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CONDITION CAUSING
LOW PRODUCTION AND
PHYSIOLOGY OF
MAMMARY GLAND
Dr. Husnain Naveed (RCVETS)-DVM
WHAT IS MAMMARY GLAND?.
The mammary glands of all mammals are structurally and biologically designed to produce
milk for offspring. They develop from bilateral ectodermal thickenings that form milk lines
extending from the neck to the inguinal region in the developing fetus. It is divided in two
catagories
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The functional unit of the mammary glands corresponds to the alveoli.
These are the fundamental units in the secretion of milk from the gland.
The breast alveoli develop embryologically from the layer of the
ectoderm, the same that gives rise to systems such as the skin and the
nerves. Also, next to these, the nipples are developed which are the
connection between the outside with the internal milk secretory system.
The passage between milk formation and distribution is made possible
by the connection between the alveoli and the nipple. In cows, the
nipples have an opening where the milk drains.
Cows have developed specialized milk storage structures called cisterns.
The cisterns are located in the ventral part of the gland and all the ducts
reach these. The function of cisterns is to store large quantities of milk
before milking.
Cows have two pairs of mammary glands, that is, four glands in total. All this
structure described above is called udder.
Due to the large milk production in the cows, they have
developed anatomical mechanisms specialized in supporting
the weight of the udder. This task is performed by the internal
suspensory ligament and the lateral suspensory ligament. This
suspension system must support the weight of the udder that
can even reach 25 Kg just before milking. Occasionally, some
abnormalities in this suspensory system can lead to udder
problems.
Digital time capsule
template
A template for students to complete a digital time
capsule of an era in history.
Let us discuss the factor which causes the low production and physiology
of milk production:
It can be due to several conditionsand physiologicalfactors as it include:
NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES:
Inadequate or imbalanced diet milk production .essential nutrients and
mineral are crucial factor for lactationprocess.
• The high producing dairy cow requires a diet that supplies the nutrient
needs for high milk production.
• Carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, and water
are all nutrients required by the lactating dairy cow to meet the
demand by the mammary gland to produce milk and milk components
Introduce the era
• Use this type of slide
for visual impact.
• You can use images or
text here.
• Limit your text to key
concepts and words so you
can explain them during
your presentation.
HORMONALIMBALANCE:
HORMONES IMBALANCE PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN MILK SYNTHESIS.
These hormones include :
• Prolactin is necessary for the secretion of milk by the cells of the
alveoli. The level of prolactin in the blood increases markedly during
pregnancy, and stimulates the growth and development of the
mammary tissue, in preparation for the production of milk .
• Oxytocin reflex is also sometimes called the “letdown reflex” or the
“milk ejection reflex”. Oxytocin is produced more quickly than
prolactin. It makes the milk that is already in the breast flow for the
current feed, and helps the baby to get the milk easily.
:
BLOCKED DUCTS:
The three main causes of blocked teats are:
1)Injury (common and painful):
Injuries to teats can lead to partial or complete blockage that is
temporary or permanent.
2)Mastitis:
Inflammation of udder
3)Genetics (inherited):
During the production of the new ones there must be changes
that causes blockage of duct .
STRESS:
Psychological stress can inhibit the release of oxcytocin as thus
cause hormonal imbalance MEDICATION:
certain medication effect the lactation as its effect the natural
process of lactation.
AlveolarDysfunction:
The alveoli are the milk-producing units within the mammary
gland.
Any dysfunction in these structures, such as damage to the
alveolar epithelial cells or impairment of nutrient transport
mechanisms, can impair milk synthesis.
TREATMENT
Collage 2
of the era
Create a visual
representation of
the era, including
pictures of:
Nutrition:
Animals with a balanced diet that meets their nutritional
requirements is essential for optimal milk production. This may
involve feeding high-quality forage, concentrates, and
supplements as needed. In some cases, dietary adjustments or
specific nutritional supplements may be necessary to support
lactation.
Management Practices: Proper management practices, such
as maintaining good hygiene in the barn or milking parlor,
providing comfortable housing conditions, and minimizing
stressors, can help optimize milk production in animals.
Additionally, ensuring adequate access to water and
maintaining a consistent milking schedule can support lactation.
