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Dr.G.Nageswara Rao
Professor , EEE Department
Lakireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering
(LBRCE)
Course Outcomes: At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
CO1: Understand the operation of non-renewable electrical power generating
stations (Understand-L2)
CO2: Illustrate the economic aspects of power generation (Apply-L3)
CO3: Understand the a.c distribution system and performance of insulated
cables (Understand-L2)
CO4: Evaluate the electrical and mechanical parameters of transmission lines
(Apply-L3)
CO5: Analyze operation of overhead line insulators and phenomena of corona
(Understand-L2)
Course Educational Objective:
This course enables the student to learn different types of non-
renewable power generation methods, the economic aspects of
power generation, tariff methods and design aspects of
transmission lines.
2
3
UNIT-I: POWER GENERATION METHODS
Introduction to typical layout of an electrical power system, present power
scenario in India, Generation of electric power: non-renewable sources
(Qualitative): Hydro station, Steam power plant, Nuclear power plant and
Gas turbine plant.
UNIT-II: ECONOMICS OF GENERATION
Introduction, definitions of connected load, maximum demand, demand
factor, load factor, diversity factor, Load duration curve, number and size
of generator units. Base load and peak load plants. Cost of electrical
energy-fixed cost, running cost, Tariff on charge to customer.
UNIT-III: AC DISTRIBUTION & CABLES
AC Distribution: Introduction, AC distribution, Single phase, 3-phase-
3wire, 3 phase 4 wire system, bus bar arrangement, Selection of site and
layout of substation.
Insulated Cables: Introduction, insulation, insulating materials, extra
high voltage cables, grading of cables, insulation resistance of a cable,
capacitance of a single core and three core cables, overhead lines versus
underground cables, types of cables.
4
Unit-IV: ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN OF
TRANSMISSION LINES
Transmission line sag calculation: The catenary curve, sag tension
calculations, supports at different levels, stringing Chart, inductance and
capacitance calculations of transmission lines: line conductors,
inductance and capacitance of single phase and three phase lines with
symmetrical and unsymmetrical spacing, Composite conductors-
transposition, bundled conductors, and effect of earth on capacitance.
UNIT-V: CORONA& INSULATORS
Corona: Introduction, disruptive critical voltage, corona loss, Factors
affecting corona loss and methods of reducing corona loss, Disadvantages
of corona, interference between power and Communication lines,
Numerical problems.
Overhead Line Insulators: Introduction, types of insulators, Potential
distribution over a string of suspension insulators, Methods of equalizing
the potential, testing of insulators.
5
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Soni, Gupta & Bahtnagar, Power Systems Engineering, Dhanpat Rai &
Sons, 2016.
2. C.L. Wadhwa, Electrical Power Systems, 6th Edition, New
AgeInternational,2009.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. M.V.Deshpande, Elements of Electrical Power Station Design, 3rd,
Wheeler Pub.1997.
2. C.L. Wadhwa, Generation, Distribution and Utilization of Electrical
Energy, 3rd Edition, New AgeInternational,2015. 3. V K Mehta & Rohit
Mehta, Principles of Power Systems (Multicolor Edition), 24/e, S.Chand
Publishing, 4th Edition ,2005.
W.D.Stevenson, Elements of Power System Analysis, 4th Edition,
McGraw Hill, 1982.
https://www.slideshare.net/raoakhil/thermal-power-plants-237930541
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8 February 2024 Department of EEE 7
8 February 2024 Department of EEE 8
 Electricity sector in India is growing at a rapid pace.
 The present peak demand is about 1,15,000 MW and the Installed
Capacity is 1,52,380 MW using generation from thermal (63%), hydro (25
%), Nuclear (9 %) and renewables (9 %)
8 February 2024 Department of EEE 9
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8 February 2024 Department of EEE 11
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14
Basic Principal of Steam Power Plant
The heat produced for burning of coal & with the help
of water steam is produced. This produced steam flow
towards turbine i.e. kinetic energy is converted into
mechanical energy. The input steam drives the prime
mover or turbine, simultaneously the generator also
start to rotate. At that time mechanical energy is
converted into electrical energy.
Thermal Power Plant
15
Selection of Site for Thermal Power Plant
1. Supply of Fuel: The Steam power station should be located near the coal
mine so that transportation cost of fuel is minimum. If the land is not available
near to coal mines then provide adequate facilities for transportation of fuel.
2. Available of Water: A huge amount of water is required in boiler &
condenser, so that the plant should be located near the river, lake etc.
3. Transportation Facility: For steam power station provide better
transportation facility for the transportation of man, machinery etc.
4. Cost & Type of Land: The Steam Power Station should be located where
the cost of land is chief & also future extension is possible.
5. Near to Load Center: In order to reduce transmission & distribution losses
the plant should be located near to load center.
6. Distance from Populated Area: As the thermal power plant produces flue
gases, these gases will effect to live human being, so that the plant should be
located away from thickly populated area.
7. Disposal Facility Provided: As the thermal power plant produces ash, while
burning of coal. So, disposal of ash facility should be provided.
8. Availability of labour: Skilled and unskilled labour should be available
nearly.
General Layout of
Thermal Power Plant
17
Flow Diagram of
Steam Thermal Power Plant
18
The Basic Components
1. Boiler
(i) fire tube boiler and (ii) water tube boiler
1. Steam turbine
2. Generator
3. Condenser
4. Cooling towers
5. Circulating water pump
6. Boiler feed pump
7. Forced or induced draught fans
8. Ash precipitators
19
Boiler
A boiler is a closed vessel in which the water or fluid is heated
Steam turbine
A steam turbine is a device which extracts thermal energy from the
pressurized steam. The energy must be used to organize mechanical
work on a rotating output shaft.
Generator
A generator is a device which is used to convert the mechanical
form of energy into the electrical energy.
Condenser
A condenser is a device used to converts the gaseous substance into
the liquid state substance with the help of cooling.
Cooling towers
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which discards the waste
heat into the atmosphere with help of the cooling water stream to a
lower temperature.
20
Circulating water pump
Circulating pump is a special device used to circulate the liquids,
gases and slurries present in the closed circuit. The main purpose of
the circulating pump is circulating the water in a cooling system or
hydronic heating.
Boiler feed pump
A boiler feed pump is a specific type of pump which is used to feed
the water into the steam boiler. The condition of water supply
depends on the boiler produce the condensation of the steam.
Forced draught fans: Forced draught fans are used to provide a
positive pressure to a system.
Induced draught fans
Induced draught fans are used to provide a negative pressure or
vacuum in a slack or system
Ash precipitators: Precipitators are devices used to remove the fine
particles like smoke and dust. By using the force of induced
electrostatic charge minimally close the flow of gases through the
unit.
21
Working Principle Of Thermal Power Plant
Water is used as the working fluid in the thermal power plant. We can see
coal based and nuclear power plants in this category. From the working of
the power plant energy, later from the fuel gets transferred into the form of
electricity. With the help of high pressure and high steams a steam turbine
in a thermal power plant is rotates, the rotation must be transfer to the
generator to produce power.
When turbine blades are rotated with the high pressure and high
temperature at that case the steam loses its energy. So it results in the low
pressure and low temperature at the outlet of the turbine. Steam must be
expanded upto the point where it reaches the saturation point. So from the
steam, there is no heat addition or removal that takes place. Entropy of the
steam remains same. So we can notice the change in the pressure and
volume and temperature along with the entropy diagrams. If the condition
comes to the low pressure and low temperature steam back to the original
state, from that we can produce continuous electricity.
22
To compress the gaseous state liquids at that case large amount of
energy is required. So before the compression we need to convert the fluids
into liquid state. For this purpose condenser is required and heat is rejected
to the surroundings and converts the steam into liquid state. During this
process the temperature and volume of the fluid changes take place hardly,
so it turns into liquid state. And the fluid turns to the original state. To bring
the fluid to the original state external heat is added. To the heat exchanger
heat is added which is called as boiler. Then the pressure of the fluid must
remain same. In heat exchanger tubes it expands freely. Due to increase in
temperature the liquid state is transformed into the vapour state and the
temperature remains same. So know we complete the thermodynamic cycle
in the thermal power plant. It is known as Rankine cycle. By repeating the
cycle we can produce the power continuously.
With the help of boiler furnace heat is added to the boiler. Then the
fuel must reacts with the air and produces heat. The fuel must be either
nuclear or coal. In this process if we use coal as a fuel we can observe lot of
pollutants before ejects in to the air clean or removed the particles and send
into surroundings. The process is done in various steps. By using the electro
static precipitator the ash particles are removed. So with the help of the stack
clean exhaust must be send outside.
23
Working Principle
24
Advantages:
1.Cost of fuel: Fuel used in thermal power station (TPS) is cheaper
than cost of fuel used in diesel & nuclear power station.
2.Capital cost: Capital cost of TPS is less than hydro & nuclear
power station.
3.Near load center: TPS can be located near load center. The coal
can be transport from coal mines to power plant. As it is located load
centre it reduces transmission cost and losses in it.
4.Space required: Less space required as compared to hydro power
station.
