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West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
Maintenance Strategies  Condition
Monitoring Techniques for Power System
Equipment: A Literature Survey
* Engr. Enemuoh F.O. / presenter
* * Mr. Omidiora M. A / co-authors
* * *
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
1. Definitions
2. Overview of Maintenance Approaches
3. Need for Condition Monitoring
4. Power Equipment and their Insulation
Problems
5. Inside a Monitor: Sensors, Data
acquisition, Fault detection and Diagnostic
Techniques
6. Current Research on PM  CM of UHV line
7. Conclusion
Contents
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
 Maintenance: is a process of extending the lifetime of
equipment or at least mean time to the next failure
whose repair may be costly
 Replacement: Restoration wherein a device is removed
and one in better condition is put in its place; if the
device is failed, it is replaced by a working one
 Predictive Maintenance: A maintenance carried out
when it is deemed necessary, based on periodic
inspections, diagnostic tests or other means of
condition monitoring.
 Overhaul: Maintenance or repair requiring major effort
and resulting in a significant improvement of the
device’s condition
 Repair: Restoration wherein a failed device is returned
to operable condition.
1. Definitions
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
What are Condition Monitoring and Preventive Maintenance?
 CM: The collection, storage, comparison, and
evaluation of data taken from a machine to establish
the running condition of that machine.
Data parameters: Looseness of mechanical parts,
Vibration, temperature, Pressure, Wind speed,
current, voltage e.t.c
 PM: the practice of identifying production equipment
needing maintenance attention before its
performance gets to the point that product quality is
reduced or an unplanned shutdown occurs
Information about the condition of equipment is a key to PM for timely correction
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
2. Overview of Maintenance Approaches
System
identification,
Critical equipment
listing and their
functions
Maintenance
task assignment
failure mode and
effects analysis.
Determination of
failure history and
calculation of
meantime between
failures
Categorization of failure
effect with flowchart
and determination of
possible maintenance
task
Program
evaluation
including
cost analysis
Figure 2.: RCM procedures used for equipment maintenance at Consolidate Edison Company of New York [8]
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
Monitoring can be applied for a number of reasons:
 Equipment Status
 Primary Voltage, Current etc.
 Predict Maintenance
 Prevent Failure
 Operation/Maintenance Support
 Active Control
 Life Assessment
All of these must be taken into consideration
3. Need for Monitoring
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
Potential Benefits of Condition Monitoring
 Reduced commissioning time
 Reduced preventive maintenance
 Reduced failures rate  time between failures
 Reduced breakdown maintenance
 Reduced spares usage
 Increased equipment availability
 Increased equipment life
 Increased functionality
All resulting in lower Life Cycle Costs
Each of these can generate a “Need for Monitoring”
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
4. Power Equipment and their Insulation Problems
Equipment
 Generators
 Transformer (Power, CT
VT)
 Power line
 Circuit Breakers,
 Earth Switches,
 Switch Disconnectors
 Isolators
Insulators  coolants
SF6 gas , Air, Air Blast, Oil,
cellulose (paper/oil )
Gas  oil : self-restoring
Cellulose : not self-restoring
Summary of the key gases produced by
different types of fault
Table II:Source of “key gases” from
decomposition of cellulose and oil [13]
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
5. Units Inside a Monitor
Sensors, Data acquisition, Fault detection and Diagnosis units
 Sensors: convert physical quantities to electrical
signal
• Anemometers, Ambient thermometer, Infra Red,
Accelerometers, Fibre optic sensors e.t.c
• Features: Online, Sensitivity, Cheapness, compact,
Non-invasion
 Data acquisition: Realization of amplification and pre-
processing of output signal from sensors
• Analogue to Digital signal conversation  sensor failure
correction
• Data communication device, microcomputers e.t.c
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
Inside a Monitor continues
 Fault Detection: Fault recognition and Alarming for
Preventive maintenance
• Methods Use: Model-reference (frequency  time domain
analysis)  Feature extraction (comparison of result with its
model prediction)
• Artificial Intelligence (Neural network , Fuzzy logic  Expert
system)
 Diagnosis: Postprocessing of abnormal signal for decision
on required maintenance
Outcome this section prescribed to user; name and location
of each fault, defect, status of the machine advice for
maintenance.
• Computer techniques, Digital analysis, Artificial
Intelligence (neural network  fuzzy logic)  Expert system
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
Artificial Intelligence in Modern CM and PM
 Ability of a human-made machine (automation) to
emulate or simulate human method for the deductive 
inductive acquisition and application of knowledge and
reasoning
e.g: Neural Network,
Fuzzy Logic, expert system (EPS),
evolutionary algorithm (EA) e.t.c.
