SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 109
H.N. Dutta
Director- Research and Development, REMTech, Shamli
Former Scientist-G: National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi
hndutta@gmail.com
WhatsApp 9871026253
Earthquake Precursor Detection:
Technological challenges and opportunities
Saving humanity before earthquake strikes
My entry into Earthquake Precursor S&T is a
shear luck and I dedicated my precious 5 years
to get the International Patent from World
Intellectual Property Organization.
India holds only this patent from WIPO
IPR Group - National Physical Laboratory
nplindia.org/national-physical-laboratory
.. H N Dutta, B S Gera, G Singh, V K Ojha ... a SODAR
system to detect precursor of a major earthquake of intensity
not less than ...
Yes, I hv survived
today, there is no
guarantee that I’ll
survive tomorrow
DEATH IS A
Billion $
BUSINESS
Year Gap Deaths
1290 13 100000
1303 253 200000
1556 112 830000
1668 11 50000
1679 16 45500
1695 23 53000
1718 68 75000
1786 57 100000
1833 46 6000
1879 39 22000
1918 2 1000
1920 5 234000
1925 5 5000
1927 2 41000
1932 300
1933 9000
1950 4800
1952 54
1955 728
1966 8100
1970 1600
1973 2200
1974 20000
1975 1300
1976 242000
2010 300
2014 617
Have you ever
thought how to
handle Mass
Deaths in a
place of mass
destruction?
Do we have any
socially legally
acceptable
plans?
Why earthquake can’t be predicted?
 Natural phenomenon with global
coverage and poor periodicity at
any site
 Zeal developed by one generation is
often taken lightly by another
generation
 Humans are divided in various ways
and more in developing countries
A precursor is a feeble emission, signal, reaction, change that
precedes the main event.
FOG High mslp and high humidity and low temp 12 hours
Thunder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) high-
level dry air incursion or upper-air troughs.
Hours
Tornado a type of strong, rotating thunderstorm that commonly
precedes tornadoes, hours before it formed in the Texas
panhandle.
Hours
Volcano swelling detected by GPS optical instruments Days
Cyclone Cyclone Warning Radar Days
Heavy rain Green: Significant amount of rain is
Amber: More than 50 mm
Red: Rainstorm has started and more than 50 mm.
Black: More than 100 mm of rain
next 12 hours.
Next 6 hours
Next 1 hour
Next 1 hour
Earthquake Earth and Earth is so heavy that by the time, it shows any
signal, it is all over
? ?
An inactive enzyme, vitamin, or hormone becomes
active as a precursory signature
prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test Prostate Problem
Skin and eyes that appear yellowish (jaundice) Lever Problem
Chest pain, chest tightness, chest pressure and chest discomfort Heart Problem
Headaches, numbness or tingling in arms or legs, nausea, vomiting- Brain Problem
Burning or gnawing feeling in the stomach, loss of appetite : Stomach Problem
Hazy, blurred, or double vision – Eye Problem
extreme tiredness (fatigue), repeated infections- Blood Cancer
Sensitive to only
optical region
Amplitude (fft)
and Doppler Shift
But mankind has extended viewing
through various other regions-
Radio waves, Infrared, infrasonic,
ultrasonic frequencies etc.
Acoustic Radar 1976
VARIOUS TYPES OF ACOUTSTIC RADAR SYSTEMS
DEVELOPED are A NATIONAL PRIDE.
DESIGN AND
DEVELOPMENT
OF INDIA’S FIRST
JAVA BASED
ACOUSTIC
RADAR
AT REMTech
Pr = Pt (C/2) (Ae/R2 ). ()
So far we have not considered the attenuation of sound wave in to-and-fro
path by the atmospheric constituents. Incorporating the power loss due to
attenuation by air, the received backscattered power for isotropic homogeneous
turbulence becomes (McAllister et al., 1969)
Pr = 0.5 Pt C. Ae. L.() / R2
where,
Pr = received power (W)
Pt = transmitted power (W)
C = velocity of sound (m/s)
 = transmitted pulse length (s)
Ae = antenna collecting area (m2)
R = the probing range (m)
L = an attenuation factor which includes transducer efficiency,
antenna efficiency and the atmospheric attenuation and is given by
Parameters
• Transmit frequency: 1500 Hz
• Transmit pulse length: 100 ms.
• Transmitted Power: 300 W electrical
• Received Power : 10-12 Watt
• Pulse repetition rate: 6 sec
• Height Range: Programmable
• Transmitter / Receiver : 1.2m diameter
• Antenna Parabolic dish
• Signal Processing: Java based software
• Display: Automatic 3D Facsimile display
Sound Velocity in air
= 330m/s
Surface based instruments may feel the presence of
thermal convection but in reality, we see a capped
inversion and due to this inversion, air-pollution can
not go beyond ~ 400 meters. Thus, acoustic radar
gives the real feel of the atmospheric dispersal.
Signature of Earthquake Precursor at Vapi due to Bhuj
India EQ
World Intellectual Property Organization
(WO/2005/096014) METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF EARTHQUAKE
PRECURSORS
Latest bibliographic data on file with the International Bureau Publication
Number:WO/2005/096014
International Application No.: PCT/IB2004/001015
Publication Date:13.10.2005 International Filing Date:31.03.2004 Int. Class.:G01V 1/00
(2006.01)
Applicants:COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH [IN/IN]; Rafi
Marg, New Delhi 110 001 (IN) (All Except US).
Inventors:GERA, Bhim, Singh ; OJHA, Vijay, Kumar; SINGH, Gurbir; DUTTA, Hirday,
Nath [IN/IN]; National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 012 (IN).
Agent:SUBRAMANAM, Hariharan; Subramaniam, Nataraj & Associates, New Delhi 110 048
Title: METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF EARTHQUAKE PRECURSORS
Abstract: The present invention discloses a novel use of a SODAR
system to detect precursor of a major earthquake of intensity not less
than 5.0 on the Richter scale. The requirement for the SODAR to be able
to detect a possible major earthquake is that the epicenter should not be
beyond a distance of about 250 Kms from the position of the SODAR.
Economic Loss to Nepal is ~10 billion US $= Rs. 6000 Crore
Indians waste fuel in traffic worth Rs. 60,000 Crores/year
Indian entertainment industry- Rs. 18,000 Crores/year
Indian sports industry – Rs. 2400 Crores/year
Indian religion industry – TTD budget Rs. 2000 Crores ??
Indian black money ???? –
Indian marriage industry-Rs. 30,000 Crores/year ???
Indian politicians spent Rs. 50,000 Crores on just LS elections
Indians waste food worth Rs. 30,000 Crores each year
Tornado Cyclone
Floods
Volcanic
eruption
What a common man wants ?
An intimation just couple of hours in advance on
where an earthquake will strike, so that he ensures
safety of his family, ensures security of food &
water for next 2-3 days.
What the seismologists have given to him ?
1. New terminologies : Man does not need it
2. Better understanding of rapture processes: -do-
3. Better digital monitoring techniques:-do-
4. Data banks, internet:-do-
Where do we stand as on today and what’s our
future ?
J (energy) /s =
Watt (Power)
One kilowatt hour
= 3.6 Mega Joules
A 1000 W bulb running
for 1 hour consumes
1 KW of energy
LPG has a typical specific
calorific value of 46.1 MJ/kg
Total gas = 14.2 Kg
Total = 655 MJ
2.5 Sq km 100 MW
278 db Sound Intensity
Patting transfers slowly more amount of mechanical
energy than a single slap.
A sudden violent shaking of ground due to movement of
rocks within the earth’s crust or volcanic action is called
an Earthquake.
Science &
Technology
To predict or
find
precursor
Medical
Emergency
Search &
Rescue
Dignified
Disposal
Dead
body
Medical assistance injured
Food & water supplies
Blood donation
Outbreak of diseases
Emotional rescue
Social Rehabilitation
Confidence building
Economy arrangement
No one needs S&T after Earthquake
Destructions
Death
PLAY A
VITAL
ROLE
Since the probability of its strike at one place is
extremely low, it is not possible to predict at Socially
acceptable level.
Thus, a new branch of S&T is emerging fast under
the name Earthquake Precursor S&T, which is
extremely simple, but it requires integration of
various mindsets with a single aim.
Instrumental
Intensity
Acceleration
(g)
Velocity
(cm/s)
Perceived
Shaking
Potential
Damage
I < 0.0017 < 0.1 Not felt None
II-III 0.0017 - 0.014 0.1 - 1.1 Weak None
IV 0.014 - 0.039 1.1 - 3.4 Light None
V 0.039 - 0.092 3.4 - 8.1 Moderate Very light
VI 0.092 - 0.18 8.1 - 16 Strong Light
VII 0.18 - 0.34 16 - 31 Very strong Moderate
VIII 0.34 - 0.65 31 - 60 Severe
Moderate to
heavy
IX 0.65 - 1.24 60 - 116 Violent Heavy
X+ > 1.24 > 116 Extreme Very heavy
Generally speaking,
•0.001 g (0.01 m/s²) – perceptible by people
•0.02 g (0.2 m/s²) – people lose their balance
•0.50 g – very high; well-designed buildings can survive if the duration is short.[8]
In the past 160
million years, India
has drifted the
maximum –
meaning we have
faced maximum
Earthquakes.
Earthquakes of
unimaginable
magnitudes
Sumatra 9.1 magnitude earthquake in 2004 resulted in
shifting Various islands by 9 meters, think about India
shifting by almost 9000 km in the past 160 millions of