5.Generating capacity: TPS build/construct of high generating
capacity, so used as a base load power plant.
6.Time required for completion of project: Time required for
completion of Thermal power project is very less as compare to
hydroelectric power station.
25
Disadvantages:
1. Air pollution: It produces air pollution due to smoke and ash produced during combustion
of fuel.
2. Starting Time: TPP cannot be put into service immediately like hydroelectric power
plant. As thermal power plant required few hours (6-7 hour) to generate steam at high
pressure and high temperature.
3. Handling of fuel: Handling of coal and disposal of ash is quite difficult.
4. Fuel transportation cost: When power plant are located away from coal mines i.e. near
load centre at that time fuel transportation cost is more.
5. Preparation for fuel: There is more expenditure for preparation of coal (raw coal to
pulverized coal).
6. Space required: Large amount of space is required for storage of fuel and ash as compare
to Nuclear power plant.
7. Efficiency: It is less efficient power plant overall efficiency is maximum 30 %.
8. Stand by losses: Stand by losses is more as furnace is required to keep in operation even
when there is no load.
9. Maintenance cost: High maintenance and operating cost because number of axillaries
plant are required such as coal and ash handling plant, pulverizing plant, condensing plant
and water purification plant etc.
10. Availability of fuel: Less availability of high grade coal.
11. Simplicity and cleanness: Layout of thermal power plant is complicated than
hydroelectric power plant due to coal and ash.
12. Life: Life of thermal power plant is less than hydro power plant.
13. Cost per unit (cost of generation) is high
26
Cooling Tower
In water tube boilers the water flows through tubes and hot combustion
gases flow over these tubes. Whereas in fire tube boilers the tubes are
surrounded by water and hot combustion gases flow through these tubes.
28
8 February 2024 Department of EEE 29
Surface Condenser
30
31
Principle And Working Of Surface Condenser
The Basic working principle of a surface condenser is the transfer of heat from a
higher-temperature body to a lower-temperature body. In this, the steam (high-
temperature body) liberates its heat to the cooling water tubes (low-temperature
body). In the process of heat transfer, the hot steam gets converted to water.
The steam enters from the exhaust Steam inlet and comes in contact with the water
carrying tubes. The water in the tubes has a circulating flow. As soon as the
exhaust steam comes in contact with the water-cooled tubes, the process of heat
transfer begins. The heat from the steam is removed and converted into a liquid
which Is known as condensate. This condensate is then removed from the
cylindrical vessel through a valve located at the bottom of the cylinder.
In thermal power stations, water is heated more than its boiling point to generate
steam which in turn is used to rotate the turbine. After passing through the turbine
the steam is fed into a surface condenser where it is converted into water and then
reused.
8 February 2024 Department of EEE 32
Jet Condenser Surface Condenser
Both steam & cooling water are
mixed together
Both steam & cooling water are
not mixed together
Manufacturing cost is low Manufacturing cost is high
Occupies less area Occupies large area
The air pump requires large power The air pump requires less power
A small quantity of cooling water
is required
A large quantity of cooling water
is required
33
Advantages
The following are the advantages of surface condenser
1. Its vacuum efficiency is high
2. They are mainly used in large plants area
3. It uses low-quality water
4. It also uses impure water for cooling purpose
5. The pressure ratio & steam are directly proportional.
Disadvantages
The following are the disadvantages of surface condenser
1. Water required is in the large amount
2. Complex in construction
3. High maintenance
4. It occupies a large area.
Applications
The following are the applications of surface condenser
1. Refrigeration of vacuum
2. Evaporation of vacuum
3. Systems like Desalination
8 February 2024 Department of EEE 34
35
Hydroelectric power plant has the following parts
Dam or weir: it contains the river water, forming a reservoir behind it and thus creating a
water drop that is used to produce energy. Dams can be made of earth or concrete.
Spillways: They release part of the impounded water without passing through the turbines;
water can then be used for irrigation purposes. They are located on the main wall of the
dam and can be at the top or at the bottom. Most of the water goes into a plunge pool at
the toe of the dam, to prevent scour damage by the falling water.
Water intakes: they let in the impounded water towards the turbines through a penstock.
Water intakes have gates to control the amount of water that reaches the turbines and grids
to filter out any debris such as trunks, branches, etc.
Powerhouse: it houses the hydraulic and electrical equipment (turbines, generators,
transformers) and the service area with control and testing rooms. It has inlet and outlet
gates to ensure the equipment area can be dry in case of repairs or disassembling
equipment.
Turbines: they harness the energy of the water that goes through them to rotate around a
shaft. There are three main types of turbines: Pelton, Francis and Kaplan turbines (propeller
type).
Transformers: electrical devices to increase or decrease the voltage in an alternating current
circuit.
Electrical power transmission lines: cables to transmit the electricity generated.
36
GAS POWER PLANT LAYOUT
8 February 2024 Department of EEE 37
Gas Turbine Power Plant
A generating station which employs a gas turbine as the prime mover for
the generation of electrical energy is known as a gas turbine power plant. In
a gas turbine power plant, air is used as the working fluid. The air is
compressed by the compressor and is led to the combustion chamber where
heat is added to the air, thus raising its temperature. We will understand the
gas turbine power plant layout and learn the diagram.
Heat is added to the compressed air either by burning fuel in the
chamber or by the use of air heaters. The hot and high-pressure air from the
combustion chamber is then passed to the gas turbine where it expands and
does the mechanical work. The gas turbine drives the alternator which
converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
It may be mentioned here that compressor, gas turbine and the
alternator are mounted on the same shaft so that a part of the mechanical
power of the turbine can be utilised for the operation of the compressor.
Gas turbine power plants are being used as standby plants for hydro-electric
stations, as a starting plant for driving auxiliaries in power plants etc.
8 February 2024 Department of EEE 38
The main components of the Gas Turbine Power Plant are :
(i) Compressor
(ii) Regenerator
(iii) Combustion chamber
(iv) Gas turbine
(v) Alternator
(vi) Starting motor
(i) Compressor: The compressor used in the plant is generally of rotatory
type. The air at atmospheric pressure is drawn by the compressor via the filter
which removes the dust from the air. The rotatory blades of the compressor
push the air between stationary blades to raise its pressure. Thus air at high
pressure is available at the output of the compressor.
(ii) Regenerator: A regenerator is a device which recovers heat from the
exhaust gases of the turbine. The exhaust is passed through the regenerator
before wasting to the atmosphere. A regenerator consists of a nest of tubes
contained in a shell as seen in the below power plant layout. The compressed
air from the compressor passes through the tubes on its way to the combustion
chamber. In this way, compressed air is heated by the hot exhaust gases.
39
(iii) Combustion chamber: The air at high pressure from the compressor is
led to the combustion chamber via the regenerator. In the combustion
chamber, heat is added to the air by burning oil. The oil is injected through
the burner into the chamber at high pressure to ensure atomisation of oil and
its thorough mixing with air. The result is that the chamber attains a very high
temperature (about 3000 F). The combustion gases are suitably cooled to
1300F to 1500F and then delivered to the gas turbine.
iv) Gas turbine: The products of combustion consisting of a mixture of gases
at high temperature and pressure are passed to the gas turbine.These gases in
passing over the turbine blades expand and thus do the mechanical work. The
temperature of the exhaust gases from the turbine is about 900F.
(v) Alternator: The gas turbine is coupled to the alternator as seen in the gas
turbine plant layout. The alternator converts mechanical energy of the turbine
into electrical energy. The output from the alternator is given to the bus-bars
through the transformer, circuit breakers and isolators.
(vi) Starting motor: Before starting the turbine, the compressor has to be
started. For this purpose, an electric motor is mounted on the same shaft as
that of the turbine. The motor is energised by the batteries. Once the unit
starts, a part of the mechanical power of the turbine drives the compressor
and there is no need of motor now
40
Gas turbine power plant Advantages:
(i) It is simple in design as compared to steam power station since no boilers and
their auxiliaries are required.
(ii) It is much smaller in size as compared to the steam power station of the same
capacity. This is expected since the gas turbine power plant does not require a
boiler, feed water arrangement etc.
(iii) The initial and operating costs are much lower than that of the equivalent steam
power station.
(iv) It requires comparatively less water as no condenser is used.
(v) The maintenance charges are quite small.
(vi) Gas turbines are much simpler in construction and operation than steam
turbines.
(vii) It can be started quickly form cold conditions.
(viii) There are no standby losses. However, in a steam power station, these losses
occur because the boiler is kept in operation even when the steam turbine is
supplying no load.
41
Gas turbine power plant Disadvantages:
(i) There is a problem with starting the unit. It is because before starting the turbine,
the compressor has to be operated for which power is required from some external
source. However, once the unit starts, the external power is not needed as the turbine
itself supplies the necessary power to the compressor.
(ii) Since a greater part of power developed by the turbine is used in driving the
compressor, the net output is low.
(iii) The overall efficiency of such plants is low (about 20%) because the exhaust
gases from the turbine contain sufficient heat.
(iv) The temperature of the combustion chamber is quite high (3000F) so that its life
is comparatively reduced.
