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THE CASE
Situation Analysis
Service Sector
Output Growth 6%
Job Growth 4%
Real GDP 6.6% New Job Growth 0.9%
Agriculture
Output Growth 3.2%
Job Growth -1.1%
Manufacturing
Output Growth 10.4%
Job Growth -1.6%
Male: Grew 0.17 Million
Female: Grew 0.92 Million
Female
Informal Sector Increased by 1.9 Million
Formal Sector Decreased by 0.1 Million
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Youth Scenario
Rise of NEET in Youth Population
(age 15 to 29)
2013: 25.4%
2016-17: 29.8%
One-third of the
population is youth
Youth Unemployment Rate 8.1%
National Unemployment Rate 10.6%
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Situation Analysis
Bangladesh Bureau of
Statistics found that the
income share of the richest
5% of the country rose by 57%
in 10 years, while the poorest
5% had their income reduced
by 59% in the same period
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Economic Facts
The Most Commonly Shared
Development Objectives
Growth Inequality
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Economic Facts
Growth, Inequality and Poverty
Alleviations are Inter-related
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Gini Coefficients and Growth Rates
Name of the
Country
Year
Gini
Coefficient
Year
Gini
Coefficient
1990 – 2000 2000 – 2010
Bangladesh 1992 28.3 2010 32.1 4.8 5.9
China 1995 41.5 2009 42.1 10.6 10.8
India 1994 29.7 2010 33.9 5.9 8.0
Indonesia 1995 34.2 2010 35.6 4.2 5.3
Malaysia 1989 48.4 2009 46.2 7.0 5.0
Pakistan 1991 31.2 2005 31.2 3.8 5.1
Philippines 1994 42.9 2010 43.0 3.3 4.9
Sri Lanka 1990 30.1 2010 36.4 5.3 5.6
Thailand 1992 46.2 2010 39.4 4.2 4.5
Vietnam 1993 35.7 2006 37.8 7.9 7.5
Source: The World Bank, World Development Report and World Development Indicators, Various Issues
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Growth Effect
Poor gets benefitted
from the “trickle down”
effects of growth
Public services and
lifestyle gets improved
Employment in the
growth sector
Growth boosts
Government income
Rise of labor income
Eventually pushes the
sectors that were
lagging behind
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Jobless Growth
Why?
4 Major Reasons
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Automation in
Manufacturing1
Increasing
Informal Jobs2
Private Sector is
Not Diversified3
Theoretical
Education Structure4
Jobless Growth - Reasons
Theoretical
Education Structure
Increasing
Informal Jobs
Automation in
Manufacturing
Private Sector is
Not Diversified
Core Issues
Lack of skilled workers + Lack of
investments in diverse sectors
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Recommendations
Strategies
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Recommendations
Location Based Skill
Learning Centers
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Geographical Inequity
Unemployment Rate
varies from one region
to another
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
The Level of Inequality
Rangpur’s
unemployment rate is
7.28%
Dhaka’s
unemployment rate is
4.81%
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Recommendations
Using the Strengths
of Different Regions
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Unique Strengths
Dhaka
Administrations and
Management
Chittagong
Ports and Docks
Growing Tourism Industry
Sylhet
Tea Gardens and Tourism
Export Processing Zone
Rajshahi
Cheap Labor Force
Rail and Road Infrastructure
Khulna
Tourism and Jute Industry
Ship Building Yard
Barisal
Rice, Pulses and Hide Industry
Bakery and Pharmaceuticals
Rangpur
Rice, Pulses and Hide Industry
Bakery and Pharmaceuticals
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Recommendations
Promoting
Polytechnic Institutes
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Why people are not getting jobs?
33.3
22.2
29.6
14.8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Impractical Education System
Improper Skillsets
Not enough investment in diverse sector
Automation
Primary Research
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Lack of Skilled Workers
Why?
