoscopic architecture
on the surface, which minimizes the droplet's
adhesion to that surface.
Functional Principle
• The high surface tension of water causes droplets to assume a
nearly spherical shape, since a sphere has minimal surface
area, and this shape therefore minimizes the solid-liquid
surface energy.
• On contact of liquid with a surface, adhesion forces result
in wetting of the surface.
• Either complete or incomplete wetting may occur depending
on the structure of the surface and the fluid tension of the
droplet.
• The cause of self-cleaning properties is the hydrophobic
water-repellent double structure of the surface.
• This enables the contact area and the adhesion force
between surface and droplet to be significantly reduced,
resulting in a self-cleaning process.
Functional Principle
• This hierarchical double structure is formed out of a
characteristic epidermis (its outermost layer called the
cuticle) and the covering waxes.
• The epidermis of the lotus plant possesses papillae
10 μm to 20 μm in height and 10 μm to 15 μm in width
on which the so-called epicuticular waxes are imposed.
• These superimposed waxes are hydrophobic and form
the second layer of the double structure.
• This system regenerates.
• This biochemical property is responsible for the
functioning of the water repellency of the surface.
NANOPARTICLES
• Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100
nanometers in size.
• They exhibit three-dimensional confinement.
• This structure does not permit free particle motion
in any dimension.
• Nanoparticles may exist as amorphous or crystalline
structure
• If crystalline, each nanoparticle may be either a
single crystal or polycrystalline
Properties of nanoparticles
• Physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles
that may change at the nano-scale include
• Color:
• Melting temperature: Gold nanoparticles melt at
much lower temperatures (~300 °C for 2.5 nm size)
than the gold slabs (1064 °C).
Properties Gold (Au) Gold Nano
Color Yellow Red
Electrical
Conductivity
Conductive Loses conductivity at 1-3 nm
Magnetism Non-magnetic Becomes magnetic at 3 nm
Chemical
Reactivity
Chemically inert Explosive and catalytic
Contd….
• Optical Absorption: Absorption of solar radiation is
much higher in materials composed of
nanoparticles than it is in thin films of continuous
sheets of material. In both solar PV and solar
thermal applications, controlling the size, shape,
and material of the particles, it is possible to control
solar absorption. Zinc oxide particles have been
found to have superior UV blocking properties
compared to its bulk substitute. This is one of the
reasons why it is often used in the preparation of
sunscreen lotions, and is completely photostable.
Contd….
• Chemical reactivity: Suspensions of nanoparticles
are possible since the interaction of the particle
surface with the solvent is strong enough to
overcome density differences, which otherwise
usually result in a material either sinking or floating
in a liquid.
• Electrical conductivity: Conductivity of bulk Gold
disappears when the particle is reduced to nano.
• Magnetism: Super-paramagnetism is a form of magnetism,
which appears in small ferromagnetic (or) ferrimagnetic
nanoparticles. Ferromagnetic materials smaller than 10 nm can
switch their magnetisation direction using room temperature
thermal energy, thus making them unsuitable for memory storage.
• (Super Paramagnetic materials are magnetic material with
permeability several times greater than that of ferromagnetic
materials).
• Mechanical strength: Clay nanoparticles when incorporated into
polymer matrices increase reinforcement, leading to stronger
plastics, verifiable by a higher glass transition temperature and
other mechanical property tests. These nanoparticles are hard,
and impart their properties to the polymer (plastic).
Contd….
Synthesis of nanoparticles
• Sol-Gel Method
• Thermal Evaporation Method
Thermal Evaporation Method
• The source material is evaporated in high vacuum
and deposited on the substrate
QUANTUM DOTS
• Quantum dots, also known as nanocrystals, are
another form of nanomaterial
• Quantum dots are extremely small
semiconductor structures, usually ranging from
2- 10 nanometers (10-50 atoms) in diameter
• Because of their electrical characteristics, they
are [electrically] tunable.
• The electrical conductivity of semiconductors
can change due to external stimulus such as
voltage or exposure to light, etc.