44
1. Discuss the different sources of energy available in nature.
2. Draw the schematic diagram of a modern steam power station and explain its
operation
3. What is a steam power station ? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.
4. What factors are taken into account while selecting the site for a steam
power station ?
5. Draw a neat schematic diagram of a hydro-electric plant and explain the
functions of various components.
6. Explain the functions of the following :
(i) dam (ii) spillways (iii) surge tank (iv) headworks (v) draft tube
7. Draw the schematic diagram of a nuclear power station and discuss its
operation
8. Explain with a neat sketch the various parts of a nuclear reactor
9. Discuss the factors for the choice of site for a nuclear power plant.
10. Explain the working of a gas turbine power plant with a schematic diagram.
11. Give the comparison of steam power plant, hydro-electric power plant, gas
power plant and nuclear power plant
12. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a gas power station.
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS
45
1
Hydro Electric Power Plant
Site Selection for Hydro Power Plant
2
01. Availability of water
Water is the main source of hydroelectric power plants. A huge amount of water should be
available so that the power plant can be built with a high head. The quantity of the water
available will be estimated on the basis of the measurement of streamflow over a certain
period or previous rainfall records.
02. Storage of water
There will be a wide variation of rainfall during the year. This makes it necessary to store
water for continuous generation of power throughout the year.
03. Head of water
The head of the water depends upon the topography of the area. If the head is more then
potential energy will be more.
04. Choice of the dam
The important consideration in the choice of the dam is safety and economics. Failure of the
dam may result in substantial loss of life and property. The dam must satisfy the stability
test for shock loads and unusual floods.
05. Distance from the power station to load center
The distance should be less between the power station and load center so that the cost of
transmission of power becomes less.
06. Accessibility of the site
The plant should be easily accessible by rain and load for transportation of plant equipment.
3
Hydro Electric Power Plant
4
01. Reservoir: The purpose of this reservoir is to store the water which will be further used to
generate electricity. The water will be stored during the rainy season. By storing water we get
potential energy.
02. Dam: dam will be constructed across the river or lakes to provide the head of the water.
These are classified based on their function, material, shape, and structural design.
03. Spillway: This spillway is the safety wall for the dam. It discharges the existing amount of
water from the reservoir into the rivers. That means spillway is required to reduce overtopping.
It keeps the reservoir level below the predetermined value.
04. Intake: Intake acts as a filter in Hydro Electric power plants. It removes unwanted material
from the water. In this stage, the potential energy will be converted into kinetic energy.
05. Penstock: This is the channel between the dam and turbine which helps to increase the
kinetic energy of the water. It is made up of stainless steel.
06. Surge tank: It acts as a pressure release wall for the water. It reduces the water hammer
effect. That means it holds the water whenever there is no requirement of load on the turbines,
and similarly, it discharges water whenever there is a requirement of load on the turbines.
07. Prime mover/turbine: For this reason, the kinetic energy will be converted into
mechanical energy, which is responsible for the rotation of the shaft of the turbines. Commonly
used turbines are Kaplan, Francis, Pelton, cross flow, etc.
08. Alternators / Generators: These are normally located near the foot of the dam. Water is
brought to alternators with the help of penstock. In this region, the mechanical energy is
converted to electrical energy. Thus final power will get in this stage.
5
Working Principle
 In a hydro electric power plant, water is stored in the dam reservoir
which has potential energy.
 This potential energy is converted into kinetic energy when water from
the dam is allowed to flow through the pipes.
 This kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy allowing the
water flowing in pipe to drive the turbine.
 At last, the mechanical energy by rotating the turbine is converted to
electrical energy in the generator which is coupled to the turbine.
 The dam creates the head of the water from which water flows.
 Penstock carries the water from the Dam to the turbine, and it provides
kinetic energy.
 The fast flowing water through the penstock pushes turbine blades.
 The water forces on turbine plates and rotates the generator rotor, which
in turn generates electricity.
6
Advantages
1. Electricity can be produced at a constant rate once the dam is constructed
2. The gates of the dam can be shut down if electricity is not needed, which
stops electricity generation. Hence by doing this, we can save water for
further use in future when the demand for electricity is high.
3. One of the biggest advantages of hydroelectric power plants is that they are
designed to last many decades, and so they can contribute to the generation of
electricity for years.
4. Large dams often become tourist attractions because the lake that forms in the
reservoir area behind the dam can be used for leisure or water sports.
5. The water from the lake of the dam can be used for irrigation purposes in
farming.
6. Since the water is released to produce electricity, the build-up of water in the
dam is stored to produce extra energy until needed.
7. Hydroelectric energy generation does not pollute the atmosphere because the
hydroelectric power plant does not produce greenhouse gases.
8. Hydropower plants can be considered a reliable energy generation source.
Since hydropower totally depends on water present on this planet, this energy
source will remain inexhaustible because of the water cycle as it continuously
keeps on maintaining balance on the Earth.
7
Disadvantages
1. It is not an easy task to assemble a hydropower plant because the dams are
extremely expensive to build, and they require extremely high standards and
calculations for their construction.
2. It becomes important that the hydropower plant must serve for many decades
because of its high cost of construction, and this totally depends on the availability
of water resources.
3. If flooding happens due to natural calamities or the failure of dams, it would
impact a large area of land, which means that the natural environment can be
destroyed.
4. People are forcibly removed from the particular area where a hydropower plant
is going to be assembled. This affects the day-to-day life of people living in that
area.
5. A serious geological damage can be caused due to the construction of large
dams.
6. To construct a hydro plant, it is important to block the running water source due
to which the fishes can’t arrive at their favourable place, and as the water stops
streaming, the areas along the riverside start to vanish out which eventually
influences the life of creatures that depend on fish for food.
8
Different types of modern hydro power plants
1. Pumped storage hydropower plants
2. Reversible turbine pump hydropower plants
3. Underground hydropower plants
4. Tidal power plants
Types of Pumped Storage Plants
1. Daily, weekly or seasonal storage plants
2. High, medium or low head plants
3. According to the type of turbine used in the plant
4. Pure or mixed storage hydropower plants
5. Horizontal or vertical storage plants
8-Feb-24 9
Pumped Storage Plants
Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants:
To supply the peak loads, hydropower plants has to have the installed capacity of high
loads of which remains idle during the off-peak hours.
The more the demands of variable power supply, it is necessary to devise some way to
achieve the economical loading of the power
plant by levelling up the load curve.
The following are some of the ways:
(a) Commercial Method: To sell electric current at a higher rate during peak hours than
during off-peak hours.
(b) Technical method: The following are the two methods:
(i) By installing special peak load power plants
(ii) By storing energy produced during off-peak hours. Such a system is known
as Pumped Storage Plants.
Purpose of Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants:
This type of plants combined with steam power stations reduces the power load
fluctuations to narrow limits.
In some cases, the storage plant consists of pump and motor with no turbines.
The pump increases the head in the feeder reservoir of a separate hydro-electric plant
while motor improves the power factor in the electric supply network.
11
Advantages:
The pump storage plants entail the following advantages :
1.There is substantial increase in peak load capacity of the plant at
comparatively low capital cost.
2.Due to load comparable to rated load on the plant, the operating
efficiency of the plant is high.
3.There is an improvement in the load factor of the plant.
4.The energy available during peak load periods is higher than that of
during off peak periods so that in spite of losses incurred in pumping there
is over-all gain.
5. Load on the hydro-electric plant remains uniform.
6.The hydro-electric plant becomes partly independent of the stream flow
conditions.
12
8-Feb-24 1
NUCLEAR
POWER PLANT
Dr.G.Nageswara Rao
Professor , EEE Department
Lakireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering (LBRCE)
NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY
Nuclei are made up of protons and neutron, but the mass of a
nucleus is always less than the sum of the individual masses of the
protons and neutrons which constitute it. The difference is a
measure of the nuclear binding energy which holds the nucleus
together. The enormity of the nuclear binding energy can perhaps be
better appreciated by comparing it to the binding energy of an
electron in an atom. The comparison of the alpha particle binding
energy with the binding energy of the electron in a hydrogen atom is
shown below. The nuclear binding energies are on the order of a
million times greater than the electron binding energies of atoms.
Fusion is the process where two light nuclei combine together releasing
vast amounts of energy.
Fission is the splitting of a heavy, unstable nucleus into two lighter
nuclei
Fission and Fusion
(Hydrogen Bomb) (Atom Bomb or Atomic Bomb)
4
Fission Reaction Fusion Reaction
A fission reaction is splitting up of a large atom or a
molecule into two or more smaller ones.
Fusion is the process of combination of two or more
lighter atoms or molecules into larger ones.
Fission reaction doesn’t occur normally in nature. Fusion reaction process occurs in the stars, like in the sun,
etc.
This reaction produces highly radioactive substances. Few number of radioactive particles are developed by the
process of a fusion reaction.
Neutrons must be slowed down by moderation to increase
their capture probability in fission reactors.
This process requires high-temperature, high-density
environment.
This process consumes a very little amount of energy to
break up the atoms.