Compare and contrast something
from the era
Use this for the title
• You might use a map of the area during
different time periods within the era –
was there a lot of growth? What did it
look like before and after?
Or
• Consider comparing and contrasting the
beginning of the era to the end of the
era.
Use this for the title
• Add an image or text here to
compare/contrast.
Healthcare:
Monitoring the health of lactating animals is crucial, as underlying health
issues can impact milk production. Regular veterinary check-ups,
vaccinations, and prompt treatment of any illnesses or infections can help
maintain optimal milk production.
Genetics:
Selecting animals with desirable genetic traits for milk production can help
improve overall herd performance. Breeding programs aimed at enhancing
milk yield and quality can contribute to higher milk production in future
generations.
Environmental Factors: Environmental factors such as
temperature, humidity, and seasonal changes can also influence milk
production in animals. Providing adequate shelter and ventilation, during
weather conditions, help minimize stress and maintain milk production.
Famous
person
Famous person from the era:
• Add an image of a famous
person from the era and then
explain his/her significance.
• You could also use a slide like
this to capture an important
event during the era.
Supplementation: In cases of inadequate milk production,
supplemental feeding of milk replacers or other milk substitutes may be
necessary to ensure the nutritional needs of young animals are met.
This is particularly important for orphaned or rejected offspring
LETS US DISCUSS HOW MILK IS PRODUCE IN MAMMARY
GLANDS:
In the final weeks of pregnancy, the mammary glands begin producing
colostrum, a nutrient-rich fluid that serves as the first food for
newborns. Colostrum contains antibodies and other essential
components that provide passive immunity and nourishment to the
newborn.
Letter from the
generation
• What do you think the people who lived
in that era would say to you about their
lives and experiences?
• Include a message from the generation
to future generations who find the time
capsule.
• Things to reflect on when writing the
letter:
• How would they like to be remembered?
• What message would they want to
share?
• Would they give future generations any
advice? If so, what would it be?
Milk synthesis occurs within the alveoli, where
specialized epithelial cells, called lactocytes or
alveolar cells, produce milk components. These
cells are stimulated by prolactin, which is released
from the pituitary gland in response to suckling, as
well as other hormonal signals. Continuous milk
removal, either through suckling by the offspring or
milking by a human caregiver, is essential for
maintaining lactation
. The removal of milk from the udder signals the
mammary glands to continue milk synthesis and ensures
ongoing milk production. Lactation is tightly regulated by
feedback mechanisms involving hormones, neural
signals, and local factors within the mammary gland.
Final slide
Wrap up the trip into history and add your final thoughts, ideas, and questions.
Wrap up description Wrap up description Wrap up description
Feedback loops help maintain the
balance between milk production and
milk removal, ensuring that the
needs of the offspring are met.
Lactation is tightly regulated by feedback mechanisms involving hormones, neural
signals, and local factors within the mammary gland. Feedback loops help
maintain the balance between milk production and milk removal, ensuring that the
needs of the offspring are met.
LET US DISCUSS THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MILK PRODUCTION.
PHYSIOLOGY OF MAMMARY
GLAND
• Milk must be first developed in the cow to be secreted through
the mammary gland. The ovaries will increase the production
of estrogen and progesterone. The production of growth
hormones and adrenal corticosteroids is also increased. All
these hormonal components are responsible for the
proliferation of the udder tubular system.
• Besides, progesterone and prolactin are the hormones that
promote the development of the alveoli.
• However, this development in puberty is partial. The cow must
be pregnant to fully develop the mammary gland. Then, the
secretion of milk can be evidenced in the last part of the
gestation thanks to the increase of prolactin.
• Several mechanisms regulate milk production in cows. One of
these mechanisms is regulated by prolactin. When the nipple is
stimulated by the calf or milking system, dopamine is blocked
in the brain. This increases the production of prolactin, which
is responsible for the mobilization of milk to the nipple.
• Another important mechanism in milk production in cows is
constant stimulation. If a cow lasts more than 16 hours without
milking, the stimulus decreases, and it will start to stop
producing milk. The stimulation in the nipple generates
contraction of the alveoli.