• A quantum dot is a structure that is sufficiently small in all
directions that electrons contained on it have no freedom to
move in a classical sense and are forced to exhibit quantum
characteristics, occupying discrete energy states just as they
would in an atom.
• Indeed, quantum dots have sometimes been referred to as
artificial atoms.
• Quantum dots absorb light, then quickly re-emit the light but in
a different color.
• In fluorescent dye applications, emission frequencies increase
as the size of the quantum dot decreases, resulting in a colour
shift from red to blue in the light emitted.
Synthesis of QDs
• Colloidal Method
• Colloidal synthesis is one of the most cost-effective
methods for synthesizing quantum dots.
• The synthesis of colloidal quantum dots is done by using
precursors, organic surfactants, and solvents. Heating the
solution at high temperature, the precursors decompose
forming monomers which then nucleate and generate
nanocrystals.
• The temperature during the synthetic process is a critical
factor in determining optimal conditions for the
nanocrystal growth. It must be high enough to allow for
rearrangement and annealing of atoms during the
synthesis process while being low enough to promote
crystal growth.
• It must be high enough to allow for
rearrangement and annealing of atoms during the
synthesis process while being low enough to
promote crystal growth.
Nano Wires
• Nanofibers are slightly larger in diameter than the typical
nanomaterial definition, though still invisible to the naked-
eye.
• Again these could either be amorphous, single-crystalline
or polycrystalline
• Their size ranges between 50 nm - 300 nm in diameter
• Types of Nanowires:
– Metallic - Made from Nickel, Platinum or Gold
– Semi-conducting - Comprises of Silicon, Indium
phosphide or Gallium Nitride
– Insulating - Silicon Dioxide or Titanium dioxide
– Molecular – Involves repeating organic or inorganic
molecular units
Synthesis of Nanowires
• Electro-Spinning Method
• Template Base Method
Electro-Spinning Method
• Electrospinning is a voltage-driven process
governed by the electro-hydrodynamic
phenomena where fibers and particles are made
from a polymer solution.
• The most basic set up for this technique involves a
solution contained in a reservoir (typically a
syringe) and tipped with a blunt needle (for
needle-based electrospraying), a pump, a high
voltage power source and a collector.
• Uses an electrical charge to draw very fine (typically on the micro
or nanoscale) fibres from a liquid.
• Sufficiently high voltage is applied to a liquid droplet and the
body of the liquid becomes charged.
• When the electrostatic repelling force overcomes the surface
tension force of the polymer solution, the liquid spills out of the
spinneret and forms an extremely fine continuous filament.
• These filaments are collected onto a rotating or stationary
collector with an electrode where they accumulate and bond
together to form nanofiber fabric.
Template Based Method
• In the electrodeposition processes, a thin conducting metal film,
such as gold, is first evaporated on one side of the porous AAO
membrane to serve as the cathode.
• The template is attached to the cathode, which is subsequently
brought into contact with the deposition solution. When a current
or potential is applied, cations and anions from the deposition
solution diffuse towards the pore mouth, then inside towards the
bottom of pores where electrochemical reactions of the species
occur on gold surface.
• Then NWs grow along the pores to the top. The length of the NWs
can be tuned by the time of electrodeposition process.
• After pore filling, the pure arrays of NWs can be obtained by
dissolution of the template membrane in a basic solution.
Ultra-Thin Film
• A solvent that contains a molecular material that when
applied to a surface, chemically aligns itself to form
the strongest possible bond and appear as a film. If its
thickness is in nanoscale, it is called as Ultra-thin film.
• Properties
• Thin films are different from bulk materials and they
are:
» not fully dense
» different defect structures from bulk
» quasi - two dimensional (very thin films)
» strongly influenced by surface and interface effects
» This will change electrical, magnetic, optical, thermal,
and mechanical properties.
Synthesis of Ultra-Thin Film
• Spin Coating
• Atomic Layer Deposition
• Sputtering
Spin Coating
• Spin coating or spin casting, uses a liquid precursor, or sol-
gel precursor deposited onto a smooth, flat substrate which is
subsequently spun at a high velocity to centrifugally spread
the solution over the substrate.