High amount of energy is consumed to combine protons
so that the nuclear forces can overcome the electrostatic
repulsion.
The energy released during the process of fission is much
larger than that of the released energy in other chemical
reactions.
The energy released by the process of fusion is around 3-4
times much greater than that of the energy liberated by the
process of fission.
Fission process is utilized in the nuclear power plant. Fusion process is one of the experimental technologies for
the production of power.
Uranium is one of the primary fuels used for the process
of fission in power plants.
The isotopes of hydrogen such as the Deuterium &
Tritium are some of the primary fuels used in the
experimental process of fusion power plants.
A fission bomb is one kind of nuclear weapon which is
also known as Atom Bomb or Atomic Bomb.
Hydrogen Bomb is one class of fusion bomb.
Differences between Fission and Fusion
6
Nuclear Power Plant
Nuclear reactor is used to produce heat and heat exchanger performs to convert water into
steam by using the heat generated in nuclear reactor. This steam is fed into steam turbine
and condensed in condenser. Now steam turbine is turn to run an electric generator or
alternator which is coupled to steam turbine and thereby producing electric energy.
SELECTION OF SITE
1. Availability of water: At the power plant site an ample quantity of water should be
available for condenser cooling and made up water required for steam generation. Therefore
the site should be nearer to a river, reservoir or sea.
2. Distance from load center: The plant should be located near the load center. This will
minimize the power losses in transmission lines.
3. Distance from populated area: The power plant should be located far away
From populated area to avoid the radioactive hazard.
4. Accessibility to site: The power plant should have rail and road transportation facilities.
5. Waste disposal: The wastes of a nuclear power plant are radioactive and there should be
sufficient space near the plant site for the disposal of wastes.
8
The working principle of nuclear power plant depends upon mainly four
components.
1.Nuclear Reactor
2.Heat Exchanger
3.Steam Turbine
4.Alternator
1. Nuclear Reactor:-
Nuclear reactor is the main component of nuclear power plant and nuclear fuel is
subjected to nuclear fission. Nuclear fission is a process where a heavy nucleus is
spitted into two or more smaller nuclei. . A heavy isotope generally uranium-235(U-
235) is used as a nuclear fuel in the nuclear reactor because it has the ability to control
the chain reaction in the nuclear reactor. Nuclear fission is done by bombarding
uranium nuclei with slow moving neutrons. The energy released by the fission of nuclei
is called nuclear fission energy or nuclear energy. By the braking of uranium atom,
tremendous amount of heat energy and radiation is formed in the reactor and the chain
reaction is continuously running until it is controlled by a reactor control chain reaction.
A large amount of fission neutrons are removed in this process, only small amount of
fission uranium is used to generate the electrical power.
The nuclear reactor is cylindrical type shape. Main body of reactor is enclosed by reactor core,
reflector and thermal shielding. It prevent reactor wall from getting heated. It is also used to protect
alpha ( α), bita (β) , gama (γ) rays and neutrons which are bounce back at the time of fission within the
reactor. Mainly Nuclear reactor consists, some fuel rods of uranium, moderator and control rods. Fuel
rods are made of the fission materials and released large number of energy at the time of bombarding
with slow moving neutrons. Moderator consists full of graphite which is enclosed by the fuel rods.
Moderator maintains the chain reaction by releasing the neutrons in a suitable manner before they
mixed with the fissile materials. Control rods are made of boron-10 and cadmium or hafnium which is
a highly neutron absorber and it is inserted into the nuclear reactor. When control rods are push down
into the reactor core, it absorbs most of fission neutrons and power of the reactor is reduced. But when
it is pulling out from the reactor, it releases the fission neutrons and power is increased. Real practice,
this arrangement depends upon according to the requirement of load. A coolant, basically sodium
metal is used to reduce the heat produce in the reactor and it carries the heat to the heat exchanger.
2. Heat Exchanger:-Coolant is used to raise the heat of the heat exchanger which is utilised in raising
the steam. After that, it goes back to the reactor.
3. Steam Turbine:-Steam is coming from the heat exchanger to fed into the steam turbine through the
valve. After that the steam is exhausted to the condenser. This condensed steam is fed to the heat
exchanger through feed water pump.
4. Alternator:-Steam turbine is coupled to an alternator which converts mechanical energy to
electrical energy. The output of alternator produces electrical energy to bus bars via major electrical
apparatus like transformer, circuit breakers, isolators etc.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF NUCLEAR REACTOR
Main Components of a Nuclear Reactor
The Core: It contains all the fuel and generates the heat required for energy
production.
The Coolant: It passes through the core, absorbing the heat and transferring into
turbines.
The Turbine: Transfers energy into the mechanical form.
The Cooling Tower: It eliminates the excess heat that is not converted or
transferred.
Moderator: Moderators are used for reducing the speed of fast neutrons released
from the fission reaction and making them capable of sustaining a nuclear chain
reaction. Usually, water, solid graphite, and heavy water are used as a moderator in
nuclear reactors. Commonly-used moderators include regular (light) water (in
74.8% of the world’s reactors), solid graphite (20% of reactors), heavy water (5% of
reactors).
The Containment: The enveloping structure that separates the nuclear reactor from
the surrounding environment.
Neutron Poison: A neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear
poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.
8-Feb-24 12
Monitoring Nuclear Fuel
8-Feb-24 13
8-Feb-24 14
Fuel assembly (fuel bundle, fuel element)
8-Feb-24 15
8-Feb-24 16
Fuel Assembly Manufacturing (Fuel rod to fuel assembly)
Materials
Pellet: UO2, UO2 containing gadolinia
Cladding: Zirconium alloy
Guide thimble tube: Zirconium alloy
Spacer: Zirconium alloy and inconel
Top/Bottom nozzle: Stainless steel
Type 14×14 15×15 17×17
10ft 12ft 12ft 12ft
Section size
(mm) 197 214 214
8-Feb-24 17
(a) Schematic of nuclear fuel rod assembly 2 (b) Simplified schematic of a TN-32
8-Feb-24 18
ADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
1. Since the requirement of fuel is very small, so the cost of fuel transportation,
storage etc. is small.
2. Nuclear power plant needs less space as compared to any other power station of
the same size. Example: A 100 MW nuclear power station needs 38 - 40 acres of
land whereas the same capacity coal based thermal power plant needs 120-130
acres of land.
3. This type of power plant is very economical to produce large electric power.
4. Nuclear power plant can be located near load centre because bulk amount of fuel
(like water, coal) is not required.
5. Nuclear power is most economical to generate large capacities of power like 100
MVA or more. It produces huge amount of energy in every nuclear fission process.
6. Using a small amount of fuel, this plant produces large electrical energy.
7. This plant is very reliable in operation.
8. Since, the large number of nuclear fuel is available in this world. So, a nuclear
power plant can generate electrical energy thousands of years continuously.
9. Nuclear Power Plant is very neat and clean as compared to a steam power plant.
10. The operating cost is low at this power plant but it is not affected for higher load
demand. Nuclear power plant always operates a base load plant and load factor
will not be less than 0.8.
DISADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
1. Initial installation cost is very high as compared to the other power
station.
2. Nuclear fuel is very much expensive and it is difficult to recover.
3. Capital cost is higher in respect of other power station.
4. Good technical knowledge is required to operate such type plant. So,
salary bill and other maintenance cost will be higher to operate such of
a plant.
5. There is a chance to spread of radioactive pollution from this type of
plant.
6. Nuclear Reactor does not response efficiently with the fluctuating load
demand. So, it is not suited for varying the load.
7. Cooling water requirement is twice than a coal based steam power
plant.
Types of Nuclear Reactors
Most nuclear reactors in the United States and in Europe use fuel composed of natural uranium
that is enriched with uranium 235, and ordinary water as a coolant. These reactors are known as
light-water reactors. There are two basic types: the pressurized water reactor and the boiling water
reactor.
Pressurized Water Reactor is the most common type of nuclear reactor used for the generation
of electricity. It uses ordinary water as both the moderator (to slow neutrons) and the coolant (to
transfer heat). It has two separate cooling circuits: one which flows through the core of the reactor
(the primary), and one which is used to drive the turbine (the secondary).
Boiling Water Reactor is similar in some ways to the more common pressurized water reactor.
This design also uses ordinary water as both the moderator (to slow neutrons) and the coolant (to
transfer heat). In the boiling water reactor, however, a single cooling circuit is used and the
cooling water boils inside the reactor.
CANDU (CANadian Deuterium Uranium), is also used to generate power. Developed by Canada,
this reactor uses only natural uranium as a fuel, but is moderated and cooled using heavy water.
Since the complex enrichment process can be skipped, this type is very popular in developing
nations. It is also known as a pressurized heavy water reactor.
23
CANDU Reactor
25
Nuclear Waste
Nuclear waste refers to any radioactive material produced by medical, research, nuclear
power facilities, or nuclear weapons programs. Nuclear waste can be grouped in two
categories: low-level and high-level. Low-level wastes are slightly contaminated materials.
A major source of low-level waste is mill-tailings from uranium ore processing. High-level
wastes are comprised mainly of spent fuel from nuclear reactors. A small amount of high-
level waste is very toxic.