years.
Indian civilization must have seen the most devastating
earthquakes in the past and our worry is not over-our
worry is our enhanced population and no scope for
keeping any contingency grant in our social system
We spend lakhs and crores on marriages but if we ask,
even Rs. 10/- per head to be donated for research on
earthquake precursor, many would question even the
basic need?
Antarctic plate
N American
S American
African
Eurasian
Indian
Pacific
Arabian
Surface area
510 million2
km
Antarctic plate
N American
S American
African
Eurasian
Indian
Pacific
Arabian
Statistically, there is a
major earthquake in India
after every 6.8 years. A
deadly earthquake in
Himalayas is overdue.
When tectonic plates push against each other, a huge
amount of potential energy builds up at the plate
boundaries. In other words, potential energy is the
energy that is stored in the rocks because of tectonic
forces or stress.
An earthquake is the kinetic energy that is suddenly
released after enough pressure builds up along a fault.
 Of course, some part of energy goes into breaking and
heating
 Earth is heterogeneous so the velocity of propagation
is different in different materials- sharp slap divided
over n number of packets
26 January 2011 (0846 IST) Bhuj earthquake
Loss
The quake killed around 20,000 people (including 18 in South
eastern Pakistan), injured another 167,000 and destroyed nearly 400,000
homes. The shock waves spread 700 km. 21 districts were affected and
600,000 people left homeless. Total property damage was estimated at
$5.5 billion and rising. In Kutch, the quake destroyed about 60% of food
and water supplies and around 258,000 houses .
So long we are living happily, we feel we will never
face a disaster-when we face, we are not there to even
to share our experiences. Also, even if we share our
experiences, there are very few who believe us.
International teams
confirm ground reality
of damage and death
assessment,
EPD is not a
science of magic
1 lakh water proof
dead body covers
To be made through
donation.
Chemically charged
Solar powered mobile
Multilayered
Crematoriums
April 25, 2015, 1156 hrs., Nepal EQ
10000 people dead 22000 injured
KATHMANDU—The United Nations and numerous non-
governmental organizations seeking to assist quake-stricken
Nepal are blaming the country’s weak government, with a
reputation for inefficiency and corruption, for hindering the
massive relief effort.
Immediate Aid is necessary but it also makes a
country lethargic and drains out the initial outrage
to do something to save the society from the blunts
of earthquake-after all earthquakes do not strike
on daily basis.
Cyclone
prediction is
only an
academic
exercise.
Now track
prediction has
taken over
We need to develop geo-radars to map the interior of Earth and keep a watch. Right now,
depth of penetration by EM waves(10-100 MHz) is the limiting factor.
Earthquakes usually begin deep in the ground. The point in Earth where the rocks
first break is called the focus, also known as the hypocenter, of the quake. The focus
of most earthquakes lies less than 45 miles (72 kilometers) beneath the surface,
though the deepest known focuses have been nearly 450 miles (700 kilometers)
below the surface. The point on the surface of Earth directly above the focus is
known as the epicenter of the quake. The strongest shaking is usually felt near the
epicenter.
By the time a
seismometer
vibrates,
earthquake is
already at your
doorsteps and
there is no need
for any precursor
detection. But
these readings
are essential.
log E = 5.24 + 1.44M
M5 = 2.8 x 1012 joules.
M6 = 7.8 x 1013 joules
M7 = 2.1 x 1015 joules
M8 = 5.7 x 1016 joules
M9 = 1.6 x 1018 joules
M=log I/S S is 10-4 cm at a distance of
100 km. If I = S, then M = 0
But if I = 10 S, then M =1
Charles Richter, 1935)
P-waves travel through solid,
liquid, and gaseous materials.
When some P-waves move
from the ground to the lower
atmosphere, the sound wave
that is produced can
sometimes be heard by
humans and animals.
S-waves or secondary
waves are body waves, They
are slower than P-waves and
can only move through solid
materials.
Earth-atmosphere coupling: Material transfer, Momentum
transfer & Energy transfer
EARTH WATER AIR
1.2 kg/m³
0.2 Cal/gm 1.0 Cal/gm 0.2 Cal/gm
1000 kg/m³
Earth is a massive system and therefore, its movement will always be
fetal. But if there is any escape of energy (heat, EM/infrasonic), mass
(gases, water vapor, particulate matter), moment (mechanical energy),
with the sophisticated equipment, it can be detected. Of course, it
requires networking.
Mass 1.4x 1021 kg 5.1480×1018 kg
300km diameter- Area 176 x 108m2 , height 8000m =
Volume 1408 x1011m3 / 5500 = 2.56 x 1010m3 rock =
25.6 cubic km rock.
The deadliest in the history, Sumatra earthquake 2004
tsunami eq 9.1-9.3 M
400 km (250 mi) long and 100 km (60 mi) wide, 30 km
(19 mi) beneath the sea bed
Disciplines to be integrated:
Electronics, CS, IT, Software (pattern recognition, fft,
wavelet analysis, signal processing, time series
analysis), Statistics, Geophysics, Physics, Modeling,
Chemistry, Heat recovery, Electrical Engg., ME, CE,
Env Sc., Business management, Biology,
Oceanography, Geology, Sanskrit etc.
There are many groups in India who are ready to
collaborate on these projects-we need to take a lead.
We can easily recognize physical objects and the damage is
permanent and easily detectable. Think of physical change
in liquid or a gas?
The whole S&T is to recognize the slow damage being done
by earthquake energy in air-an area of R&D for saving
Sound
Design, develop infrasonic sensors, detectors and radiators.
Simulation studies under varied geographic and geophysical
conditions.
How mechanical momentum gets transferred from earth to air and
its manifestation? Slow transfer of momentum. Fluid Dynamics
Measurement of mechanical strength of various products.
How magnetic field / electric field / infrasonic waves / heat
energy get generated and how do they move away from the
place of their generation / epicenter?
Numerical simulation and modeling
How fine particulate matter, charged particles, water
vapor and gases come out and how do they react with the
existing atmosphere? Do they lead to localized heating due
to release of latent heat energy?
General form of the gravity wave spectrum in the atmosphere. The
horizontal axis is the vertical wavelength of the gravity waves, while
the vertical axis is the relative energy density (adapted from
Gardner et al.). The numbers by the lines indicate the spectral slope
in each region. The numbers on the horizontal axis are the power of
ten for each tick mark (i.e. 3 means 103 = 1000). The gravity waves of
larger scale cascade their energy rapidly to smaller scales until
turbulent process continue passing the energy to smaller scales.
Design and develop:
Infrasonic sensors
Electric / Magnetic field measurement receiver
Pre-amplifiers, amplifiers, receivers, transmitters,
MEMS sensors for motions, acceleration, frequency
generators, power supplies etc.
Low amplitude and low frequency signal detectors,
Signal processing, digital frequency transmission and
reception, enhance S/N ratio
Coding & decoding hardware
Nature does not
want to kill MAN
Heterogeneity is
more stable than
homogeneity
Material P-wave (m/s) S-wave (m/s)
Air 343 N/A
Water 1450 - 1500 N/A
Ice 3400 - 3800 1700 - 1900
Oil 1200 - 1250 N/A
Vegetal Soil 300 - 700 100 - 300
Dry Sands 400 - 1200 100 - 500
Wet Sands 1500 - 2000 400 - 600
Saturated
Shales and
Clays
1100 - 2500 200 - 800
Porous and
Saturated
Sandstones
2000 - 3500 800 - 1800
We have to learn:
1. How much energy accumulates in rocks?
2. How much is released as seismic wave, heat and other
forms?
3. Rocks have crystals and by changing pressure, how
electrical (EM) properties would change?
4. What is the effect of water table being pushed down on
earthquake effectiveness?
5. How earth’s heterogeneity would scatter the seismic
energy?
6. Simulation of impacts?
Biological anomalies prior to earthquakes
Monitor through video
And in their habitat
Pattern recognition
despite shape
deformation
FFT
WAVELET
1. Object segregation-Kawariwala
2. Pattern recognition
3. Online pattern recognition
4. Digital filters
5. Fast Fourier Transformation
6. Wavelet transformation
7. Infrasonogram software
8. Application software using audio card /ADC
9. Coding decoding software
10. Speech recognition
1. Computer Networking
2. Data storage
3. Data Security
4. Data Dissemination/ Sharing
5. Online Data viewing on mobile
6. Audio/ video connectivity between various nodes
1. Battery Power backup for all units
2. Battery chargers
3. Development of Electric Field measurement sensor
4. Development of Magnetic Field sensor
5. Solar power backup in the field
6. Theoretical support
Statistics / Mathematics
Spatial and temporal correlations
Detection of Signal buried under noise
Statistical data interpretation
Pattern recognition