Serious Skill Gap in Education System
6.6 million qualified people are deprived of jobs
Hardly Any Communicating Between
the Universities and Industries
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Lack of Skilled Workers
But
Plenty of Opportunities in the
technical and vocational sectors
Not Adequate Graduates in this
current education system
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Social and Cultural Stigma
For
Dropouts
Not for
Students of Merit
Low
Social Status
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
The Reality
+
Most Polytechnic graduates get jobs within
one or two years of their graduation
Many of the polytechnic graduates are
also entrepreneurs
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Campaign for Perception Change
Aims at changing
the perception
regarding
polytechnic
institutes and
vocational studies
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Successful Cases
12,300 Vocational
Colleges
2.7 Crore
Students
In 2014, China decided to transform
600 of its public universities into
polytechnic institutions
China’s Amazing Success
World’s Largest Vocational
Education System
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Recommendations
Attract Foreign
Investors (FDI)
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Progress So Far
1.83
2
2.45
2.58
2015 2016 2017 2018
Net FDI Inflow
in billions of $
FDI is
picking
up,
But slowly
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Ease of Doing Business Index
Unavailability of Supply
Bangladesh is
ranked 176th out
of 190 countries
Corruption
Infrastructure Deficits
Political uncertainty
Security Concerns
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Countries with Most FDI Inflows
50
58
60
60
66
68
85
144
311
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
France
Singapore
Brazil
Australia
Ireland
Netherlands
Hong Kong
China
United States
$, Billions
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Recommendations
Creating
Entrepreneurs
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Entrepreneurship
The foundation on which
our country can diversify
its products
Create More Jobs
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Start Ups of Bangladesh
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Entrepreneurship & Gender
Among the total students in
university level 30.03% are females
The question is what are they
doing after graduating?
Unemployment among the
female graduates is very high
which is about 2.5 times higher
than that of the male graduates
Among the employed
population of 5.95 Crore
0.7% Females
are managers
5.6% are
professionals
(QLFS) 2015-16 LFS-Quarterly Labor Force Survey-2015-16
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Entrepreneurship & Gender
Women
Imbalance in Jobs/Start Ups
Man
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
The Obstacles
Lack of safety and
security
Location
problem
Social and family
barriers
Balancing between
family and career
Sexual Harassment/
Unfriendly Work
Environment
Lack of education
and training
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Compared to male, very few females are
in managerial position. Why?
14.8
37
14.8
22.2
11
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Sexual Harassment
Safety Issues
Lack of Skills
Social Barriers
Others
Primary Research
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Do you think women get less opportunities to make
themselves competitive in the job market?
14.8
40.7
18.5
22.2
3.7
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Primary Research
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Ways to Move Forward
Entrepreneurship
Development Training
Govt. and NGO
partnerships to create
awareness
Ease of access
to Data
Ease of access
to Loans
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Entrepreneurship & Gender
Women
Balance in Jobs/Start Ups
Man
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Task
Tax to GDP Ratio
Tax Revenue as
Share of GDP (%)
Possible with Current
Trend of 11.6%
8.5 8.7 9.1
11.6
12.2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Current Tax-to-GDP
9.1%
Target by 2021
16.1%
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Tax to GDP Ratio
Possible with Current Trend of 11.6%
The Global Financial
Integrity (GFI) has
recently listed
Bangladesh among
the top 30 developing
countries in terms of
illicit financial outflow
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Estimated Tax Gaps in Asia Pacific Economies
7.5
6.7
6.2
5.8
4.7
3
2.1
1.8
1.8
1.5
1.3
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Afganistan
Maldives
Indonesia
Cambodia
Azerbaijan
Pakistan
China
Philippines
Malaysia
Tax Gap in %
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Tax to GDP Ratio
In 2015 alone, nearly USD 6 billion went out of the country, mainly through
misinvoicing – an illicit practice adopted by some Bangladeshi exporters
According to economist Debapriya Bhattacharya,
Bangladeshis laundered money three times the amount
of foreign aid it received in 2015
From 2005 to 2014, illicit flow from Bangladesh stood at
USD 61.63 billion, which was more than Bangladesh’s
2018 budget, the largest in history