• When there is a milking or
suction stimulus, these nerve
signals travel to the
hypothalamus where dopamine
is blocked. When this hormone
is blocked, prolactin is released
and the vasoactive intestinal
peptide facilitates the
production of milk.
• The most important component of cow’s milk is fat as a source
of energy. This fat is vital for the young animals due to this
nutritional value as it provides a considerable energy
contribution.
• On the other hand, lactose is the main carbohydrate
present in mammalian milk. Lactose is composed of
glucose and galactose.
• Regarding proteins, the main one is casein, which
contains essential amino acids. Milk is also an
important source of calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin
(Vitamin B12), Vitamin A, and Vitamin B1 (Thiamine).
.
• All these nutritional aspects make milk one of the most
complete foods in the world. However, for its production
the intestinal and liver health in the cow must be ensured.
It is recognized that among the non-genetic factors most
involved in breastfeeding is cow feeding. Not only should
you ensure a complete and balanced diet with all the
nutrients, but maintain the health of the intestine as it is
where all these are absorbed.
• Many physiological and environmental factors can
influence milk secretion. For cows, factors related to
increases in milk yield are increased body weight,
advancing age, increased plane of nutrition, fall and winter
calving, moderate or cool environmental temperatures,
and good body condition at calving.
TEST FOR MAMMARY GLAND
TO CHECK THE AGENT
CUASING OWN PRODUCTION
OF MILK
PERFORM FOLLOWING TEST
FOR COW
MRT TESTS
CMT TESTS
BVDV TESTS
A1A2 TESTS
What is the A1 A2 milk test?
The A2 genotyping assay identifies the A1
and A2 beta-casein status of individual
animals, providing insight for strategic
breeding to develop A2 herd status. The
A2 isoform of beta-casein is potentially
better digested than the A1 isoform.
What is peak milk?
Peak milk is the highest recorded test day milk production in a cow’s first
150 days in milk (DIM). Historically, producers used peak milk as a
measure of the success of dry period and early lactation nutrition and
management. Peak milk indicates how well the cow responds to feeding
practices during the dry period, calving and early lactation periods.
Most cows achieve peak milk by 45 to 90 DIM and then slowly lose
production over time. Many cite that each added pound of peak milk
could lead to 200 to 250 pounds more milk for the whole lactation.
Nutrition and health disorders in early lactation affect peak milk. For
example, low dietary fiber diet/sorting can lead to rumen acidosis, which
can result in lameness or displaced abomasum. Both conditions can cause
reduced peak milk
Ten ways to improve early lactation performance and
peak milk yield:
1.Start cows with a successful dry period.
2.Prevent subclinical milk fever.
3.Optimize feed intake immediately after calving.
4.Optimize cow comfort.
5.Maintain rumen health and prevent ruminal acidosis.
6.Identify cows with a history of metabolic or health problems.
7.Feed correct amounts of antioxidants
8.Avoid anti-nutritional factors.
9.Evaluate BCS
10.Position feed additives.
LINK TO RESEARCH PAPER;
https://extension.umn.edINKu/dairy-milking-cows/improving-peak-
milk-yields
REFERENCE BOOKS / RESEARCH
PAPERS:
Castillo-Badilla, G., Vargas-Leitón, B., Hueckmann-Voss, F., &
Romero-Zúñiga, J. J. (2019). Factores que afectan la producción en
primera lactancia de vacas lecheras de Costa Rica. Agronomía
Mesoamericana, 30(1), 209-227.
García, A., Castejón, F., De La Cruz, L. F., González, J., Murillo, M.
D., & Salido, G. (1995). Fisiología veterinaria. Madrid (Esp): MacGraw
Hill-Interamericana SA.
Klein, B. G. (2020). Cunningham. fisiologia veterinaria.
López-Ordaz, R., Vite-Cristóbal, C., García-Muñiz, J. G., & Martínez-
Hernández, P. A. (2009). Reproducción y producción de leche de
vacas con distinta proporción de genes Bos taurus. Archivos de
zootecnia, 58(224), 683-694.
Reece, W. O., & Aramayona Alonso, J. J. (2010). Dukes: fisiología de
los animales domésticos (No. 636.0892 D8).