Object segregation
Development of applications
Spectral analysis, Time Series
 Patience in system
 Failure as first step, acceptance with grace
 Most committed professionals
 Accepting money as donations
 Marketing
 Accepting all subjects for Ph D
 Where to run and what to do?
CIVIL / MECHANICAL
Sustainable structures
Problems in Acoustic Sounding Technology:
1. Automatic pattern categorization: Massive Job
(Finding a stranger in the Campus)
2. PCM audio transmission and reception
3. New Software for Signal processing
4. FFT and wavelet analysis
5. Development of Test and Calibration facility
6. Training of Field Staff
7. Website devoted to our work and for offering
international / national collaboration –
8. Preparation of CDs /multimedia
Precision medicine screening using whole-genome
sequencing and advanced imaging to identify
disease risk in adults
Bradley A. Perkins, C. Thomas Caskey, Pamila Brar, Eric Dec, David S. Karow, Andrew M.
Kahn, Ying-Chen Claire Hou, Naisha Shah, Debbie Boeldt, Erin Coughlin, Gabby Hands, Victor
Lavrenko, James Yu, Andrea Procko, Julia Appis, Anders M. Dale, Lining Guo, Thomas J.
Jönsson, Bryan M. Wittmann, Istvan Bartha, Smriti Ramakrishnan, Axel Bernal, James B.
Brewer, Suzanne Brewerton, William H. Biggs, Yaron Turpaz, and J. Craig Venter
Proc Natl Academy Sciences, USA April 3,
2018 115 (14) 3686-3691; first published March 19,
2018 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1706096114
Surprisingly No emergency unit in
Universities, National Labs ?
I have not found a solution but I have found n
number of problems and I am ready to work
jointly as a team to detect precursor of an
earthquake.
EPD IS MY DUTY TOWARDS HUMANITY
This is the Science that will positively fetch Nobel
Prize. My services will always be available.
Arjun-do your DUTY.
Work results self esteem
Self esteem gives
confidence to lead
the world-on the right path
Social Interaction about Earthquake:
Dedicated website recording personal experiences of
earthquake.
We always lose the vital information as we never believed
in a permanent record.
TV programs, animations, mass education program
Apart from in-house jobs, we shall interact with a large
number of institutions and industries in India/ Abroad.
1. Collaboration with IIT, Roorkee, NEERI, Nagpur; NGRI,
Hyderabad, NPL, New Delhi; NDMG
2. Develop a separate dynamic website
3. Prepare a team to handle emergency needs in an earthquake
hit area
4. Package the most essential medicines-not just injury
5. Teaching and training, propagation & publicity of our work
Tolerance: 10,000 years of history, India has never invaded any country.
Old forts, temples, irrigation system, agriculture, social marriage system
and so on
Sanskrit : Mother of all languages
Diamonds : India was the only source
Lighting pyre : Best burial system
Yog-Yoga : Best health cure system
Meditation : Best mental care system
Aurveda : Medical system
Astrology : Logical end to astronomy
Number System: Zero was invented by Aryabhatta.
World's first university established in Takshila in 700BC. more than 10,500
students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects.
Navigation was born in the river Sindh 6000 years ago. The very word
Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH.
Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun
(5th century) 365.258756484 days. He proved contrary to X/0 =0; X/0 = "
Vedic civilisation gave the atom its Sanskrit name "Anu". Rig, Yajur, Saama,
Atharva. 6 Vedaangas - Siksha(euphony/pronunciation),
Vyaakarana(Grammar), Chandas(Metre),Nirukta(Etymology),
Jyotisha(Astronomy), Kalpa(Procedure). 4 Upaangas -
Meemaamsa(Interpretation), Nyaaya(Logic), Puraana(Mythology), Dharma
Shaastras(Codes of conduct).
Let us thank our ancestors / mythology
• Cobra is the most intelligent reptile which can see a man eye-to-eye
• They knew that low frequencies do not require Ears for sensing
• Cobra is sensitive to seismic vibrations : 50% body touch
• Before an earthquake strikes, charges on the earth’s surface increase. It
has been found that snakes respond to these charges and
become vertical in order to minimize the potential gradient between
the head and tail.
• Low maintenance cost and reliability: Can live for One year, without
food.
• Age ~ 28 years. Several times More than age of any modern equipment.
• Biological precursors are economical-High indigenous availability
• To stabilize, you need broad base and flexible columns
• To escape from rubbles, you got to be flexible, live in a circular hole.
• You can’t do this, earthquake has the capacity to kill like Cobra
• Wish we had understood much more through Sheshnag- the symbol
of great Indian earthquake mythology.
hndutta@gmail.com
•Study of infrasonic frequency spectrum over Himalayas and over the eastern coastal
zones of India: ~ Rs. 40.0 Lakhs
•Study of planetary boundary layer over X places Pollution Control Board~ Rs. 10 L
•Design and development of digital acoustic sounder-AICTE ~ 12.0 Lakhs
•Development of automatic Pattern recognition software for acoustic sounder
facsimile charts-DST ~ Rs. 20 Lakhs
•Networking of acoustic sounders over India-DST ~ RS. 10 Lakhs
•Design and development of infrasonic detection and display system-DST ~ 20 L
•Maintenance of data server and dissemination of data through a secure link- ??
• Development of Simulation Software for infrasonic signal propagation from
Himalayas towards Indian locations-DST Rs. 20.0 Lakhs ??
•Persistence of atmospheric perturbations at various heights??
•Development of Statistical Software for pattern identification in space and time??
•Development of low frequency testing and calibration lab in India??
•Design and development of acoustic sounder array over northern India for detection
of earthquake precursor-DST Rs. 5-10 Crores.
•There will be many other projects which will come up from time to time as more and
more professionals will interact with each other. In any case, everything will be done
for the first time in India and some work first time in the world.
•A large number of projects can be submitted on Antarctica and in MoEF.
• Heat recovery projects after taking patents
oxide common name fresh rock weathered rock
SiO2 silica 71.54 70.30
Al2O3 alumina 14.62 18.34
Fe2O3 ferric oxide 0.69 1.55
FeO ferrous oxide 1.64 0.22
MgO magnesia 0.77 0.21
CaO lime 2.08 0.10
Na2O soda 3.84 0.09
K2O potash 0.32 5.88
H2O water 0.32 5.88
others 0.65 0.54
total 100.07 99.70
Let us thank our ancestors / mythology
• Cobra is the most intelligent reptile which can see a man eye-to-eye
• They knew that low frequencies do not require Ears for sensing
• Cobra is sensitive to seismic vibrations : 50% body touch
• Before an earthquake strikes, charges on the earth’s surface increase. It has
been found that snakes respond to these charges and become vertical in
order to minimize the potential gradient between the head and tail.
• Low maintenance cost and reliability: Can live for One year, without food.
• Age ~ 28 years. Several times More than age of any modern equipment.
• Biological precursors are economical-High indigenous availability
• To stabilize, you need broad base and flexible columns
• To escape from rubbles, you got to be flexible, live in a circular hole.
• You can’t do this, earthquake has the capacity to kill like Cobra
• Wish we had understood much more through Sheshnag- the symbol of great
Indian earthquake mythology.
Thinking outside the rocks in the search for ancient
knowledge hidden our Vedas, Purans and ancient books.
EARTHQUAKES IN VARAHAMIHIRA’S BRIHATSAMHITA-
CORRELATION WITH MODERN SCIENCE
The Use Of Animals In
Earthquake Prediction
The earliest reference we have to unusual animal behavior prior to a
significant earthquake is from Greece in 373 BC. Rats, weasels, snakes,
and centipedes reportedly left their homes and headed for safety several
days before a destructive earthquake.
Earthquake Precursor Science & Technology: Social Relevance and
Technological Challenges
(Can we accept challenges?)
India: The Earth is held up by four elephants that stand on the
back of a turtle. The turtle is
balanced on top of a cobra. When any of these animals move,
the Earth trembles and shakes.
Seven serpents share the task of guarding the seven sections of
the lowest heaven. The
seven of them also take turns holding up the Earth. When one
finishes its turn and another
moves into place, people on the Earth may feel a jolt.
Brahmaji-Originator E/C2 = m
(Lord manipulates Time in superstring
dimension)
Vishnuji-Destiny (Flow of Time)
Lord Shiva-TIME:
Death
Useful becomes useless
The energy that fulfills
this task, is called
Mahakal
Total annihilation
m = E /C2
Death and birth are interlinked as one is the result of the other
Material world is a temporary manifestation of Lord
Incarnates
Under such a situation where
life and death is part of divine,
it is in the hands of LORD, it is
his domain…