Its objective in CM  PM
 Enhancement  support for
decision making
 Ease and reduction in Manual
work done with skillful tasks
Input
signals
Output
signals
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
Basic Functions to be Monitored
 Insulation
 Current Carrying
 Switching
 Mechanical Drive
 Control/Auxiliary
 Equipment
Parameter Sensor
Position Auxiliary Switch, Proximity Switch
Operating Time Auxiliary Switch, Main Contact
Coil Current, Proximity Switches
Operating Speed Travel (Electronic, Optical), Position
Switch
Contact Wear Wear Indicator, I2t Monitor
Stored Energy Pressure Gauge/Transducer
Example – Switching
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
6. Current Research on Power Line CM and PM
Application of OPGW to Japanese Nishi-Gunma 1000KV UHV
Transmission line
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
Application of OPGW to Japanese Nisi-Gunma 1000KV UHV
Transmission line
Objective of this Technology
(1) Effective Monitoring meteorological data, such as wind, and icing
and snow accretion (due to increased conductor tension and tower
structure strain e.t.c)
(2) Industrial TV (ITV) monitoring for visually observing weather,
surrounding conditions and site facilities.
(3) Fast fault location and determining the maintenance office
responsible by estimating the fault section based on boundaries
established for maintenance territories
Installation time: 1993
Line Configuration:
• 2- circuit UHV line.
• Altitude = 1951m
• Line length = 250km
• ambient Temp = -30 degree
• Wind speed = 57 m/sec
Benefit of this OPGW system
CM  PM, Fault detection, Meterological data source
Immune to Lighting stroke  Noise
Capitial cost is 0.3% of total tower line installation
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
Network Layout
Central Processing Station, Interconnecting Network and Processing
Station and Six Maintenance Office
Weather sensors used are anemometer, ambient
thermometers, rain gages, snow-accretion samplers, load cell,
ground wire and insulators inclinometers
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
7. Conclusion
Justification for Maintenance ?
 Extensive CM  PM ensure reliability, prolong
equipment’s life , as well as improving overall power
quality of Electrical Power network.
What about the cost of maintenance?
 The savings made by avoiding—or delaying—forced
outages and the resulting refurbishment or replacement
could be substantial.
West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA
Thank you

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F.O.Enemuoh (1).pdf

  • 1. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA Maintenance Strategies Condition Monitoring Techniques for Power System Equipment: A Literature Survey * Engr. Enemuoh F.O. / presenter * * Mr. Omidiora M. A / co-authors * * *
  • 2. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA 1. Definitions 2. Overview of Maintenance Approaches 3. Need for Condition Monitoring 4. Power Equipment and their Insulation Problems 5. Inside a Monitor: Sensors, Data acquisition, Fault detection and Diagnostic Techniques 6. Current Research on PM CM of UHV line 7. Conclusion Contents
  • 3. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA Maintenance: is a process of extending the lifetime of equipment or at least mean time to the next failure whose repair may be costly Replacement: Restoration wherein a device is removed and one in better condition is put in its place; if the device is failed, it is replaced by a working one Predictive Maintenance: A maintenance carried out when it is deemed necessary, based on periodic inspections, diagnostic tests or other means of condition monitoring. Overhaul: Maintenance or repair requiring major effort and resulting in a significant improvement of the device’s condition Repair: Restoration wherein a failed device is returned to operable condition. 1. Definitions
  • 4. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA What are Condition Monitoring and Preventive Maintenance? CM: The collection, storage, comparison, and evaluation of data taken from a machine to establish the running condition of that machine. Data parameters: Looseness of mechanical parts, Vibration, temperature, Pressure, Wind speed, current, voltage e.t.c PM: the practice of identifying production equipment needing maintenance attention before its performance gets to the point that product quality is reduced or an unplanned shutdown occurs Information about the condition of equipment is a key to PM for timely correction
  • 5. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA 2. Overview of Maintenance Approaches System identification, Critical equipment listing and their functions Maintenance task assignment failure mode and effects analysis. Determination of failure history and calculation of meantime between failures Categorization of failure effect with flowchart and determination of possible maintenance task Program evaluation including cost analysis Figure 2.: RCM procedures used for equipment maintenance at Consolidate Edison Company of New York [8]
  • 6. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA Monitoring can be applied for a number of reasons: Equipment Status Primary Voltage, Current etc. Predict Maintenance Prevent Failure Operation/Maintenance Support Active Control Life Assessment All of these must be taken into consideration 3. Need for Monitoring