• The speed at which the solution is spun and the viscosity of
the sol determine the ultimate thickness of the deposited film.
• Repeated depositions can be carried out to increase the
thickness of films as desired.
• Thermal treatment is often carried out in order to crystallize
the amorphous spin coated film.
• Such crystalline films can exhibit certain preferred orientations
after crystallization on single crystal substrates.
Atomic Layer Deposition
• Atomic layer deposition (ALD) uses gaseous precursor to
deposit conformal thin films one layer at a time.
• The process is split up into two half reactions, run in
sequence and repeated for each layer, in order to ensure
total layer saturation before beginning the next layer.
• Therefore, one reactant is deposited first, and then the
second reactant is deposited, during which a chemical
reaction occurs on the substrate, forming the desired
composition.
• As a result of the stepwise, the process is slower than
CVD, however it can be run at low temperatures, unlike
CVD.
Sputtering
• Sputtering relies on a plasma (usually a noble gas, such as
argon) to knock material from a "target" a few atoms at a time.
• The target can be kept at a relatively low temperature, since
the process is not one of evaporation, making this one of the
most flexible deposition techniques.
• It is especially useful for compounds or mixtures, where
different components would otherwise tend to evaporate at
different rates. Note, sputtering's step coverage is more or less
conformal.
• It is also widely used in the optical media. The manufacturing
of all formats of CD, DVD, and BD are done with the help of
this technique.
• It is a fast technique and also it provides a good thickness
control. Presently, nitrogen and oxygen gases are also being
used in sputtering.

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GE8073 - FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOSCIENCE.ppt

  • 1. GE8073 - FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOSCIENCE
  • 2. UNIT 1 • Nanoscale Science and Technology- Implications for Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Engineering- Classifications of nano-structured materials- nano particles- quantum dots, nano-wires-ultra-thin films- multilayered materials. Length Scales involved and effect on properties: Mechanical, Electronic, Optical, Magnetic and Thermal properties. Introduction to properties and motivation for study (qualitative only).
  • 3. What is Nanoscience? • The study of objects and phenomena at a very small scale, roughly 1-100 nanometers (nm) is called as Nanoscale science or Nanoscience.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 7.
  • 8. • Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.
  • 9. • Nanoscience and nanotechnology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules. • Everything on Earth is made up of atoms—the food we eat, the clothes we wear, the buildings and houses we live in, and our own bodies.
  • 10. Characteristics of Nanoscale materials • Fiber that is stronger than spider web • Metal 100 times stronger than steel and 1/6 of its weight • Catalysts that respond more quickly and to more agents • Plastics that conduct electricity. • Coatings that are nearly frictionless –(Shipping Industry) • Materials that change color and transparency on demand. • Materials that are self repairing, self cleaning, and never need repainting. • Nanoscale powders that are five times as light as plastic but provide the same radiation protection as metal.
  • 12. FOR PHYSICS • The construction of specific molecules is governed by the physical forces between the individual atoms composing them. – Nanoscale materials mass is extremely small – Gravitational forces become negligible – Electromagnetic forces are dominant – Wave-Particle duality of matter – Quantum confinement: originate when a critical threshold size is reached (due to the restriction of charge carrier motion to a small volume comparable to the wavelength of the electron).
  • 13. Contd… – Quantization of Energy Levels: As the size of a particle decreases till nanoscale, the confinement effect makes the energy levels discrete and this increases up the bandgap and ultimately the bandgap energy also increases. Bandgap and wavelength are inversely proportional to each other. The bandgap energy is inversely proportional to the size.
  • 14.
  • 15. Contd… – Increased Surface Area to Volume Ratio: the amount of surface area per unit volume of an object or collection of objects – Reactivity is increased
  • 16.