More Related Content

Similar to Earthquake Precursor Detection: Technological challenges and opportunities

Earthquake presentation
Earthquake presentationEarthquake presentation
Earthquake presentationgeogroup
 
Disaster management
Disaster managementDisaster management
Disaster managementSenthil Er
 
Earthquake and its predictions. by engr. ghulam yasin taunsvi
Earthquake and its predictions. by engr. ghulam yasin taunsviEarthquake and its predictions. by engr. ghulam yasin taunsvi
Earthquake and its predictions. by engr. ghulam yasin taunsviShan Khan
 
Early Prediction of Earthquakes
Early Prediction of EarthquakesEarly Prediction of Earthquakes
Early Prediction of EarthquakesSaquib Ejaz
 
Gano Vitals Photon Heating Pad
Gano Vitals Photon Heating PadGano Vitals Photon Heating Pad
Gano Vitals Photon Heating Padganovital
 
Nuclear power &_india
Nuclear power &_indiaNuclear power &_india
Nuclear power &_indiaIndianInd
 
Nuclear power and india
Nuclear power and  indiaNuclear power and  india
Nuclear power and indiaibookmarkx
 
Satellite Communication and Energy Conservation Theories
Satellite Communication and Energy Conservation TheoriesSatellite Communication and Energy Conservation Theories
Satellite Communication and Energy Conservation Theoriesijtsrd
 
Science Meets Spirituality -Part 2
Science Meets Spirituality -Part 2Science Meets Spirituality -Part 2
Science Meets Spirituality -Part 2ronnyaggr
 
Ashley+and+jessica
Ashley+and+jessicaAshley+and+jessica
Ashley+and+jessicadmslibrary
 
Ashley+and+jessica
Ashley+and+jessicaAshley+and+jessica
Ashley+and+jessicadmslibrary
 
Early warning systems
Early warning systemsEarly warning systems
Early warning systemsRahul5110
 
ITU_JTF_Madrid 2013_INTRO_ C BARNES_V2.ppt
ITU_JTF_Madrid 2013_INTRO_ C BARNES_V2.pptITU_JTF_Madrid 2013_INTRO_ C BARNES_V2.ppt
ITU_JTF_Madrid 2013_INTRO_ C BARNES_V2.pptMayankGautam216027
 
Brittanyand+jennifer
Brittanyand+jenniferBrittanyand+jennifer
Brittanyand+jenniferdmslibrary
 
Earthquakeppt 160308191544
Earthquakeppt 160308191544Earthquakeppt 160308191544
Earthquakeppt 160308191544NeilfieOrit2
 

Similar to Earthquake Precursor Detection: Technological challenges and opportunities (20)

Chrisdevin
ChrisdevinChrisdevin
Chrisdevin
 
Earthquake presentation
Earthquake presentationEarthquake presentation
Earthquake presentation
 
Disaster management
Disaster managementDisaster management
Disaster management
 
Earthquake and its predictions. by engr. ghulam yasin taunsvi
Earthquake and its predictions. by engr. ghulam yasin taunsviEarthquake and its predictions. by engr. ghulam yasin taunsvi
Earthquake and its predictions. by engr. ghulam yasin taunsvi
 
Early Prediction of Earthquakes
Early Prediction of EarthquakesEarly Prediction of Earthquakes
Early Prediction of Earthquakes
 
Gano Vitals Photon Heating Pad
Gano Vitals Photon Heating PadGano Vitals Photon Heating Pad
Gano Vitals Photon Heating Pad
 
Nuclear power &_india
Nuclear power &_indiaNuclear power &_india
Nuclear power &_india
 
Nuclear power and india
Nuclear power and  indiaNuclear power and  india
Nuclear power and india
 
Satellite Communication and Energy Conservation Theories
Satellite Communication and Energy Conservation TheoriesSatellite Communication and Energy Conservation Theories
Satellite Communication and Energy Conservation Theories
 