Smith, B. P. (2014). Large animal internal medicine-E-Book. Elsevier
Health Sciences.

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Factor Causing low production and physiology of mamary Gland

  • 1. CONDITION CAUSING LOW PRODUCTION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF MAMMARY GLAND Dr. Husnain Naveed (RCVETS)-DVM
  • 2. WHAT IS MAMMARY GLAND?. The mammary glands of all mammals are structurally and biologically designed to produce milk for offspring. They develop from bilateral ectodermal thickenings that form milk lines extending from the neck to the inguinal region in the developing fetus. It is divided in two catagories
  • 3. Customize this Template Template Editing Instructions and Feedback The functional unit of the mammary glands corresponds to the alveoli. These are the fundamental units in the secretion of milk from the gland. The breast alveoli develop embryologically from the layer of the ectoderm, the same that gives rise to systems such as the skin and the nerves. Also, next to these, the nipples are developed which are the connection between the outside with the internal milk secretory system. The passage between milk formation and distribution is made possible by the connection between the alveoli and the nipple. In cows, the nipples have an opening where the milk drains. Cows have developed specialized milk storage structures called cisterns. The cisterns are located in the ventral part of the gland and all the ducts reach these. The function of cisterns is to store large quantities of milk before milking. Cows have two pairs of mammary glands, that is, four glands in total. All this structure described above is called udder.
  • 4. Due to the large milk production in the cows, they have developed anatomical mechanisms specialized in supporting the weight of the udder. This task is performed by the internal suspensory ligament and the lateral suspensory ligament. This suspension system must support the weight of the udder that can even reach 25 Kg just before milking. Occasionally, some abnormalities in this suspensory system can lead to udder problems.
  • 5. Digital time capsule template A template for students to complete a digital time capsule of an era in history. Let us discuss the factor which causes the low production and physiology of milk production: It can be due to several conditionsand physiologicalfactors as it include: NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES: Inadequate or imbalanced diet milk production .essential nutrients and mineral are crucial factor for lactationprocess. • The high producing dairy cow requires a diet that supplies the nutrient needs for high milk production. • Carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, and water are all nutrients required by the lactating dairy cow to meet the demand by the mammary gland to produce milk and milk components
  • 6. Introduce the era • Use this type of slide for visual impact. • You can use images or text here. • Limit your text to key concepts and words so you can explain them during your presentation. HORMONALIMBALANCE: HORMONES IMBALANCE PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN MILK SYNTHESIS. These hormones include : • Prolactin is necessary for the secretion of milk by the cells of the alveoli. The level of prolactin in the blood increases markedly during pregnancy, and stimulates the growth and development of the mammary tissue, in preparation for the production of milk . • Oxytocin reflex is also sometimes called the “letdown reflex” or the “milk ejection reflex”. Oxytocin is produced more quickly than prolactin. It makes the milk that is already in the breast flow for the current feed, and helps the baby to get the milk easily.
  • 7. : BLOCKED DUCTS: The three main causes of blocked teats are: 1)Injury (common and painful): Injuries to teats can lead to partial or complete blockage that is temporary or permanent. 2)Mastitis: Inflammation of udder 3)Genetics (inherited): During the production of the new ones there must be changes that causes blockage of duct .
  • 8. STRESS: Psychological stress can inhibit the release of oxcytocin as thus cause hormonal imbalance MEDICATION: certain medication effect the lactation as its effect the natural process of lactation. AlveolarDysfunction: The alveoli are the milk-producing units within the mammary gland. Any dysfunction in these structures, such as damage to the alveolar epithelial cells or impairment of nutrient transport mechanisms, can impair milk synthesis.
  • 10. Collage 2 of the era Create a visual representation of the era, including pictures of: Nutrition: Animals with a balanced diet that meets their nutritional requirements is essential for optimal milk production. This may involve feeding high-quality forage, concentrates, and supplements as needed. In some cases, dietary adjustments or specific nutritional supplements may be necessary to support lactation. Management Practices: Proper management practices, such as maintaining good hygiene in the barn or milking parlor, providing comfortable housing conditions, and minimizing stressors, can help optimize milk production in animals. Additionally, ensuring adequate access to water and maintaining a consistent milking schedule can support lactation.