Many did not feel it safe to keep their money in the country
due to the turbulent nature of politics
1
2
3
4Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Current Scenario
Concentrated on limited sectors
Highly reliant on VAT and individual taxes
Lack of admin capacity and
weakness to widen the tax net
According to CPD Researcher Director
Khondokar Golam Moazzem
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Possible Causes
No record of
individuals’ income
High reliability on VAT
and individual taxes
Lack of admin
capacity
Negative perception
about tax
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Policy Theme
Use a NID
Account to track
and gather
income data
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Implementation
Use a NID
Account to track
and gather
income data
Mandatory update of
bank data with the
tied-in NID account
Mandatory update of
wealth holding and
adjustment data with
the NID account
Update of asset
purchase data that
has value greater
than 5,00,000 BDT
1.1
1.2
1.3
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Developed Database
A developed
Database is a
must for proper
policy
implementation
Needs to enlist
people in and out of
tax net
Data has to be
properly analyzed for
the policy to be
implemented
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Online Payment
The Tax payment
should be
designed to be
carried out online
Ease of payment for
the people
Removes the middle-
man from the
process
Enables the data to
come clean without
any manipulation
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Primary Research
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
What are the reasons of not giving tax?
29.6
25.9
29.6
14.8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Strong lobbying by influencing
businessmen
Perception that Tax is engulfed by
corruption
No records for individual income
Not having proper policy and law
Campaign for Perception Change
Social Awareness
Campaign
regarding the
necessity of tax
payment
Continuous and
Rigorous process
TVC, RDC, Print Ads,
Posters, Banners,
Seminars, Group
Gatherings, Concerts
The adoption process
should be started and
internalized from an
early age (schools)
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Data Analytics and Strategic Alliances
Government
partnering up with
NGOs and private
organizations for data
and research and to
carry out operations
Proper data and
research is a must for
planning actions
Data analytics and
predictive models
are the future
Can partner up with
Light Castle,
Intelligent Machines
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
The Bottom-Up Approach
Incorporates the Tools
Aims for Synergy
Large Overall Impact
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Feasibility
Low Investment Items
Effective and Efficient
High Payoff
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
Overall Effect
Rising Tax-GDP Ratio
all over Bangladesh
Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
THANK YOU

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Econmaster godmode

  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. Situation Analysis Service Sector Output Growth 6% Job Growth 4% Real GDP 6.6% New Job Growth 0.9% Agriculture Output Growth 3.2% Job Growth -1.1% Manufacturing Output Growth 10.4% Job Growth -1.6% Male: Grew 0.17 Million Female: Grew 0.92 Million Female Informal Sector Increased by 1.9 Million Formal Sector Decreased by 0.1 Million Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 7. Youth Scenario Rise of NEET in Youth Population (age 15 to 29) 2013: 25.4% 2016-17: 29.8% One-third of the population is youth Youth Unemployment Rate 8.1% National Unemployment Rate 10.6% Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 8. Situation Analysis Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics found that the income share of the richest 5% of the country rose by 57% in 10 years, while the poorest 5% had their income reduced by 59% in the same period Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 9. Economic Facts The Most Commonly Shared Development Objectives Growth Inequality Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 10. Economic Facts Growth, Inequality and Poverty Alleviations are Inter-related Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 11. Gini Coefficients and Growth Rates Name of the Country Year Gini Coefficient Year Gini Coefficient 1990 – 2000 2000 – 2010 Bangladesh 1992 28.3 2010 32.1 4.8 5.9 China 1995 41.5 2009 42.1 10.6 10.8 India 1994 29.7 2010 33.9 5.9 8.0 Indonesia 1995 34.2 2010 35.6 4.2 5.3 Malaysia 1989 48.4 2009 46.2 7.0 5.0 Pakistan 1991 31.2 2005 31.2 3.8 5.1 Philippines 1994 42.9 2010 43.0 3.3 4.9 Sri Lanka 1990 30.1 2010 36.4 5.3 5.6 Thailand 1992 46.2 2010 39.4 4.2 4.5 Vietnam 1993 35.7 2006 37.8 7.9 7.5 Source: The World Bank, World Development Report and World Development Indicators, Various Issues Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 12. Growth Effect Poor gets benefitted from the “trickle down” effects of growth Public services and lifestyle gets improved Employment in the growth sector Growth boosts Government income Rise of labor income Eventually pushes the sectors that were lagging behind Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 13. Jobless Growth Why? 4 Major Reasons Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 16. Private Sector is Not Diversified3