4 universe
4 universe4 universe
4 universe
 
Radiation
RadiationRadiation
Radiation
 
Science Meets Spirituality -Part 2
Science Meets Spirituality -Part 2Science Meets Spirituality -Part 2
Science Meets Spirituality -Part 2
 
Ashley+and+jessica
Ashley+and+jessicaAshley+and+jessica
Ashley+and+jessica
 
Ashley+and+jessica
Ashley+and+jessicaAshley+and+jessica
Ashley+and+jessica
 
Early warning systems
Early warning systemsEarly warning systems
Early warning systems
 
ITU_JTF_Madrid 2013_INTRO_ C BARNES_V2.ppt
ITU_JTF_Madrid 2013_INTRO_ C BARNES_V2.pptITU_JTF_Madrid 2013_INTRO_ C BARNES_V2.ppt
ITU_JTF_Madrid 2013_INTRO_ C BARNES_V2.ppt
 
Emily
EmilyEmily
Emily
 
Brittanyand+jennifer
Brittanyand+jenniferBrittanyand+jennifer
Brittanyand+jennifer
 
Earthquakeppt 160308191544
Earthquakeppt 160308191544Earthquakeppt 160308191544
Earthquakeppt 160308191544
 
Global Warming And Revolutionary Way To Combat It
Global Warming And Revolutionary Way To Combat ItGlobal Warming And Revolutionary Way To Combat It
Global Warming And Revolutionary Way To Combat It
 

Recently uploaded

8th International Conference on Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (SMC ...
8th International Conference on Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (SMC ...8th International Conference on Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (SMC ...
8th International Conference on Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (SMC ...josephjonse
 
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptx
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptxanalog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptx
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptxKarpagam Institute of Teechnology
 
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)Ramkumar k
 
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & Modernization
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & ModernizationHistory of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & Modernization
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & ModernizationEmaan Sharma
 
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptxDynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptxMustafa Ahmed
 
☎️Looking for Abortion Pills? Contact +27791653574.. 💊💊Available in Gaborone ...
☎️Looking for Abortion Pills? Contact +27791653574.. 💊💊Available in Gaborone ...☎️Looking for Abortion Pills? Contact +27791653574.. 💊💊Available in Gaborone ...
☎️Looking for Abortion Pills? Contact +27791653574.. 💊💊Available in Gaborone ...mikehavy0
 
engineering chemistry power point presentation
engineering chemistry  power point presentationengineering chemistry  power point presentation
engineering chemistry power point presentationsj9399037128
 
Instruct Nirmaana 24-Smart and Lean Construction Through Technology.pdf
Instruct Nirmaana 24-Smart and Lean Construction Through Technology.pdfInstruct Nirmaana 24-Smart and Lean Construction Through Technology.pdf
Instruct Nirmaana 24-Smart and Lean Construction Through Technology.pdfEr.Sonali Nasikkar
 
Adsorption (mass transfer operations 2) ppt
Adsorption (mass transfer operations 2) pptAdsorption (mass transfer operations 2) ppt
Adsorption (mass transfer operations 2) pptjigup7320
 
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdfDiploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdfJNTUA
 
一比一原版(Griffith毕业证书)格里菲斯大学毕业证成绩单学位证书
一比一原版(Griffith毕业证书)格里菲斯大学毕业证成绩单学位证书一比一原版(Griffith毕业证书)格里菲斯大学毕业证成绩单学位证书
一比一原版(Griffith毕业证书)格里菲斯大学毕业证成绩单学位证书c3384a92eb32
 
01-vogelsanger-stanag-4178-ed-2-the-new-nato-standard-for-nitrocellulose-test...
01-vogelsanger-stanag-4178-ed-2-the-new-nato-standard-for-nitrocellulose-test...01-vogelsanger-stanag-4178-ed-2-the-new-nato-standard-for-nitrocellulose-test...
01-vogelsanger-stanag-4178-ed-2-the-new-nato-standard-for-nitrocellulose-test...AshwaniAnuragi1
 
UNIT 4 PTRP final Convergence in probability.pptx
UNIT 4 PTRP final Convergence in probability.pptxUNIT 4 PTRP final Convergence in probability.pptx
UNIT 4 PTRP final Convergence in probability.pptxkalpana413121
 
DBMS-Report on Student management system.pptx
DBMS-Report on Student management system.pptxDBMS-Report on Student management system.pptx
DBMS-Report on Student management system.pptxrajjais1221
 
Filters for Electromagnetic Compatibility Applications
Filters for Electromagnetic Compatibility ApplicationsFilters for Electromagnetic Compatibility Applications
Filters for Electromagnetic Compatibility ApplicationsMathias Magdowski
 
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference Modal
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference ModalCLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference Modal
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference ModalSwarnaSLcse
 
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailing
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailinghandbook on reinforce concrete and detailing
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailingAshishSingh1301
 
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.ppt
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.pptPassive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.ppt
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.pptamrabdallah9
 
Geometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdf
Geometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdfGeometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdf
Geometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdfJNTUA
 
Presentation on Slab, Beam, Column, and Foundation/Footing
Presentation on Slab,  Beam, Column, and Foundation/FootingPresentation on Slab,  Beam, Column, and Foundation/Footing
Presentation on Slab, Beam, Column, and Foundation/FootingEr. Suman Jyoti
 

Recently uploaded (20)

8th International Conference on Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (SMC ...
8th International Conference on Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (SMC ...8th International Conference on Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (SMC ...
8th International Conference on Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (SMC ...
 
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptx
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptxanalog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptx
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptx
 
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)
 
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & Modernization
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & ModernizationHistory of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & Modernization
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & Modernization
 
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptxDynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
 
☎️Looking for Abortion Pills? Contact +27791653574.. 💊💊Available in Gaborone ...
☎️Looking for Abortion Pills? Contact +27791653574.. 💊💊Available in Gaborone ...☎️Looking for Abortion Pills? Contact +27791653574.. 💊💊Available in Gaborone ...
☎️Looking for Abortion Pills? Contact +27791653574.. 💊💊Available in Gaborone ...
 
engineering chemistry power point presentation
engineering chemistry  power point presentationengineering chemistry  power point presentation
engineering chemistry power point presentation
 
Instruct Nirmaana 24-Smart and Lean Construction Through Technology.pdf
Instruct Nirmaana 24-Smart and Lean Construction Through Technology.pdfInstruct Nirmaana 24-Smart and Lean Construction Through Technology.pdf
Instruct Nirmaana 24-Smart and Lean Construction Through Technology.pdf
 
Adsorption (mass transfer operations 2) ppt
Adsorption (mass transfer operations 2) pptAdsorption (mass transfer operations 2) ppt
Adsorption (mass transfer operations 2) ppt
 
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdfDiploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
 
一比一原版(Griffith毕业证书)格里菲斯大学毕业证成绩单学位证书
一比一原版(Griffith毕业证书)格里菲斯大学毕业证成绩单学位证书一比一原版(Griffith毕业证书)格里菲斯大学毕业证成绩单学位证书
一比一原版(Griffith毕业证书)格里菲斯大学毕业证成绩单学位证书
 
01-vogelsanger-stanag-4178-ed-2-the-new-nato-standard-for-nitrocellulose-test...
01-vogelsanger-stanag-4178-ed-2-the-new-nato-standard-for-nitrocellulose-test...01-vogelsanger-stanag-4178-ed-2-the-new-nato-standard-for-nitrocellulose-test...
01-vogelsanger-stanag-4178-ed-2-the-new-nato-standard-for-nitrocellulose-test...
 