26
The major concern about nuclear waste is its disposal. Nuclear waste must be stored until the
radioactivity has dropped to safe levels without contaminating the surrounding environment. The
disposal of low-level waste is done by some form of shallow land burial. The disposal of high-level
waste is a more complex problem. The waste is highly toxic and must be stored for several centuries.
Currently there are no long-term storage facilities for high-level waste in the United States.
27
Radioactive waste disposal
The dispose of nuclear waste in the Euopean Union
Dumping of Radioactive Materials at Sea
8-Feb-24 29
8-Feb-24 30
8-Feb-24 31
Nuclear Explosion
8-Feb-24 32
8-Feb-24 33
8-Feb-24 34
Nuclear Explosion
35
YouTube Channel: GUDIPUDI FAMILY

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Power System - Types of Power Plants overview

  • 1. 1 Dr.G.Nageswara Rao Professor , EEE Department Lakireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering (LBRCE)
  • 2. Course Outcomes: At the end of the course, the student will be able to: CO1: Understand the operation of non-renewable electrical power generating stations (Understand-L2) CO2: Illustrate the economic aspects of power generation (Apply-L3) CO3: Understand the a.c distribution system and performance of insulated cables (Understand-L2) CO4: Evaluate the electrical and mechanical parameters of transmission lines (Apply-L3) CO5: Analyze operation of overhead line insulators and phenomena of corona (Understand-L2) Course Educational Objective: This course enables the student to learn different types of non- renewable power generation methods, the economic aspects of power generation, tariff methods and design aspects of transmission lines. 2
  • 3. 3 UNIT-I: POWER GENERATION METHODS Introduction to typical layout of an electrical power system, present power scenario in India, Generation of electric power: non-renewable sources (Qualitative): Hydro station, Steam power plant, Nuclear power plant and Gas turbine plant. UNIT-II: ECONOMICS OF GENERATION Introduction, definitions of connected load, maximum demand, demand factor, load factor, diversity factor, Load duration curve, number and size of generator units. Base load and peak load plants. Cost of electrical energy-fixed cost, running cost, Tariff on charge to customer. UNIT-III: AC DISTRIBUTION & CABLES AC Distribution: Introduction, AC distribution, Single phase, 3-phase- 3wire, 3 phase 4 wire system, bus bar arrangement, Selection of site and layout of substation. Insulated Cables: Introduction, insulation, insulating materials, extra high voltage cables, grading of cables, insulation resistance of a cable, capacitance of a single core and three core cables, overhead lines versus underground cables, types of cables.
  • 4. 4 Unit-IV: ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION LINES Transmission line sag calculation: The catenary curve, sag tension calculations, supports at different levels, stringing Chart, inductance and capacitance calculations of transmission lines: line conductors, inductance and capacitance of single phase and three phase lines with symmetrical and unsymmetrical spacing, Composite conductors- transposition, bundled conductors, and effect of earth on capacitance. UNIT-V: CORONA& INSULATORS Corona: Introduction, disruptive critical voltage, corona loss, Factors affecting corona loss and methods of reducing corona loss, Disadvantages of corona, interference between power and Communication lines, Numerical problems. Overhead Line Insulators: Introduction, types of insulators, Potential distribution over a string of suspension insulators, Methods of equalizing the potential, testing of insulators.
  • 5. 5 TEXT BOOKS: 1. Soni, Gupta & Bahtnagar, Power Systems Engineering, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, 2016. 2. C.L. Wadhwa, Electrical Power Systems, 6th Edition, New AgeInternational,2009. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. M.V.Deshpande, Elements of Electrical Power Station Design, 3rd, Wheeler Pub.1997. 2. C.L. Wadhwa, Generation, Distribution and Utilization of Electrical Energy, 3rd Edition, New AgeInternational,2015. 3. V K Mehta & Rohit Mehta, Principles of Power Systems (Multicolor Edition), 24/e, S.Chand Publishing, 4th Edition ,2005. W.D.Stevenson, Elements of Power System Analysis, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, 1982. https://www.slideshare.net/raoakhil/thermal-power-plants-237930541
  • 6. 6
  • 7. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 7
  • 8. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 8  Electricity sector in India is growing at a rapid pace.  The present peak demand is about 1,15,000 MW and the Installed Capacity is 1,52,380 MW using generation from thermal (63%), hydro (25 %), Nuclear (9 %) and renewables (9 %)
  • 9. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 9
  • 10. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 10
  • 11. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 11
  • 12. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 12
  • 13. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 13
  • 14. 14 Basic Principal of Steam Power Plant The heat produced for burning of coal & with the help of water steam is produced. This produced steam flow towards turbine i.e. kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy. The input steam drives the prime mover or turbine, simultaneously the generator also start to rotate. At that time mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. Thermal Power Plant
  • 15. 15 Selection of Site for Thermal Power Plant 1. Supply of Fuel: The Steam power station should be located near the coal mine so that transportation cost of fuel is minimum. If the land is not available near to coal mines then provide adequate facilities for transportation of fuel. 2. Available of Water: A huge amount of water is required in boiler & condenser, so that the plant should be located near the river, lake etc. 3. Transportation Facility: For steam power station provide better transportation facility for the transportation of man, machinery etc. 4. Cost & Type of Land: The Steam Power Station should be located where the cost of land is chief & also future extension is possible. 5. Near to Load Center: In order to reduce transmission & distribution losses the plant should be located near to load center. 6. Distance from Populated Area: As the thermal power plant produces flue gases, these gases will effect to live human being, so that the plant should be located away from thickly populated area. 7. Disposal Facility Provided: As the thermal power plant produces ash, while burning of coal. So, disposal of ash facility should be provided. 8. Availability of labour: Skilled and unskilled labour should be available nearly.
  • 17. 17 Flow Diagram of Steam Thermal Power Plant
  • 18. 18 The Basic Components 1. Boiler (i) fire tube boiler and (ii) water tube boiler 1. Steam turbine 2. Generator 3. Condenser 4. Cooling towers 5. Circulating water pump 6. Boiler feed pump 7. Forced or induced draught fans 8. Ash precipitators
  • 19. 19 Boiler A boiler is a closed vessel in which the water or fluid is heated Steam turbine A steam turbine is a device which extracts thermal energy from the pressurized steam. The energy must be used to organize mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Generator A generator is a device which is used to convert the mechanical form of energy into the electrical energy. Condenser A condenser is a device used to converts the gaseous substance into the liquid state substance with the help of cooling. Cooling towers A cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which discards the waste heat into the atmosphere with help of the cooling water stream to a lower temperature.
  • 20. 20 Circulating water pump Circulating pump is a special device used to circulate the liquids, gases and slurries present in the closed circuit. The main purpose of the circulating pump is circulating the water in a cooling system or hydronic heating. Boiler feed pump A boiler feed pump is a specific type of pump which is used to feed the water into the steam boiler. The condition of water supply depends on the boiler produce the condensation of the steam. Forced draught fans: Forced draught fans are used to provide a positive pressure to a system. Induced draught fans Induced draught fans are used to provide a negative pressure or vacuum in a slack or system Ash precipitators: Precipitators are devices used to remove the fine particles like smoke and dust. By using the force of induced electrostatic charge minimally close the flow of gases through the unit.
  • 21. 21 Working Principle Of Thermal Power Plant Water is used as the working fluid in the thermal power plant. We can see coal based and nuclear power plants in this category. From the working of the power plant energy, later from the fuel gets transferred into the form of electricity. With the help of high pressure and high steams a steam turbine in a thermal power plant is rotates, the rotation must be transfer to the generator to produce power. When turbine blades are rotated with the high pressure and high temperature at that case the steam loses its energy. So it results in the low pressure and low temperature at the outlet of the turbine. Steam must be expanded upto the point where it reaches the saturation point. So from the steam, there is no heat addition or removal that takes place. Entropy of the steam remains same. So we can notice the change in the pressure and volume and temperature along with the entropy diagrams. If the condition comes to the low pressure and low temperature steam back to the original state, from that we can produce continuous electricity.
  • 22. 22 To compress the gaseous state liquids at that case large amount of energy is required. So before the compression we need to convert the fluids into liquid state. For this purpose condenser is required and heat is rejected to the surroundings and converts the steam into liquid state. During this process the temperature and volume of the fluid changes take place hardly, so it turns into liquid state. And the fluid turns to the original state. To bring the fluid to the original state external heat is added. To the heat exchanger heat is added which is called as boiler. Then the pressure of the fluid must remain same. In heat exchanger tubes it expands freely. Due to increase in temperature the liquid state is transformed into the vapour state and the temperature remains same. So know we complete the thermodynamic cycle in the thermal power plant. It is known as Rankine cycle. By repeating the cycle we can produce the power continuously. With the help of boiler furnace heat is added to the boiler. Then the fuel must reacts with the air and produces heat. The fuel must be either nuclear or coal. In this process if we use coal as a fuel we can observe lot of pollutants before ejects in to the air clean or removed the particles and send into surroundings. The process is done in various steps. By using the electro static precipitator the ash particles are removed. So with the help of the stack clean exhaust must be send outside.