  • 11. Compare and contrast something from the era Use this for the title • You might use a map of the area during different time periods within the era – was there a lot of growth? What did it look like before and after? Or • Consider comparing and contrasting the beginning of the era to the end of the era. Use this for the title • Add an image or text here to compare/contrast. Healthcare: Monitoring the health of lactating animals is crucial, as underlying health issues can impact milk production. Regular veterinary check-ups, vaccinations, and prompt treatment of any illnesses or infections can help maintain optimal milk production. Genetics: Selecting animals with desirable genetic traits for milk production can help improve overall herd performance. Breeding programs aimed at enhancing milk yield and quality can contribute to higher milk production in future generations. Environmental Factors: Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and seasonal changes can also influence milk production in animals. Providing adequate shelter and ventilation, during weather conditions, help minimize stress and maintain milk production.
  • 12. Famous person Famous person from the era: • Add an image of a famous person from the era and then explain his/her significance. • You could also use a slide like this to capture an important event during the era. Supplementation: In cases of inadequate milk production, supplemental feeding of milk replacers or other milk substitutes may be necessary to ensure the nutritional needs of young animals are met. This is particularly important for orphaned or rejected offspring LETS US DISCUSS HOW MILK IS PRODUCE IN MAMMARY GLANDS: In the final weeks of pregnancy, the mammary glands begin producing colostrum, a nutrient-rich fluid that serves as the first food for newborns. Colostrum contains antibodies and other essential components that provide passive immunity and nourishment to the newborn.
  • 13. Letter from the generation • What do you think the people who lived in that era would say to you about their lives and experiences? • Include a message from the generation to future generations who find the time capsule. • Things to reflect on when writing the letter: • How would they like to be remembered? • What message would they want to share? • Would they give future generations any advice? If so, what would it be? Milk synthesis occurs within the alveoli, where specialized epithelial cells, called lactocytes or alveolar cells, produce milk components. These cells are stimulated by prolactin, which is released from the pituitary gland in response to suckling, as well as other hormonal signals. Continuous milk removal, either through suckling by the offspring or milking by a human caregiver, is essential for maintaining lactation
  • 14. . The removal of milk from the udder signals the mammary glands to continue milk synthesis and ensures ongoing milk production. Lactation is tightly regulated by feedback mechanisms involving hormones, neural signals, and local factors within the mammary gland.
  • 15. Final slide Wrap up the trip into history and add your final thoughts, ideas, and questions. Wrap up description Wrap up description Wrap up description Feedback loops help maintain the balance between milk production and milk removal, ensuring that the needs of the offspring are met. Lactation is tightly regulated by feedback mechanisms involving hormones, neural signals, and local factors within the mammary gland. Feedback loops help maintain the balance between milk production and milk removal, ensuring that the needs of the offspring are met. LET US DISCUSS THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MILK PRODUCTION.
  • 17. • Milk must be first developed in the cow to be secreted through the mammary gland. The ovaries will increase the production of estrogen and progesterone. The production of growth hormones and adrenal corticosteroids is also increased. All these hormonal components are responsible for the proliferation of the udder tubular system. • Besides, progesterone and prolactin are the hormones that promote the development of the alveoli. • However, this development in puberty is partial. The cow must be pregnant to fully develop the mammary gland. Then, the secretion of milk can be evidenced in the last part of the gestation thanks to the increase of prolactin.
  • 18. • Several mechanisms regulate milk production in cows. One of these mechanisms is regulated by prolactin. When the nipple is stimulated by the calf or milking system, dopamine is blocked in the brain. This increases the production of prolactin, which is responsible for the mobilization of milk to the nipple. • Another important mechanism in milk production in cows is constant stimulation. If a cow lasts more than 16 hours without milking, the stimulus decreases, and it will start to stop producing milk. The stimulation in the nipple generates contraction of the alveoli.
  • 19. • When there is a milking or suction stimulus, these nerve signals travel to the hypothalamus where dopamine is blocked. When this hormone is blocked, prolactin is released and the vasoactive intestinal peptide facilitates the production of milk.