UNIT 4 PTRP final Convergence in probability.pptx
UNIT 4 PTRP final Convergence in probability.pptxUNIT 4 PTRP final Convergence in probability.pptx
UNIT 4 PTRP final Convergence in probability.pptx
 
DBMS-Report on Student management system.pptx
DBMS-Report on Student management system.pptxDBMS-Report on Student management system.pptx
DBMS-Report on Student management system.pptx
 
Filters for Electromagnetic Compatibility Applications
Filters for Electromagnetic Compatibility ApplicationsFilters for Electromagnetic Compatibility Applications
Filters for Electromagnetic Compatibility Applications
 
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference Modal
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference ModalCLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference Modal
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference Modal
 
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailing
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailinghandbook on reinforce concrete and detailing
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailing
 
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.ppt
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.pptPassive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.ppt
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.ppt
 
Geometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdf
Geometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdfGeometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdf
Geometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdf
 
Presentation on Slab, Beam, Column, and Foundation/Footing
Presentation on Slab,  Beam, Column, and Foundation/FootingPresentation on Slab,  Beam, Column, and Foundation/Footing
Presentation on Slab, Beam, Column, and Foundation/Footing
 

Earthquake Precursor Detection: Technological challenges and opportunities

  • 1. H.N. Dutta Director- Research and Development, REMTech, Shamli Former Scientist-G: National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi hndutta@gmail.com WhatsApp 9871026253 Earthquake Precursor Detection: Technological challenges and opportunities Saving humanity before earthquake strikes
  • 2.
  • 3. My entry into Earthquake Precursor S&T is a shear luck and I dedicated my precious 5 years to get the International Patent from World Intellectual Property Organization. India holds only this patent from WIPO IPR Group - National Physical Laboratory nplindia.org/national-physical-laboratory .. H N Dutta, B S Gera, G Singh, V K Ojha ... a SODAR system to detect precursor of a major earthquake of intensity not less than ...
  • 4. Yes, I hv survived today, there is no guarantee that I’ll survive tomorrow
  • 5. DEATH IS A Billion $ BUSINESS
  • 6. Year Gap Deaths 1290 13 100000 1303 253 200000 1556 112 830000 1668 11 50000 1679 16 45500 1695 23 53000 1718 68 75000 1786 57 100000 1833 46 6000 1879 39 22000 1918 2 1000 1920 5 234000 1925 5 5000 1927 2 41000 1932 300 1933 9000 1950 4800 1952 54 1955 728 1966 8100 1970 1600 1973 2200 1974 20000 1975 1300 1976 242000 2010 300 2014 617
  • 7. Have you ever thought how to handle Mass Deaths in a place of mass destruction? Do we have any socially legally acceptable plans?
  • 8. Why earthquake can’t be predicted?  Natural phenomenon with global coverage and poor periodicity at any site  Zeal developed by one generation is often taken lightly by another generation  Humans are divided in various ways and more in developing countries
  • 9. A precursor is a feeble emission, signal, reaction, change that precedes the main event. FOG High mslp and high humidity and low temp 12 hours Thunder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) high- level dry air incursion or upper-air troughs. Hours Tornado a type of strong, rotating thunderstorm that commonly precedes tornadoes, hours before it formed in the Texas panhandle. Hours Volcano swelling detected by GPS optical instruments Days Cyclone Cyclone Warning Radar Days Heavy rain Green: Significant amount of rain is Amber: More than 50 mm Red: Rainstorm has started and more than 50 mm. Black: More than 100 mm of rain next 12 hours. Next 6 hours Next 1 hour Next 1 hour Earthquake Earth and Earth is so heavy that by the time, it shows any signal, it is all over ? ?
  • 10. An inactive enzyme, vitamin, or hormone becomes active as a precursory signature prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test Prostate Problem Skin and eyes that appear yellowish (jaundice) Lever Problem Chest pain, chest tightness, chest pressure and chest discomfort Heart Problem Headaches, numbness or tingling in arms or legs, nausea, vomiting- Brain Problem Burning or gnawing feeling in the stomach, loss of appetite : Stomach Problem Hazy, blurred, or double vision – Eye Problem extreme tiredness (fatigue), repeated infections- Blood Cancer
  • 12.
  • 14. But mankind has extended viewing through various other regions- Radio waves, Infrared, infrasonic, ultrasonic frequencies etc.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 18. VARIOUS TYPES OF ACOUTSTIC RADAR SYSTEMS DEVELOPED are A NATIONAL PRIDE.
  • 19.
  • 20. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA’S FIRST JAVA BASED ACOUSTIC RADAR AT REMTech
  • 21.
  • 22. Pr = Pt (C/2) (Ae/R2 ). () So far we have not considered the attenuation of sound wave in to-and-fro path by the atmospheric constituents. Incorporating the power loss due to attenuation by air, the received backscattered power for isotropic homogeneous turbulence becomes (McAllister et al., 1969) Pr = 0.5 Pt C. Ae. L.() / R2 where, Pr = received power (W) Pt = transmitted power (W) C = velocity of sound (m/s)  = transmitted pulse length (s) Ae = antenna collecting area (m2) R = the probing range (m) L = an attenuation factor which includes transducer efficiency, antenna efficiency and the atmospheric attenuation and is given by
  • 23. Parameters • Transmit frequency: 1500 Hz • Transmit pulse length: 100 ms. • Transmitted Power: 300 W electrical • Received Power : 10-12 Watt • Pulse repetition rate: 6 sec • Height Range: Programmable • Transmitter / Receiver : 1.2m diameter • Antenna Parabolic dish • Signal Processing: Java based software • Display: Automatic 3D Facsimile display
  • 24. Sound Velocity in air = 330m/s
  • 25.
  • 26. Surface based instruments may feel the presence of thermal convection but in reality, we see a capped inversion and due to this inversion, air-pollution can not go beyond ~ 400 meters. Thus, acoustic radar gives the real feel of the atmospheric dispersal.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. Signature of Earthquake Precursor at Vapi due to Bhuj India EQ
  • 30. World Intellectual Property Organization (WO/2005/096014) METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF EARTHQUAKE PRECURSORS Latest bibliographic data on file with the International Bureau Publication Number:WO/2005/096014 International Application No.: PCT/IB2004/001015 Publication Date:13.10.2005 International Filing Date:31.03.2004 Int. Class.:G01V 1/00 (2006.01) Applicants:COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH [IN/IN]; Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110 001 (IN) (All Except US). Inventors:GERA, Bhim, Singh ; OJHA, Vijay, Kumar; SINGH, Gurbir; DUTTA, Hirday, Nath [IN/IN]; National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 012 (IN). Agent:SUBRAMANAM, Hariharan; Subramaniam, Nataraj & Associates, New Delhi 110 048 Title: METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF EARTHQUAKE PRECURSORS Abstract: The present invention discloses a novel use of a SODAR system to detect precursor of a major earthquake of intensity not less than 5.0 on the Richter scale. The requirement for the SODAR to be able to detect a possible major earthquake is that the epicenter should not be beyond a distance of about 250 Kms from the position of the SODAR.
  • 31. Economic Loss to Nepal is ~10 billion US $= Rs. 6000 Crore Indians waste fuel in traffic worth Rs. 60,000 Crores/year Indian entertainment industry- Rs. 18,000 Crores/year Indian sports industry – Rs. 2400 Crores/year Indian religion industry – TTD budget Rs. 2000 Crores ?? Indian black money ???? – Indian marriage industry-Rs. 30,000 Crores/year ??? Indian politicians spent Rs. 50,000 Crores on just LS elections Indians waste food worth Rs. 30,000 Crores each year