  • 24. 24 Advantages: 1.Cost of fuel: Fuel used in thermal power station (TPS) is cheaper than cost of fuel used in diesel & nuclear power station. 2.Capital cost: Capital cost of TPS is less than hydro & nuclear power station. 3.Near load center: TPS can be located near load center. The coal can be transport from coal mines to power plant. As it is located load centre it reduces transmission cost and losses in it. 4.Space required: Less space required as compared to hydro power station. 5.Generating capacity: TPS build/construct of high generating capacity, so used as a base load power plant. 6.Time required for completion of project: Time required for completion of Thermal power project is very less as compare to hydroelectric power station.
  • 25. 25 Disadvantages: 1. Air pollution: It produces air pollution due to smoke and ash produced during combustion of fuel. 2. Starting Time: TPP cannot be put into service immediately like hydroelectric power plant. As thermal power plant required few hours (6-7 hour) to generate steam at high pressure and high temperature. 3. Handling of fuel: Handling of coal and disposal of ash is quite difficult. 4. Fuel transportation cost: When power plant are located away from coal mines i.e. near load centre at that time fuel transportation cost is more. 5. Preparation for fuel: There is more expenditure for preparation of coal (raw coal to pulverized coal). 6. Space required: Large amount of space is required for storage of fuel and ash as compare to Nuclear power plant. 7. Efficiency: It is less efficient power plant overall efficiency is maximum 30 %. 8. Stand by losses: Stand by losses is more as furnace is required to keep in operation even when there is no load. 9. Maintenance cost: High maintenance and operating cost because number of axillaries plant are required such as coal and ash handling plant, pulverizing plant, condensing plant and water purification plant etc. 10. Availability of fuel: Less availability of high grade coal. 11. Simplicity and cleanness: Layout of thermal power plant is complicated than hydroelectric power plant due to coal and ash. 12. Life: Life of thermal power plant is less than hydro power plant. 13. Cost per unit (cost of generation) is high
  • 27. In water tube boilers the water flows through tubes and hot combustion gases flow over these tubes. Whereas in fire tube boilers the tubes are surrounded by water and hot combustion gases flow through these tubes.
  • 28. 28
  • 29. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 29 Surface Condenser
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31 Principle And Working Of Surface Condenser The Basic working principle of a surface condenser is the transfer of heat from a higher-temperature body to a lower-temperature body. In this, the steam (high- temperature body) liberates its heat to the cooling water tubes (low-temperature body). In the process of heat transfer, the hot steam gets converted to water. The steam enters from the exhaust Steam inlet and comes in contact with the water carrying tubes. The water in the tubes has a circulating flow. As soon as the exhaust steam comes in contact with the water-cooled tubes, the process of heat transfer begins. The heat from the steam is removed and converted into a liquid which Is known as condensate. This condensate is then removed from the cylindrical vessel through a valve located at the bottom of the cylinder. In thermal power stations, water is heated more than its boiling point to generate steam which in turn is used to rotate the turbine. After passing through the turbine the steam is fed into a surface condenser where it is converted into water and then reused.
  • 32. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 32 Jet Condenser Surface Condenser Both steam & cooling water are mixed together Both steam & cooling water are not mixed together Manufacturing cost is low Manufacturing cost is high Occupies less area Occupies large area The air pump requires large power The air pump requires less power A small quantity of cooling water is required A large quantity of cooling water is required
  • 33. 33 Advantages The following are the advantages of surface condenser 1. Its vacuum efficiency is high 2. They are mainly used in large plants area 3. It uses low-quality water 4. It also uses impure water for cooling purpose 5. The pressure ratio & steam are directly proportional. Disadvantages The following are the disadvantages of surface condenser 1. Water required is in the large amount 2. Complex in construction 3. High maintenance 4. It occupies a large area. Applications The following are the applications of surface condenser 1. Refrigeration of vacuum 2. Evaporation of vacuum 3. Systems like Desalination
  • 34. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 34
  • 35. 35 Hydroelectric power plant has the following parts Dam or weir: it contains the river water, forming a reservoir behind it and thus creating a water drop that is used to produce energy. Dams can be made of earth or concrete. Spillways: They release part of the impounded water without passing through the turbines; water can then be used for irrigation purposes. They are located on the main wall of the dam and can be at the top or at the bottom. Most of the water goes into a plunge pool at the toe of the dam, to prevent scour damage by the falling water. Water intakes: they let in the impounded water towards the turbines through a penstock. Water intakes have gates to control the amount of water that reaches the turbines and grids to filter out any debris such as trunks, branches, etc. Powerhouse: it houses the hydraulic and electrical equipment (turbines, generators, transformers) and the service area with control and testing rooms. It has inlet and outlet gates to ensure the equipment area can be dry in case of repairs or disassembling equipment. Turbines: they harness the energy of the water that goes through them to rotate around a shaft. There are three main types of turbines: Pelton, Francis and Kaplan turbines (propeller type). Transformers: electrical devices to increase or decrease the voltage in an alternating current circuit. Electrical power transmission lines: cables to transmit the electricity generated.
  • 37. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 37 Gas Turbine Power Plant A generating station which employs a gas turbine as the prime mover for the generation of electrical energy is known as a gas turbine power plant. In a gas turbine power plant, air is used as the working fluid. The air is compressed by the compressor and is led to the combustion chamber where heat is added to the air, thus raising its temperature. We will understand the gas turbine power plant layout and learn the diagram. Heat is added to the compressed air either by burning fuel in the chamber or by the use of air heaters. The hot and high-pressure air from the combustion chamber is then passed to the gas turbine where it expands and does the mechanical work. The gas turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It may be mentioned here that compressor, gas turbine and the alternator are mounted on the same shaft so that a part of the mechanical power of the turbine can be utilised for the operation of the compressor. Gas turbine power plants are being used as standby plants for hydro-electric stations, as a starting plant for driving auxiliaries in power plants etc.
  • 38. 8 February 2024 Department of EEE 38 The main components of the Gas Turbine Power Plant are : (i) Compressor (ii) Regenerator (iii) Combustion chamber (iv) Gas turbine (v) Alternator (vi) Starting motor (i) Compressor: The compressor used in the plant is generally of rotatory type. The air at atmospheric pressure is drawn by the compressor via the filter which removes the dust from the air. The rotatory blades of the compressor push the air between stationary blades to raise its pressure. Thus air at high pressure is available at the output of the compressor. (ii) Regenerator: A regenerator is a device which recovers heat from the exhaust gases of the turbine. The exhaust is passed through the regenerator before wasting to the atmosphere. A regenerator consists of a nest of tubes contained in a shell as seen in the below power plant layout. The compressed air from the compressor passes through the tubes on its way to the combustion chamber. In this way, compressed air is heated by the hot exhaust gases.
  • 39. 39 (iii) Combustion chamber: The air at high pressure from the compressor is led to the combustion chamber via the regenerator. In the combustion chamber, heat is added to the air by burning oil. The oil is injected through the burner into the chamber at high pressure to ensure atomisation of oil and its thorough mixing with air. The result is that the chamber attains a very high temperature (about 3000 F). The combustion gases are suitably cooled to 1300F to 1500F and then delivered to the gas turbine. iv) Gas turbine: The products of combustion consisting of a mixture of gases at high temperature and pressure are passed to the gas turbine.These gases in passing over the turbine blades expand and thus do the mechanical work. The temperature of the exhaust gases from the turbine is about 900F. (v) Alternator: The gas turbine is coupled to the alternator as seen in the gas turbine plant layout. The alternator converts mechanical energy of the turbine into electrical energy. The output from the alternator is given to the bus-bars through the transformer, circuit breakers and isolators. (vi) Starting motor: Before starting the turbine, the compressor has to be started. For this purpose, an electric motor is mounted on the same shaft as that of the turbine. The motor is energised by the batteries. Once the unit starts, a part of the mechanical power of the turbine drives the compressor and there is no need of motor now
  • 40. 40 Gas turbine power plant Advantages: (i) It is simple in design as compared to steam power station since no boilers and their auxiliaries are required. (ii) It is much smaller in size as compared to the steam power station of the same capacity. This is expected since the gas turbine power plant does not require a boiler, feed water arrangement etc. (iii) The initial and operating costs are much lower than that of the equivalent steam power station. (iv) It requires comparatively less water as no condenser is used. (v) The maintenance charges are quite small. (vi) Gas turbines are much simpler in construction and operation than steam turbines. (vii) It can be started quickly form cold conditions. (viii) There are no standby losses. However, in a steam power station, these losses occur because the boiler is kept in operation even when the steam turbine is supplying no load.