  • 17. Contd… – Nanoparticle reinforced polymers (or) Nanocomposites: – Requirements for increased fuel economy in motor vehicles, demand the use of new, light weight materials — typically plastics — that can replace metal. – Nanocomposites, a new class of materials, consist of traditional polymers reinforced by nanometer-scale particles dispersed throughout. – These reinforced polymers present an economical solution to metal replacement. – These nanocomposites can be easily extruded or molded to near-final shape, provide stiffness and strength approaching that of metals, and reduce weight. – Corrosion resistance, noise dampening, parts consolidation, and recyclability all would be improved. – The weight reduction of motor vehicles from proposed potential applications are expected to save fuel and thereby reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
  • 18. Contd… – The current generation of lithium ion batteries will be replaced by nanotechnology power sources. – Because lithium ion batteries work just fine for a cell phone used for the occasional short phone call. – However, if used to power future smart phones, such a battery is likely to run down quite quickly. – Nanotechnology will help enable new kinds of power sources, such as better batteries, miniature fuel cells, and tiny photovoltaic panels that will have greater power densities than today’s batteries.
  • 19. FOR CHEMISTRY • The interaction of different molecules is governed by chemical forces. – Nanomaterial is formed of at least a cluster of atoms or cluster of molecules. – It follows all types of bindings that are important in chemistry which are important in Nanoscience. – They are generally classified as: – Intra-molecular bonding (chemical interactions): These are bondings that involve changes in the chemical structure of the molecules. They include: ionic bonds, covalent bonds and metallic bonds;
  • 20. Contd….. – Inter-molecular bonding (physical interaction): These are bondings that do not involve changes in the chemical structure of the molecules. They include ion- ion and ion-dipole interactions; Van der Waals interactions; hydrogen bonds; hydrophobic interactions; repulsive forces. – Nanoscale particles exhibit greater equilibrium vapor pressures, chemical potentials and solubility’s relative to bulk materials. This is due to high surface energy of such small particles. – Ionization potential increases as the transition-metal- atom cluster drops to nano scale
  • 21. Contd….. – Ionization potential increases as the transition-metal- atom cluster drops to nano scale – Nanofluidics is the study of the behavior, manipulation, and control of fluids that are confined to structures of nanometer (typically 1-100 nm) characteristic – A dendrimer is a synthetic, three-dimensional macromolecule. It is built up from a monomer, with new branches added in steps until a tree-like structure is created (dendrimer comes from the Greek dendra, meaning tree). They can also be made with specific functions, such as efficient fluorophores or as carriers, e.g. for drugs.
  • 22.
  • 23. Contd….. – Catalysis: A catalyst is a substance that increases a chemical reaction rate without being consumed or chemically altered. – One of the most important properties of a catalyst is its activesurface where the reaction takes place. – The ‘active surface’ increases when the size of the catalysts is decreased: the smaller the catalyst particles, the greater the ratio of surface-to-volume. – The higher is the catalysts’ active surface, the greater is the surface reactivity.
  • 24. Contd….. – Sustainability: Nanotechnology will improve agricultural yields for an increased population, provide more economical water filtration and desalination, and enable renewable energy sources such as highly efficient solar energy conversion; it will reduce the need for scarce material resources and diminish pollution for a cleaner environment. – Basic studies of cell biology and pathology, to characterize the chemical and mechanical properties of cells (including processes such as cell division and locomotion) and to measure properties of single molecules.
  • 25. FOR BIOLOGY – Nanotechnology can provide new formulations and routes for drug delivery, enormously broadening the drugs’ therapeutic potential. – It follows all types of bindings that are important in chemistry which are important in Nanoscience. – Advanced drug delivery systems, including implantable devices that automatically administering drugs and capable of sensoring drug level. – Medical diagnostic tools, such as cancer-tagging mechanisms and "lab-on-a-chip", real time diagnostics for physicians.
  • 26. Contd….. – Basic studies of cell biology and pathology, to characterize the chemical and mechanical properties of cells (including processes such as cell division and locomotion) and to measure properties of single molecules. – Artificial inorganic and organic nanoscale materials are introduced into cells to play roles in diagnostics – Nano-engineered gels and other materials are used to replace lost tissue or to provide structure for the regeneration of natural tissue. Current applications include bone replacement and nanostructures that help in the re-growth of nerves.