  • 20. • The most important component of cow’s milk is fat as a source of energy. This fat is vital for the young animals due to this nutritional value as it provides a considerable energy contribution. • On the other hand, lactose is the main carbohydrate present in mammalian milk. Lactose is composed of glucose and galactose. • Regarding proteins, the main one is casein, which contains essential amino acids. Milk is also an important source of calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin (Vitamin B12), Vitamin A, and Vitamin B1 (Thiamine).
  • 21. . • All these nutritional aspects make milk one of the most complete foods in the world. However, for its production the intestinal and liver health in the cow must be ensured. It is recognized that among the non-genetic factors most involved in breastfeeding is cow feeding. Not only should you ensure a complete and balanced diet with all the nutrients, but maintain the health of the intestine as it is where all these are absorbed. • Many physiological and environmental factors can influence milk secretion. For cows, factors related to increases in milk yield are increased body weight, advancing age, increased plane of nutrition, fall and winter calving, moderate or cool environmental temperatures, and good body condition at calving.
  • 22. TEST FOR MAMMARY GLAND TO CHECK THE AGENT CUASING OWN PRODUCTION OF MILK
  • 23. PERFORM FOLLOWING TEST FOR COW MRT TESTS CMT TESTS BVDV TESTS A1A2 TESTS
  • 24. What is the A1 A2 milk test? The A2 genotyping assay identifies the A1 and A2 beta-casein status of individual animals, providing insight for strategic breeding to develop A2 herd status. The A2 isoform of beta-casein is potentially better digested than the A1 isoform.
  • 25. What is peak milk? Peak milk is the highest recorded test day milk production in a cow’s first 150 days in milk (DIM). Historically, producers used peak milk as a measure of the success of dry period and early lactation nutrition and management. Peak milk indicates how well the cow responds to feeding practices during the dry period, calving and early lactation periods. Most cows achieve peak milk by 45 to 90 DIM and then slowly lose production over time. Many cite that each added pound of peak milk could lead to 200 to 250 pounds more milk for the whole lactation. Nutrition and health disorders in early lactation affect peak milk. For example, low dietary fiber diet/sorting can lead to rumen acidosis, which can result in lameness or displaced abomasum. Both conditions can cause reduced peak milk
  • 26. Ten ways to improve early lactation performance and peak milk yield: 1.Start cows with a successful dry period. 2.Prevent subclinical milk fever. 3.Optimize feed intake immediately after calving. 4.Optimize cow comfort. 5.Maintain rumen health and prevent ruminal acidosis. 6.Identify cows with a history of metabolic or health problems. 7.Feed correct amounts of antioxidants 8.Avoid anti-nutritional factors. 9.Evaluate BCS 10.Position feed additives. LINK TO RESEARCH PAPER; https://extension.umn.edINKu/dairy-milking-cows/improving-peak- milk-yields
  • 27. REFERENCE BOOKS / RESEARCH PAPERS: Castillo-Badilla, G., Vargas-Leitón, B., Hueckmann-Voss, F., & Romero-Zúñiga, J. J. (2019). Factores que afectan la producción en primera lactancia de vacas lecheras de Costa Rica. Agronomía Mesoamericana, 30(1), 209-227. García, A., Castejón, F., De La Cruz, L. F., González, J., Murillo, M. D., & Salido, G. (1995). Fisiología veterinaria. Madrid (Esp): MacGraw Hill-Interamericana SA. Klein, B. G. (2020). Cunningham. fisiologia veterinaria. López-Ordaz, R., Vite-Cristóbal, C., García-Muñiz, J. G., & Martínez- Hernández, P. A. (2009). Reproducción y producción de leche de vacas con distinta proporción de genes Bos taurus. Archivos de zootecnia, 58(224), 683-694. Reece, W. O., & Aramayona Alonso, J. J. (2010). Dukes: fisiología de los animales domésticos (No. 636.0892 D8). Smith, B. P. (2014). Large animal internal medicine-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Editor's Notes

  1. Create an outline to get ready: Introduce the era (Use a mix of media and text) Organize your artifacts to outline what life was like during the era you are presenting Think about using a storyboard to outline your images and ideas Make sure you prepare a clear and well rounded presentation of all aspects of the era (People, jobs, food, transportation, etc. What else should you include so the audience feels like they have visited your era?)