  • 41. 41 Gas turbine power plant Disadvantages: (i) There is a problem with starting the unit. It is because before starting the turbine, the compressor has to be operated for which power is required from some external source. However, once the unit starts, the external power is not needed as the turbine itself supplies the necessary power to the compressor. (ii) Since a greater part of power developed by the turbine is used in driving the compressor, the net output is low. (iii) The overall efficiency of such plants is low (about 20%) because the exhaust gases from the turbine contain sufficient heat. (iv) The temperature of the combustion chamber is quite high (3000F) so that its life is comparatively reduced.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44. 44 1. Discuss the different sources of energy available in nature. 2. Draw the schematic diagram of a modern steam power station and explain its operation 3. What is a steam power station ? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages. 4. What factors are taken into account while selecting the site for a steam power station ? 5. Draw a neat schematic diagram of a hydro-electric plant and explain the functions of various components. 6. Explain the functions of the following : (i) dam (ii) spillways (iii) surge tank (iv) headworks (v) draft tube 7. Draw the schematic diagram of a nuclear power station and discuss its operation 8. Explain with a neat sketch the various parts of a nuclear reactor 9. Discuss the factors for the choice of site for a nuclear power plant. 10. Explain the working of a gas turbine power plant with a schematic diagram. 11. Give the comparison of steam power plant, hydro-electric power plant, gas power plant and nuclear power plant 12. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a gas power station. CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • 45. 45
  • 47. Site Selection for Hydro Power Plant 2 01. Availability of water Water is the main source of hydroelectric power plants. A huge amount of water should be available so that the power plant can be built with a high head. The quantity of the water available will be estimated on the basis of the measurement of streamflow over a certain period or previous rainfall records. 02. Storage of water There will be a wide variation of rainfall during the year. This makes it necessary to store water for continuous generation of power throughout the year. 03. Head of water The head of the water depends upon the topography of the area. If the head is more then potential energy will be more. 04. Choice of the dam The important consideration in the choice of the dam is safety and economics. Failure of the dam may result in substantial loss of life and property. The dam must satisfy the stability test for shock loads and unusual floods. 05. Distance from the power station to load center The distance should be less between the power station and load center so that the cost of transmission of power becomes less. 06. Accessibility of the site The plant should be easily accessible by rain and load for transportation of plant equipment.
  • 49. 4 01. Reservoir: The purpose of this reservoir is to store the water which will be further used to generate electricity. The water will be stored during the rainy season. By storing water we get potential energy. 02. Dam: dam will be constructed across the river or lakes to provide the head of the water. These are classified based on their function, material, shape, and structural design. 03. Spillway: This spillway is the safety wall for the dam. It discharges the existing amount of water from the reservoir into the rivers. That means spillway is required to reduce overtopping. It keeps the reservoir level below the predetermined value. 04. Intake: Intake acts as a filter in Hydro Electric power plants. It removes unwanted material from the water. In this stage, the potential energy will be converted into kinetic energy. 05. Penstock: This is the channel between the dam and turbine which helps to increase the kinetic energy of the water. It is made up of stainless steel. 06. Surge tank: It acts as a pressure release wall for the water. It reduces the water hammer effect. That means it holds the water whenever there is no requirement of load on the turbines, and similarly, it discharges water whenever there is a requirement of load on the turbines. 07. Prime mover/turbine: For this reason, the kinetic energy will be converted into mechanical energy, which is responsible for the rotation of the shaft of the turbines. Commonly used turbines are Kaplan, Francis, Pelton, cross flow, etc. 08. Alternators / Generators: These are normally located near the foot of the dam. Water is brought to alternators with the help of penstock. In this region, the mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. Thus final power will get in this stage.
  • 50. 5 Working Principle  In a hydro electric power plant, water is stored in the dam reservoir which has potential energy.  This potential energy is converted into kinetic energy when water from the dam is allowed to flow through the pipes.  This kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy allowing the water flowing in pipe to drive the turbine.  At last, the mechanical energy by rotating the turbine is converted to electrical energy in the generator which is coupled to the turbine.  The dam creates the head of the water from which water flows.  Penstock carries the water from the Dam to the turbine, and it provides kinetic energy.  The fast flowing water through the penstock pushes turbine blades.  The water forces on turbine plates and rotates the generator rotor, which in turn generates electricity.
  • 51. 6 Advantages 1. Electricity can be produced at a constant rate once the dam is constructed 2. The gates of the dam can be shut down if electricity is not needed, which stops electricity generation. Hence by doing this, we can save water for further use in future when the demand for electricity is high. 3. One of the biggest advantages of hydroelectric power plants is that they are designed to last many decades, and so they can contribute to the generation of electricity for years. 4. Large dams often become tourist attractions because the lake that forms in the reservoir area behind the dam can be used for leisure or water sports. 5. The water from the lake of the dam can be used for irrigation purposes in farming. 6. Since the water is released to produce electricity, the build-up of water in the dam is stored to produce extra energy until needed. 7. Hydroelectric energy generation does not pollute the atmosphere because the hydroelectric power plant does not produce greenhouse gases. 8. Hydropower plants can be considered a reliable energy generation source. Since hydropower totally depends on water present on this planet, this energy source will remain inexhaustible because of the water cycle as it continuously keeps on maintaining balance on the Earth.
  • 52. 7 Disadvantages 1. It is not an easy task to assemble a hydropower plant because the dams are extremely expensive to build, and they require extremely high standards and calculations for their construction. 2. It becomes important that the hydropower plant must serve for many decades because of its high cost of construction, and this totally depends on the availability of water resources. 3. If flooding happens due to natural calamities or the failure of dams, it would impact a large area of land, which means that the natural environment can be destroyed. 4. People are forcibly removed from the particular area where a hydropower plant is going to be assembled. This affects the day-to-day life of people living in that area. 5. A serious geological damage can be caused due to the construction of large dams. 6. To construct a hydro plant, it is important to block the running water source due to which the fishes can’t arrive at their favourable place, and as the water stops streaming, the areas along the riverside start to vanish out which eventually influences the life of creatures that depend on fish for food.
  • 53. 8 Different types of modern hydro power plants 1. Pumped storage hydropower plants 2. Reversible turbine pump hydropower plants 3. Underground hydropower plants 4. Tidal power plants Types of Pumped Storage Plants 1. Daily, weekly or seasonal storage plants 2. High, medium or low head plants 3. According to the type of turbine used in the plant 4. Pure or mixed storage hydropower plants 5. Horizontal or vertical storage plants
  • 55. Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants: To supply the peak loads, hydropower plants has to have the installed capacity of high loads of which remains idle during the off-peak hours. The more the demands of variable power supply, it is necessary to devise some way to achieve the economical loading of the power plant by levelling up the load curve. The following are some of the ways: (a) Commercial Method: To sell electric current at a higher rate during peak hours than during off-peak hours. (b) Technical method: The following are the two methods: (i) By installing special peak load power plants (ii) By storing energy produced during off-peak hours. Such a system is known as Pumped Storage Plants. Purpose of Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants: This type of plants combined with steam power stations reduces the power load fluctuations to narrow limits. In some cases, the storage plant consists of pump and motor with no turbines. The pump increases the head in the feeder reservoir of a separate hydro-electric plant while motor improves the power factor in the electric supply network.
  • 56. 11 Advantages: The pump storage plants entail the following advantages : 1.There is substantial increase in peak load capacity of the plant at comparatively low capital cost. 2.Due to load comparable to rated load on the plant, the operating efficiency of the plant is high. 3.There is an improvement in the load factor of the plant. 4.The energy available during peak load periods is higher than that of during off peak periods so that in spite of losses incurred in pumping there is over-all gain. 5. Load on the hydro-electric plant remains uniform. 6.The hydro-electric plant becomes partly independent of the stream flow conditions.
  • 57. 12
  • 58. 8-Feb-24 1 NUCLEAR POWER PLANT Dr.G.Nageswara Rao Professor , EEE Department Lakireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering (LBRCE)
  • 59. NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY Nuclei are made up of protons and neutron, but the mass of a nucleus is always less than the sum of the individual masses of the protons and neutrons which constitute it. The difference is a measure of the nuclear binding energy which holds the nucleus together. The enormity of the nuclear binding energy can perhaps be better appreciated by comparing it to the binding energy of an electron in an atom. The comparison of the alpha particle binding energy with the binding energy of the electron in a hydrogen atom is shown below. The nuclear binding energies are on the order of a million times greater than the electron binding energies of atoms.
  • 60. Fusion is the process where two light nuclei combine together releasing vast amounts of energy. Fission is the splitting of a heavy, unstable nucleus into two lighter nuclei Fission and Fusion (Hydrogen Bomb) (Atom Bomb or Atomic Bomb)
  • 61. 4 Fission Reaction Fusion Reaction A fission reaction is splitting up of a large atom or a molecule into two or more smaller ones. Fusion is the process of combination of two or more lighter atoms or molecules into larger ones. Fission reaction doesn’t occur normally in nature. Fusion reaction process occurs in the stars, like in the sun, etc. This reaction produces highly radioactive substances. Few number of radioactive particles are developed by the process of a fusion reaction. Neutrons must be slowed down by moderation to increase their capture probability in fission reactors. This process requires high-temperature, high-density environment. This process consumes a very little amount of energy to break up the atoms. High amount of energy is consumed to combine protons so that the nuclear forces can overcome the electrostatic repulsion. The energy released during the process of fission is much larger than that of the released energy in other chemical reactions. The energy released by the process of fusion is around 3-4 times much greater than that of the energy liberated by the process of fission. Fission process is utilized in the nuclear power plant. Fusion process is one of the experimental technologies for the production of power. Uranium is one of the primary fuels used for the process of fission in power plants. The isotopes of hydrogen such as the Deuterium & Tritium are some of the primary fuels used in the experimental process of fusion power plants. A fission bomb is one kind of nuclear weapon which is also known as Atom Bomb or Atomic Bomb. Hydrogen Bomb is one class of fusion bomb.