  • 27. Contd….. – Detection: The detection of a specific chemical or biological compound within a mixture represents the basis for the operation of numerous devices, like chemical sensors, biosensors and microarrays. – As with catalysis, a detection reaction occurs at the material interface. – The rate, specificity and accuracy of this reaction can be improved using nanomaterials rather than bulk materials in the detection area. – The higher surface to volume ratio of nanomaterials increases the surface area available for detection with a positive effect on the rate and on the limit of detection of the reaction.
  • 28. Contd….. • Nanotechnology will contribute directly to advancements in agriculture in a number of ways: – (1) molecularly engineered biodegradable chemicals for nourishing plants and protecting against insects; – (2) genetic improvement for animals and plants; – (3) delivery of genes and drugs to animals; and – (4) nano-array-based technologies for DNA testing, which, for example, will allow a scientist to know which genes are expressed in a plant when it is exposed to salt or drought stress.
  • 29. FOR ENGINEERING – Nanotechnology Nano-engineering is leading to better fuel cells and photovoltaics, as a better alternative energy sources into new and bigger markets. – Nanotech has the potential to create new ways to store and transport energy, which, in turn, will enable entirely new architectures for the power grid. – Nano-engineered catalysts can be used to better extract oil, or turn oil into fuel for cars. – The replacement of carbon black in tires by nanometer- scale particles of inorganic clays and polymers is a new technology that is leading to the production of environmentally friendly, wear-resistant tires.
  • 30. Contd….. – Significant changes in lighting technologies are expected in the next ten years. – The potential importance of nano-engineered drug delivery systems can be easily understood by the apparent ability of nano-engineering to replace chemotherapy with an injection of specially prepared nanoparticles that kill cancer cells with minimal side effects for the patient. – Mobile communications using the latest smart-phones and notebook computers have transformed the way that business is done and personal relationships are conducted. – Nanotech is also improving medical imaging with improved diagnostic imaging techniques.
  • 32. What is it? • A nanomaterial is a material made up of nano- structures between 1 and 100nm in size. • These materials can be quantum dots, nano wires, nano tubes, nano crystals etc.,
  • 34. What is it? • Classification is based on the number of dimensions, which are not confined to the nanoscale range.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. Examples • 0-Dimensional – Quantum Dots, Nano-particles • 1- Dimensional – Nano-wires, Nano-tubes, Nano- rods • 2- Dimensional – Nano-films, Nano-layers, Nano- coatings • 3- Dimensional – bundle of nano-wires, nanocomposites
  • 42. What is it? • The lotus effect refers to self-cleaning properties that are a result of ultrahydrophobicity as exhibited by the leaves of Nelumbo, the lotus flower. • Dirt particles are picked up by water droplets due to the micro- and nanoscopic architecture on the surface, which minimizes the droplet's adhesion to that surface.
  • 43. Functional Principle • The high surface tension of water causes droplets to assume a nearly spherical shape, since a sphere has minimal surface area, and this shape therefore minimizes the solid-liquid surface energy. • On contact of liquid with a surface, adhesion forces result in wetting of the surface. • Either complete or incomplete wetting may occur depending on the structure of the surface and the fluid tension of the droplet. • The cause of self-cleaning properties is the hydrophobic water-repellent double structure of the surface. • This enables the contact area and the adhesion force between surface and droplet to be significantly reduced, resulting in a self-cleaning process.
  • 44. Functional Principle • This hierarchical double structure is formed out of a characteristic epidermis (its outermost layer called the cuticle) and the covering waxes. • The epidermis of the lotus plant possesses papillae 10 μm to 20 μm in height and 10 μm to 15 μm in width on which the so-called epicuticular waxes are imposed. • These superimposed waxes are hydrophobic and form the second layer of the double structure. • This system regenerates. • This biochemical property is responsible for the functioning of the water repellency of the surface.
  • 46. • Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. • They exhibit three-dimensional confinement. • This structure does not permit free particle motion in any dimension. • Nanoparticles may exist as amorphous or crystalline structure • If crystalline, each nanoparticle may be either a single crystal or polycrystalline
  • 47.