  • 18. Jobless Growth - Reasons Theoretical Education Structure Increasing Informal Jobs Automation in Manufacturing Private Sector is Not Diversified Core Issues Lack of skilled workers + Lack of investments in diverse sectors Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 19. Recommendations Strategies Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 20. Recommendations Location Based Skill Learning Centers Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 21. Geographical Inequity Unemployment Rate varies from one region to another Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 22. The Level of Inequality Rangpur’s unemployment rate is 7.28% Dhaka’s unemployment rate is 4.81% Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 23. Recommendations Using the Strengths of Different Regions Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 24. Unique Strengths Dhaka Administrations and Management Chittagong Ports and Docks Growing Tourism Industry Sylhet Tea Gardens and Tourism Export Processing Zone Rajshahi Cheap Labor Force Rail and Road Infrastructure Khulna Tourism and Jute Industry Ship Building Yard Barisal Rice, Pulses and Hide Industry Bakery and Pharmaceuticals Rangpur Rice, Pulses and Hide Industry Bakery and Pharmaceuticals Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 25. Recommendations Promoting Polytechnic Institutes Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 26. Why people are not getting jobs? 33.3 22.2 29.6 14.8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Impractical Education System Improper Skillsets Not enough investment in diverse sector Automation Primary Research Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 27. Lack of Skilled Workers Why? Serious Skill Gap in Education System 6.6 million qualified people are deprived of jobs Hardly Any Communicating Between the Universities and Industries Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 28. Lack of Skilled Workers But Plenty of Opportunities in the technical and vocational sectors Not Adequate Graduates in this current education system Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 29. Social and Cultural Stigma For Dropouts Not for Students of Merit Low Social Status Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 30. The Reality + Most Polytechnic graduates get jobs within one or two years of their graduation Many of the polytechnic graduates are also entrepreneurs Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 31. Campaign for Perception Change Aims at changing the perception regarding polytechnic institutes and vocational studies Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 32. Successful Cases 12,300 Vocational Colleges 2.7 Crore Students In 2014, China decided to transform 600 of its public universities into polytechnic institutions China’s Amazing Success World’s Largest Vocational Education System Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 33. Recommendations Attract Foreign Investors (FDI) Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 34. Progress So Far 1.83 2 2.45 2.58 2015 2016 2017 2018 Net FDI Inflow in billions of $ FDI is picking up, But slowly Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 35. Ease of Doing Business Index Unavailability of Supply Bangladesh is ranked 176th out of 190 countries Corruption Infrastructure Deficits Political uncertainty Security Concerns Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 36. Countries with Most FDI Inflows 50 58 60 60 66 68 85 144 311 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 France Singapore Brazil Australia Ireland Netherlands Hong Kong China United States $, Billions Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 37. Recommendations Creating Entrepreneurs Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 38. Entrepreneurship The foundation on which our country can diversify its products Create More Jobs Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 39. Start Ups of Bangladesh Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 40. Entrepreneurship & Gender Among the total students in university level 30.03% are females The question is what are they doing after graduating? Unemployment among the female graduates is very high which is about 2.5 times higher than that of the male graduates Among the employed population of 5.95 Crore 0.7% Females are managers 5.6% are professionals (QLFS) 2015-16 LFS-Quarterly Labor Force Survey-2015-16 Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 41. Entrepreneurship & Gender Women Imbalance in Jobs/Start Ups Man Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 42. The Obstacles Lack of safety and security Location problem Social and family barriers Balancing between family and career Sexual Harassment/ Unfriendly Work Environment Lack of education and training Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 43. Compared to male, very few females are in managerial position. Why? 14.8 37 14.8 22.2 11 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Sexual Harassment Safety Issues Lack of Skills Social Barriers Others Primary Research Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 44. Do you think women get less opportunities to make themselves competitive in the job market? 