  • 33. What a common man wants ? An intimation just couple of hours in advance on where an earthquake will strike, so that he ensures safety of his family, ensures security of food & water for next 2-3 days. What the seismologists have given to him ? 1. New terminologies : Man does not need it 2. Better understanding of rapture processes: -do- 3. Better digital monitoring techniques:-do- 4. Data banks, internet:-do- Where do we stand as on today and what’s our future ?
  • 34. J (energy) /s = Watt (Power) One kilowatt hour = 3.6 Mega Joules A 1000 W bulb running for 1 hour consumes 1 KW of energy LPG has a typical specific calorific value of 46.1 MJ/kg Total gas = 14.2 Kg Total = 655 MJ 2.5 Sq km 100 MW 278 db Sound Intensity
  • 35. Patting transfers slowly more amount of mechanical energy than a single slap. A sudden violent shaking of ground due to movement of rocks within the earth’s crust or volcanic action is called an Earthquake.
  • 36. Science & Technology To predict or find precursor Medical Emergency Search & Rescue Dignified Disposal Dead body Medical assistance injured Food & water supplies Blood donation Outbreak of diseases Emotional rescue Social Rehabilitation Confidence building Economy arrangement No one needs S&T after Earthquake Destructions Death PLAY A VITAL ROLE
  • 37. Since the probability of its strike at one place is extremely low, it is not possible to predict at Socially acceptable level. Thus, a new branch of S&T is emerging fast under the name Earthquake Precursor S&T, which is extremely simple, but it requires integration of various mindsets with a single aim.
  • 38. Instrumental Intensity Acceleration (g) Velocity (cm/s) Perceived Shaking Potential Damage I < 0.0017 < 0.1 Not felt None II-III 0.0017 - 0.014 0.1 - 1.1 Weak None IV 0.014 - 0.039 1.1 - 3.4 Light None V 0.039 - 0.092 3.4 - 8.1 Moderate Very light VI 0.092 - 0.18 8.1 - 16 Strong Light VII 0.18 - 0.34 16 - 31 Very strong Moderate VIII 0.34 - 0.65 31 - 60 Severe Moderate to heavy IX 0.65 - 1.24 60 - 116 Violent Heavy X+ > 1.24 > 116 Extreme Very heavy Generally speaking, •0.001 g (0.01 m/s²) – perceptible by people •0.02 g (0.2 m/s²) – people lose their balance •0.50 g – very high; well-designed buildings can survive if the duration is short.[8]
  • 39. In the past 160 million years, India has drifted the maximum – meaning we have faced maximum Earthquakes. Earthquakes of unimaginable magnitudes
  • 40. Sumatra 9.1 magnitude earthquake in 2004 resulted in shifting Various islands by 9 meters, think about India shifting by almost 9000 km in the past 160 millions of years. Indian civilization must have seen the most devastating earthquakes in the past and our worry is not over-our worry is our enhanced population and no scope for keeping any contingency grant in our social system We spend lakhs and crores on marriages but if we ask, even Rs. 10/- per head to be donated for research on earthquake precursor, many would question even the basic need?
  • 41. Antarctic plate N American S American African Eurasian Indian Pacific Arabian Surface area 510 million2 km
  • 42. Antarctic plate N American S American African Eurasian Indian Pacific Arabian
  • 43. Statistically, there is a major earthquake in India after every 6.8 years. A deadly earthquake in Himalayas is overdue.
  • 44. When tectonic plates push against each other, a huge amount of potential energy builds up at the plate boundaries. In other words, potential energy is the energy that is stored in the rocks because of tectonic forces or stress. An earthquake is the kinetic energy that is suddenly released after enough pressure builds up along a fault.  Of course, some part of energy goes into breaking and heating  Earth is heterogeneous so the velocity of propagation is different in different materials- sharp slap divided over n number of packets
  • 45. 26 January 2011 (0846 IST) Bhuj earthquake Loss The quake killed around 20,000 people (including 18 in South eastern Pakistan), injured another 167,000 and destroyed nearly 400,000 homes. The shock waves spread 700 km. 21 districts were affected and 600,000 people left homeless. Total property damage was estimated at $5.5 billion and rising. In Kutch, the quake destroyed about 60% of food and water supplies and around 258,000 houses . So long we are living happily, we feel we will never face a disaster-when we face, we are not there to even to share our experiences. Also, even if we share our experiences, there are very few who believe us.
  • 46. International teams confirm ground reality of damage and death assessment, EPD is not a science of magic
  • 47. 1 lakh water proof dead body covers To be made through donation. Chemically charged Solar powered mobile Multilayered Crematoriums
  • 48. April 25, 2015, 1156 hrs., Nepal EQ 10000 people dead 22000 injured
  • 49. KATHMANDU—The United Nations and numerous non- governmental organizations seeking to assist quake-stricken Nepal are blaming the country’s weak government, with a reputation for inefficiency and corruption, for hindering the massive relief effort. Immediate Aid is necessary but it also makes a country lethargic and drains out the initial outrage to do something to save the society from the blunts of earthquake-after all earthquakes do not strike on daily basis.
  • 50. Cyclone prediction is only an academic exercise. Now track prediction has taken over
  • 51. We need to develop geo-radars to map the interior of Earth and keep a watch. Right now, depth of penetration by EM waves(10-100 MHz) is the limiting factor. Earthquakes usually begin deep in the ground. The point in Earth where the rocks first break is called the focus, also known as the hypocenter, of the quake. The focus of most earthquakes lies less than 45 miles (72 kilometers) beneath the surface, though the deepest known focuses have been nearly 450 miles (700 kilometers) below the surface. The point on the surface of Earth directly above the focus is known as the epicenter of the quake. The strongest shaking is usually felt near the epicenter.
  • 52.
  • 53. By the time a seismometer vibrates, earthquake is already at your doorsteps and there is no need for any precursor detection. But these readings are essential. log E = 5.24 + 1.44M M5 = 2.8 x 1012 joules. M6 = 7.8 x 1013 joules M7 = 2.1 x 1015 joules M8 = 5.7 x 1016 joules M9 = 1.6 x 1018 joules M=log I/S S is 10-4 cm at a distance of 100 km. If I = S, then M = 0 But if I = 10 S, then M =1 Charles Richter, 1935)
  • 54. P-waves travel through solid, liquid, and gaseous materials. When some P-waves move from the ground to the lower atmosphere, the sound wave that is produced can sometimes be heard by humans and animals. S-waves or secondary waves are body waves, They are slower than P-waves and can only move through solid materials.
  • 55.
  • 56. Earth-atmosphere coupling: Material transfer, Momentum transfer & Energy transfer
  • 57. EARTH WATER AIR 1.2 kg/m³ 0.2 Cal/gm 1.0 Cal/gm 0.2 Cal/gm 1000 kg/m³ Earth is a massive system and therefore, its movement will always be fetal. But if there is any escape of energy (heat, EM/infrasonic), mass (gases, water vapor, particulate matter), moment (mechanical energy), with the sophisticated equipment, it can be detected. Of course, it requires networking. Mass 1.4x 1021 kg 5.1480×1018 kg
  • 58. 300km diameter- Area 176 x 108m2 , height 8000m = Volume 1408 x1011m3 / 5500 = 2.56 x 1010m3 rock = 25.6 cubic km rock. The deadliest in the history, Sumatra earthquake 2004 tsunami eq 9.1-9.3 M 400 km (250 mi) long and 100 km (60 mi) wide, 30 km (19 mi) beneath the sea bed
  • 59. Disciplines to be integrated: Electronics, CS, IT, Software (pattern recognition, fft, wavelet analysis, signal processing, time series analysis), Statistics, Geophysics, Physics, Modeling, Chemistry, Heat recovery, Electrical Engg., ME, CE, Env Sc., Business management, Biology, Oceanography, Geology, Sanskrit etc. There are many groups in India who are ready to collaborate on these projects-we need to take a lead.