  • 7. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA Potential Benefits of Condition Monitoring Reduced commissioning time Reduced preventive maintenance Reduced failures rate time between failures Reduced breakdown maintenance Reduced spares usage Increased equipment availability Increased equipment life Increased functionality All resulting in lower Life Cycle Costs Each of these can generate a “Need for Monitoring”
  • 8. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA 4. Power Equipment and their Insulation Problems Equipment Generators Transformer (Power, CT VT) Power line Circuit Breakers, Earth Switches, Switch Disconnectors Isolators Insulators coolants SF6 gas , Air, Air Blast, Oil, cellulose (paper/oil ) Gas oil : self-restoring Cellulose : not self-restoring Summary of the key gases produced by different types of fault Table II:Source of “key gases” from decomposition of cellulose and oil [13]
  • 9. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA 5. Units Inside a Monitor Sensors, Data acquisition, Fault detection and Diagnosis units Sensors: convert physical quantities to electrical signal • Anemometers, Ambient thermometer, Infra Red, Accelerometers, Fibre optic sensors e.t.c • Features: Online, Sensitivity, Cheapness, compact, Non-invasion Data acquisition: Realization of amplification and pre- processing of output signal from sensors • Analogue to Digital signal conversation sensor failure correction • Data communication device, microcomputers e.t.c
  • 10. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA Inside a Monitor continues Fault Detection: Fault recognition and Alarming for Preventive maintenance • Methods Use: Model-reference (frequency time domain analysis) Feature extraction (comparison of result with its model prediction) • Artificial Intelligence (Neural network , Fuzzy logic Expert system) Diagnosis: Postprocessing of abnormal signal for decision on required maintenance Outcome this section prescribed to user; name and location of each fault, defect, status of the machine advice for maintenance. • Computer techniques, Digital analysis, Artificial Intelligence (neural network fuzzy logic) Expert system
  • 11. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA Artificial Intelligence in Modern CM and PM Ability of a human-made machine (automation) to emulate or simulate human method for the deductive inductive acquisition and application of knowledge and reasoning e.g: Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic, expert system (EPS), evolutionary algorithm (EA) e.t.c. Its objective in CM PM Enhancement support for decision making Ease and reduction in Manual work done with skillful tasks Input signals Output signals
  • 12. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA Basic Functions to be Monitored Insulation Current Carrying Switching Mechanical Drive Control/Auxiliary Equipment Parameter Sensor Position Auxiliary Switch, Proximity Switch Operating Time Auxiliary Switch, Main Contact Coil Current, Proximity Switches Operating Speed Travel (Electronic, Optical), Position Switch Contact Wear Wear Indicator, I2t Monitor Stored Energy Pressure Gauge/Transducer Example – Switching
  • 13. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA 6. Current Research on Power Line CM and PM Application of OPGW to Japanese Nishi-Gunma 1000KV UHV Transmission line
  • 14. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA Application of OPGW to Japanese Nisi-Gunma 1000KV UHV Transmission line Objective of this Technology (1) Effective Monitoring meteorological data, such as wind, and icing and snow accretion (due to increased conductor tension and tower structure strain e.t.c) (2) Industrial TV (ITV) monitoring for visually observing weather, surrounding conditions and site facilities. (3) Fast fault location and determining the maintenance office responsible by estimating the fault section based on boundaries established for maintenance territories Installation time: 1993 Line Configuration: • 2- circuit UHV line. • Altitude = 1951m • Line length = 250km • ambient Temp = -30 degree • Wind speed = 57 m/sec Benefit of this OPGW system CM PM, Fault detection, Meterological data source Immune to Lighting stroke Noise Capitial cost is 0.3% of total tower line installation
  • 15. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA Network Layout Central Processing Station, Interconnecting Network and Processing Station and Six Maintenance Office Weather sensors used are anemometer, ambient thermometers, rain gages, snow-accretion samplers, load cell, ground wire and insulators inclinometers
  • 16. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA 7. Conclusion Justification for Maintenance ? Extensive CM PM ensure reliability, prolong equipment’s life , as well as improving overall power quality of Electrical Power network. What about the cost of maintenance? The savings made by avoiding—or delaying—forced outages and the resulting refurbishment or replacement could be substantial.
  • 17. West African Power Industry Convention 2007, Abuja, NIGERIA Thank you