  • 63. 6 Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear reactor is used to produce heat and heat exchanger performs to convert water into steam by using the heat generated in nuclear reactor. This steam is fed into steam turbine and condensed in condenser. Now steam turbine is turn to run an electric generator or alternator which is coupled to steam turbine and thereby producing electric energy. SELECTION OF SITE 1. Availability of water: At the power plant site an ample quantity of water should be available for condenser cooling and made up water required for steam generation. Therefore the site should be nearer to a river, reservoir or sea. 2. Distance from load center: The plant should be located near the load center. This will minimize the power losses in transmission lines. 3. Distance from populated area: The power plant should be located far away From populated area to avoid the radioactive hazard. 4. Accessibility to site: The power plant should have rail and road transportation facilities. 5. Waste disposal: The wastes of a nuclear power plant are radioactive and there should be sufficient space near the plant site for the disposal of wastes.
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  • 65. 8 The working principle of nuclear power plant depends upon mainly four components. 1.Nuclear Reactor 2.Heat Exchanger 3.Steam Turbine 4.Alternator 1. Nuclear Reactor:- Nuclear reactor is the main component of nuclear power plant and nuclear fuel is subjected to nuclear fission. Nuclear fission is a process where a heavy nucleus is spitted into two or more smaller nuclei. . A heavy isotope generally uranium-235(U- 235) is used as a nuclear fuel in the nuclear reactor because it has the ability to control the chain reaction in the nuclear reactor. Nuclear fission is done by bombarding uranium nuclei with slow moving neutrons. The energy released by the fission of nuclei is called nuclear fission energy or nuclear energy. By the braking of uranium atom, tremendous amount of heat energy and radiation is formed in the reactor and the chain reaction is continuously running until it is controlled by a reactor control chain reaction. A large amount of fission neutrons are removed in this process, only small amount of fission uranium is used to generate the electrical power.
  • 66. The nuclear reactor is cylindrical type shape. Main body of reactor is enclosed by reactor core, reflector and thermal shielding. It prevent reactor wall from getting heated. It is also used to protect alpha ( α), bita (β) , gama (γ) rays and neutrons which are bounce back at the time of fission within the reactor. Mainly Nuclear reactor consists, some fuel rods of uranium, moderator and control rods. Fuel rods are made of the fission materials and released large number of energy at the time of bombarding with slow moving neutrons. Moderator consists full of graphite which is enclosed by the fuel rods. Moderator maintains the chain reaction by releasing the neutrons in a suitable manner before they mixed with the fissile materials. Control rods are made of boron-10 and cadmium or hafnium which is a highly neutron absorber and it is inserted into the nuclear reactor. When control rods are push down into the reactor core, it absorbs most of fission neutrons and power of the reactor is reduced. But when it is pulling out from the reactor, it releases the fission neutrons and power is increased. Real practice, this arrangement depends upon according to the requirement of load. A coolant, basically sodium metal is used to reduce the heat produce in the reactor and it carries the heat to the heat exchanger. 2. Heat Exchanger:-Coolant is used to raise the heat of the heat exchanger which is utilised in raising the steam. After that, it goes back to the reactor. 3. Steam Turbine:-Steam is coming from the heat exchanger to fed into the steam turbine through the valve. After that the steam is exhausted to the condenser. This condensed steam is fed to the heat exchanger through feed water pump. 4. Alternator:-Steam turbine is coupled to an alternator which converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The output of alternator produces electrical energy to bus bars via major electrical apparatus like transformer, circuit breakers, isolators etc.
  • 67. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF NUCLEAR REACTOR
  • 68. Main Components of a Nuclear Reactor The Core: It contains all the fuel and generates the heat required for energy production. The Coolant: It passes through the core, absorbing the heat and transferring into turbines. The Turbine: Transfers energy into the mechanical form. The Cooling Tower: It eliminates the excess heat that is not converted or transferred. Moderator: Moderators are used for reducing the speed of fast neutrons released from the fission reaction and making them capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Usually, water, solid graphite, and heavy water are used as a moderator in nuclear reactors. Commonly-used moderators include regular (light) water (in 74.8% of the world’s reactors), solid graphite (20% of reactors), heavy water (5% of reactors). The Containment: The enveloping structure that separates the nuclear reactor from the surrounding environment. Neutron Poison: A neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.
  • 71. 8-Feb-24 14 Fuel assembly (fuel bundle, fuel element)
  • 73. 8-Feb-24 16 Fuel Assembly Manufacturing (Fuel rod to fuel assembly) Materials Pellet: UO2, UO2 containing gadolinia Cladding: Zirconium alloy Guide thimble tube: Zirconium alloy Spacer: Zirconium alloy and inconel Top/Bottom nozzle: Stainless steel Type 14×14 15×15 17×17 10ft 12ft 12ft 12ft Section size (mm) 197 214 214
  • 74. 8-Feb-24 17 (a) Schematic of nuclear fuel rod assembly 2 (b) Simplified schematic of a TN-32
  • 76. ADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS 1. Since the requirement of fuel is very small, so the cost of fuel transportation, storage etc. is small. 2. Nuclear power plant needs less space as compared to any other power station of the same size. Example: A 100 MW nuclear power station needs 38 - 40 acres of land whereas the same capacity coal based thermal power plant needs 120-130 acres of land. 3. This type of power plant is very economical to produce large electric power. 4. Nuclear power plant can be located near load centre because bulk amount of fuel (like water, coal) is not required. 5. Nuclear power is most economical to generate large capacities of power like 100 MVA or more. It produces huge amount of energy in every nuclear fission process. 6. Using a small amount of fuel, this plant produces large electrical energy. 7. This plant is very reliable in operation. 8. Since, the large number of nuclear fuel is available in this world. So, a nuclear power plant can generate electrical energy thousands of years continuously. 9. Nuclear Power Plant is very neat and clean as compared to a steam power plant. 10. The operating cost is low at this power plant but it is not affected for higher load demand. Nuclear power plant always operates a base load plant and load factor will not be less than 0.8.
  • 77. DISADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS 1. Initial installation cost is very high as compared to the other power station. 2. Nuclear fuel is very much expensive and it is difficult to recover. 3. Capital cost is higher in respect of other power station. 4. Good technical knowledge is required to operate such type plant. So, salary bill and other maintenance cost will be higher to operate such of a plant. 5. There is a chance to spread of radioactive pollution from this type of plant. 6. Nuclear Reactor does not response efficiently with the fluctuating load demand. So, it is not suited for varying the load. 7. Cooling water requirement is twice than a coal based steam power plant.
  • 78. Types of Nuclear Reactors Most nuclear reactors in the United States and in Europe use fuel composed of natural uranium that is enriched with uranium 235, and ordinary water as a coolant. These reactors are known as light-water reactors. There are two basic types: the pressurized water reactor and the boiling water reactor. Pressurized Water Reactor is the most common type of nuclear reactor used for the generation of electricity. It uses ordinary water as both the moderator (to slow neutrons) and the coolant (to transfer heat). It has two separate cooling circuits: one which flows through the core of the reactor (the primary), and one which is used to drive the turbine (the secondary). Boiling Water Reactor is similar in some ways to the more common pressurized water reactor. This design also uses ordinary water as both the moderator (to slow neutrons) and the coolant (to transfer heat). In the boiling water reactor, however, a single cooling circuit is used and the cooling water boils inside the reactor. CANDU (CANadian Deuterium Uranium), is also used to generate power. Developed by Canada, this reactor uses only natural uranium as a fuel, but is moderated and cooled using heavy water. Since the complex enrichment process can be skipped, this type is very popular in developing nations. It is also known as a pressurized heavy water reactor.
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  • 82. 25 Nuclear Waste Nuclear waste refers to any radioactive material produced by medical, research, nuclear power facilities, or nuclear weapons programs. Nuclear waste can be grouped in two categories: low-level and high-level. Low-level wastes are slightly contaminated materials. A major source of low-level waste is mill-tailings from uranium ore processing. High-level wastes are comprised mainly of spent fuel from nuclear reactors. A small amount of high- level waste is very toxic.
  • 83. 26 The major concern about nuclear waste is its disposal. Nuclear waste must be stored until the radioactivity has dropped to safe levels without contaminating the surrounding environment. The disposal of low-level waste is done by some form of shallow land burial. The disposal of high-level waste is a more complex problem. The waste is highly toxic and must be stored for several centuries. Currently there are no long-term storage facilities for high-level waste in the United States.
  • 84. 27 Radioactive waste disposal The dispose of nuclear waste in the Euopean Union
  • 85. Dumping of Radioactive Materials at Sea