  • 48. Properties of nanoparticles • Physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles that may change at the nano-scale include • Color: • Melting temperature: Gold nanoparticles melt at much lower temperatures (~300 °C for 2.5 nm size) than the gold slabs (1064 °C). Properties Gold (Au) Gold Nano Color Yellow Red Electrical Conductivity Conductive Loses conductivity at 1-3 nm Magnetism Non-magnetic Becomes magnetic at 3 nm Chemical Reactivity Chemically inert Explosive and catalytic
  • 49. Contd…. • Optical Absorption: Absorption of solar radiation is much higher in materials composed of nanoparticles than it is in thin films of continuous sheets of material. In both solar PV and solar thermal applications, controlling the size, shape, and material of the particles, it is possible to control solar absorption. Zinc oxide particles have been found to have superior UV blocking properties compared to its bulk substitute. This is one of the reasons why it is often used in the preparation of sunscreen lotions, and is completely photostable.
  • 50. Contd…. • Chemical reactivity: Suspensions of nanoparticles are possible since the interaction of the particle surface with the solvent is strong enough to overcome density differences, which otherwise usually result in a material either sinking or floating in a liquid. • Electrical conductivity: Conductivity of bulk Gold disappears when the particle is reduced to nano.
  • 51. • Magnetism: Super-paramagnetism is a form of magnetism, which appears in small ferromagnetic (or) ferrimagnetic nanoparticles. Ferromagnetic materials smaller than 10 nm can switch their magnetisation direction using room temperature thermal energy, thus making them unsuitable for memory storage. • (Super Paramagnetic materials are magnetic material with permeability several times greater than that of ferromagnetic materials). • Mechanical strength: Clay nanoparticles when incorporated into polymer matrices increase reinforcement, leading to stronger plastics, verifiable by a higher glass transition temperature and other mechanical property tests. These nanoparticles are hard, and impart their properties to the polymer (plastic). Contd….
  • 52.
  • 53. Synthesis of nanoparticles • Sol-Gel Method • Thermal Evaporation Method
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59. Thermal Evaporation Method • The source material is evaporated in high vacuum and deposited on the substrate
  • 61. • Quantum dots, also known as nanocrystals, are another form of nanomaterial • Quantum dots are extremely small semiconductor structures, usually ranging from 2- 10 nanometers (10-50 atoms) in diameter • Because of their electrical characteristics, they are [electrically] tunable. • The electrical conductivity of semiconductors can change due to external stimulus such as voltage or exposure to light, etc.
  • 62. • A quantum dot is a structure that is sufficiently small in all directions that electrons contained on it have no freedom to move in a classical sense and are forced to exhibit quantum characteristics, occupying discrete energy states just as they would in an atom. • Indeed, quantum dots have sometimes been referred to as artificial atoms. • Quantum dots absorb light, then quickly re-emit the light but in a different color. • In fluorescent dye applications, emission frequencies increase as the size of the quantum dot decreases, resulting in a colour shift from red to blue in the light emitted.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65. Synthesis of QDs • Colloidal Method
  • 66. • Colloidal synthesis is one of the most cost-effective methods for synthesizing quantum dots. • The synthesis of colloidal quantum dots is done by using precursors, organic surfactants, and solvents. Heating the solution at high temperature, the precursors decompose forming monomers which then nucleate and generate nanocrystals. • The temperature during the synthetic process is a critical factor in determining optimal conditions for the nanocrystal growth. It must be high enough to allow for rearrangement and annealing of atoms during the synthesis process while being low enough to promote crystal growth.
  • 67. • It must be high enough to allow for rearrangement and annealing of atoms during the synthesis process while being low enough to promote crystal growth.
  • 68.