14.8 40.7 18.5 22.2 3.7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Primary Research Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 45. Ways to Move Forward Entrepreneurship Development Training Govt. and NGO partnerships to create awareness Ease of access to Data Ease of access to Loans Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 46. Entrepreneurship & Gender Women Balance in Jobs/Start Ups Man Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 47. Task
  • 48. Tax to GDP Ratio Tax Revenue as Share of GDP (%) Possible with Current Trend of 11.6% 8.5 8.7 9.1 11.6 12.2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Current Tax-to-GDP 9.1% Target by 2021 16.1% Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 49. Tax to GDP Ratio Possible with Current Trend of 11.6% The Global Financial Integrity (GFI) has recently listed Bangladesh among the top 30 developing countries in terms of illicit financial outflow Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 50. Estimated Tax Gaps in Asia Pacific Economies 7.5 6.7 6.2 5.8 4.7 3 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.5 1.3 Bangladesh Bhutan Afganistan Maldives Indonesia Cambodia Azerbaijan Pakistan China Philippines Malaysia Tax Gap in % Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 51. Tax to GDP Ratio In 2015 alone, nearly USD 6 billion went out of the country, mainly through misinvoicing – an illicit practice adopted by some Bangladeshi exporters According to economist Debapriya Bhattacharya, Bangladeshis laundered money three times the amount of foreign aid it received in 2015 From 2005 to 2014, illicit flow from Bangladesh stood at USD 61.63 billion, which was more than Bangladesh’s 2018 budget, the largest in history Many did not feel it safe to keep their money in the country due to the turbulent nature of politics 1 2 3 4Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 52. Current Scenario Concentrated on limited sectors Highly reliant on VAT and individual taxes Lack of admin capacity and weakness to widen the tax net According to CPD Researcher Director Khondokar Golam Moazzem Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 53. Possible Causes No record of individuals’ income High reliability on VAT and individual taxes Lack of admin capacity Negative perception about tax Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 54. Policy Theme Use a NID Account to track and gather income data Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 55. Implementation Use a NID Account to track and gather income data Mandatory update of bank data with the tied-in NID account Mandatory update of wealth holding and adjustment data with the NID account Update of asset purchase data that has value greater than 5,00,000 BDT 1.1 1.2 1.3 Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 56. Developed Database A developed Database is a must for proper policy implementation Needs to enlist people in and out of tax net Data has to be properly analyzed for the policy to be implemented Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 57. Online Payment The Tax payment should be designed to be carried out online Ease of payment for the people Removes the middle- man from the process Enables the data to come clean without any manipulation Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 58. Primary Research Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action What are the reasons of not giving tax? 29.6 25.9 29.6 14.8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Strong lobbying by influencing businessmen Perception that Tax is engulfed by corruption No records for individual income Not having proper policy and law
  • 59. Campaign for Perception Change Social Awareness Campaign regarding the necessity of tax payment Continuous and Rigorous process TVC, RDC, Print Ads, Posters, Banners, Seminars, Group Gatherings, Concerts The adoption process should be started and internalized from an early age (schools) Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 60. Data Analytics and Strategic Alliances Government partnering up with NGOs and private organizations for data and research and to carry out operations Proper data and research is a must for planning actions Data analytics and predictive models are the future Can partner up with Light Castle, Intelligent Machines Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 61. The Bottom-Up Approach Incorporates the Tools Aims for Synergy Large Overall Impact Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 62. Feasibility Low Investment Items Effective and Efficient High Payoff Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action
  • 63. Overall Effect Rising Tax-GDP Ratio all over Bangladesh Situation Analysis Reasons Recommendations Tax Situation Policy Recommendation Plan of Action