  • 70. • Nanofibers are slightly larger in diameter than the typical nanomaterial definition, though still invisible to the naked- eye. • Again these could either be amorphous, single-crystalline or polycrystalline • Their size ranges between 50 nm - 300 nm in diameter • Types of Nanowires: – Metallic - Made from Nickel, Platinum or Gold – Semi-conducting - Comprises of Silicon, Indium phosphide or Gallium Nitride – Insulating - Silicon Dioxide or Titanium dioxide – Molecular – Involves repeating organic or inorganic molecular units
  • 71. Synthesis of Nanowires • Electro-Spinning Method • Template Base Method
  • 72. Electro-Spinning Method • Electrospinning is a voltage-driven process governed by the electro-hydrodynamic phenomena where fibers and particles are made from a polymer solution. • The most basic set up for this technique involves a solution contained in a reservoir (typically a syringe) and tipped with a blunt needle (for needle-based electrospraying), a pump, a high voltage power source and a collector.
  • 73.
  • 74. • Uses an electrical charge to draw very fine (typically on the micro or nanoscale) fibres from a liquid. • Sufficiently high voltage is applied to a liquid droplet and the body of the liquid becomes charged. • When the electrostatic repelling force overcomes the surface tension force of the polymer solution, the liquid spills out of the spinneret and forms an extremely fine continuous filament. • These filaments are collected onto a rotating or stationary collector with an electrode where they accumulate and bond together to form nanofiber fabric.
  • 75. Template Based Method • In the electrodeposition processes, a thin conducting metal film, such as gold, is first evaporated on one side of the porous AAO membrane to serve as the cathode. • The template is attached to the cathode, which is subsequently brought into contact with the deposition solution. When a current or potential is applied, cations and anions from the deposition solution diffuse towards the pore mouth, then inside towards the bottom of pores where electrochemical reactions of the species occur on gold surface. • Then NWs grow along the pores to the top. The length of the NWs can be tuned by the time of electrodeposition process. • After pore filling, the pure arrays of NWs can be obtained by dissolution of the template membrane in a basic solution.
  • 76.
  • 78. • A solvent that contains a molecular material that when applied to a surface, chemically aligns itself to form the strongest possible bond and appear as a film. If its thickness is in nanoscale, it is called as Ultra-thin film. • Properties • Thin films are different from bulk materials and they are: » not fully dense » different defect structures from bulk » quasi - two dimensional (very thin films) » strongly influenced by surface and interface effects » This will change electrical, magnetic, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties.
  • 79. Synthesis of Ultra-Thin Film • Spin Coating • Atomic Layer Deposition • Sputtering
  • 80. Spin Coating • Spin coating or spin casting, uses a liquid precursor, or sol- gel precursor deposited onto a smooth, flat substrate which is subsequently spun at a high velocity to centrifugally spread the solution over the substrate. • The speed at which the solution is spun and the viscosity of the sol determine the ultimate thickness of the deposited film. • Repeated depositions can be carried out to increase the thickness of films as desired. • Thermal treatment is often carried out in order to crystallize the amorphous spin coated film. • Such crystalline films can exhibit certain preferred orientations after crystallization on single crystal substrates.
  • 81. Atomic Layer Deposition • Atomic layer deposition (ALD) uses gaseous precursor to deposit conformal thin films one layer at a time. • The process is split up into two half reactions, run in sequence and repeated for each layer, in order to ensure total layer saturation before beginning the next layer. • Therefore, one reactant is deposited first, and then the second reactant is deposited, during which a chemical reaction occurs on the substrate, forming the desired composition. • As a result of the stepwise, the process is slower than CVD, however it can be run at low temperatures, unlike CVD.
  • 82. Sputtering • Sputtering relies on a plasma (usually a noble gas, such as argon) to knock material from a "target" a few atoms at a time. • The target can be kept at a relatively low temperature, since the process is not one of evaporation, making this one of the most flexible deposition techniques. • It is especially useful for compounds or mixtures, where different components would otherwise tend to evaporate at different rates. Note, sputtering's step coverage is more or less conformal. • It is also widely used in the optical media. The manufacturing of all formats of CD, DVD, and BD are done with the help of this technique. • It is a fast technique and also it provides a good thickness control. Presently, nitrogen and oxygen gases are also being used in sputtering.