  • 60. We can easily recognize physical objects and the damage is permanent and easily detectable. Think of physical change in liquid or a gas? The whole S&T is to recognize the slow damage being done by earthquake energy in air-an area of R&D for saving
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63. Sound
  • 64. Design, develop infrasonic sensors, detectors and radiators. Simulation studies under varied geographic and geophysical conditions. How mechanical momentum gets transferred from earth to air and its manifestation? Slow transfer of momentum. Fluid Dynamics Measurement of mechanical strength of various products.
  • 65.
  • 66. How magnetic field / electric field / infrasonic waves / heat energy get generated and how do they move away from the place of their generation / epicenter? Numerical simulation and modeling How fine particulate matter, charged particles, water vapor and gases come out and how do they react with the existing atmosphere? Do they lead to localized heating due to release of latent heat energy?
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69. General form of the gravity wave spectrum in the atmosphere. The horizontal axis is the vertical wavelength of the gravity waves, while the vertical axis is the relative energy density (adapted from Gardner et al.). The numbers by the lines indicate the spectral slope in each region. The numbers on the horizontal axis are the power of ten for each tick mark (i.e. 3 means 103 = 1000). The gravity waves of larger scale cascade their energy rapidly to smaller scales until turbulent process continue passing the energy to smaller scales.
  • 70. Design and develop: Infrasonic sensors Electric / Magnetic field measurement receiver Pre-amplifiers, amplifiers, receivers, transmitters, MEMS sensors for motions, acceleration, frequency generators, power supplies etc. Low amplitude and low frequency signal detectors, Signal processing, digital frequency transmission and reception, enhance S/N ratio Coding & decoding hardware
  • 71. Nature does not want to kill MAN Heterogeneity is more stable than homogeneity Material P-wave (m/s) S-wave (m/s) Air 343 N/A Water 1450 - 1500 N/A Ice 3400 - 3800 1700 - 1900 Oil 1200 - 1250 N/A Vegetal Soil 300 - 700 100 - 300 Dry Sands 400 - 1200 100 - 500 Wet Sands 1500 - 2000 400 - 600 Saturated Shales and Clays 1100 - 2500 200 - 800 Porous and Saturated Sandstones 2000 - 3500 800 - 1800
  • 72. We have to learn: 1. How much energy accumulates in rocks? 2. How much is released as seismic wave, heat and other forms? 3. Rocks have crystals and by changing pressure, how electrical (EM) properties would change? 4. What is the effect of water table being pushed down on earthquake effectiveness? 5. How earth’s heterogeneity would scatter the seismic energy? 6. Simulation of impacts?
  • 73. Biological anomalies prior to earthquakes Monitor through video And in their habitat
  • 74.
  • 75.
  • 77. FFT
  • 79. 1. Object segregation-Kawariwala 2. Pattern recognition 3. Online pattern recognition 4. Digital filters 5. Fast Fourier Transformation 6. Wavelet transformation 7. Infrasonogram software 8. Application software using audio card /ADC 9. Coding decoding software 10. Speech recognition
  • 80.
  • 81. 1. Computer Networking 2. Data storage 3. Data Security 4. Data Dissemination/ Sharing 5. Online Data viewing on mobile 6. Audio/ video connectivity between various nodes
  • 82.
  • 83. 1. Battery Power backup for all units 2. Battery chargers 3. Development of Electric Field measurement sensor 4. Development of Magnetic Field sensor 5. Solar power backup in the field 6. Theoretical support
  • 84. Statistics / Mathematics Spatial and temporal correlations Detection of Signal buried under noise Statistical data interpretation Pattern recognition Object segregation Development of applications Spectral analysis, Time Series
  • 85.
  • 86.  Patience in system  Failure as first step, acceptance with grace  Most committed professionals  Accepting money as donations  Marketing  Accepting all subjects for Ph D  Where to run and what to do?
  • 88. Problems in Acoustic Sounding Technology: 1. Automatic pattern categorization: Massive Job (Finding a stranger in the Campus) 2. PCM audio transmission and reception 3. New Software for Signal processing 4. FFT and wavelet analysis 5. Development of Test and Calibration facility 6. Training of Field Staff 7. Website devoted to our work and for offering international / national collaboration – 8. Preparation of CDs /multimedia
  • 89.
  • 90. Precision medicine screening using whole-genome sequencing and advanced imaging to identify disease risk in adults Bradley A. Perkins, C. Thomas Caskey, Pamila Brar, Eric Dec, David S. Karow, Andrew M. Kahn, Ying-Chen Claire Hou, Naisha Shah, Debbie Boeldt, Erin Coughlin, Gabby Hands, Victor Lavrenko, James Yu, Andrea Procko, Julia Appis, Anders M. Dale, Lining Guo, Thomas J. Jönsson, Bryan M. Wittmann, Istvan Bartha, Smriti Ramakrishnan, Axel Bernal, James B. Brewer, Suzanne Brewerton, William H. Biggs, Yaron Turpaz, and J. Craig Venter Proc Natl Academy Sciences, USA April 3, 2018 115 (14) 3686-3691; first published March 19, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1706096114
  • 91. Surprisingly No emergency unit in Universities, National Labs ?
  • 92.
  • 93. I have not found a solution but I have found n number of problems and I am ready to work jointly as a team to detect precursor of an earthquake. EPD IS MY DUTY TOWARDS HUMANITY This is the Science that will positively fetch Nobel Prize. My services will always be available.
  • 94. Arjun-do your DUTY. Work results self esteem Self esteem gives confidence to lead the world-on the right path
  • 95.
  • 96. Social Interaction about Earthquake: Dedicated website recording personal experiences of earthquake. We always lose the vital information as we never believed in a permanent record. TV programs, animations, mass education program
  • 97. Apart from in-house jobs, we shall interact with a large number of institutions and industries in India/ Abroad. 1. Collaboration with IIT, Roorkee, NEERI, Nagpur; NGRI, Hyderabad, NPL, New Delhi; NDMG 2. Develop a separate dynamic website 3. Prepare a team to handle emergency needs in an earthquake hit area 4. Package the most essential medicines-not just injury 5. Teaching and training, propagation & publicity of our work
  • 98. Tolerance: 10,000 years of history, India has never invaded any country. Old forts, temples, irrigation system, agriculture, social marriage system and so on Sanskrit : Mother of all languages Diamonds : India was the only source Lighting pyre : Best burial system Yog-Yoga : Best health cure system Meditation : Best mental care system Aurveda : Medical system Astrology : Logical end to astronomy Number System: Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. World's first university established in Takshila in 700BC. more than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. Navigation was born in the river Sindh 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH. Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun (5th century) 365.258756484 days. He proved contrary to X/0 =0; X/0 = " Vedic civilisation gave the atom its Sanskrit name "Anu". Rig, Yajur, Saama, Atharva. 6 Vedaangas - Siksha(euphony/pronunciation), Vyaakarana(Grammar), Chandas(Metre),Nirukta(Etymology), Jyotisha(Astronomy), Kalpa(Procedure). 4 Upaangas - Meemaamsa(Interpretation), Nyaaya(Logic), Puraana(Mythology), Dharma Shaastras(Codes of conduct).
  • 99.
  • 100. Let us thank our ancestors / mythology • Cobra is the most intelligent reptile which can see a man eye-to-eye • They knew that low frequencies do not require Ears for sensing • Cobra is sensitive to seismic vibrations : 50% body touch • Before an earthquake strikes, charges on the earth’s surface increase. It has been found that snakes respond to these charges and become vertical in order to minimize the potential gradient between the head and tail. • Low maintenance cost and reliability: Can live for One year, without food. • Age ~ 28 years. Several times More than age of any modern equipment. • Biological precursors are economical-High indigenous availability • To stabilize, you need broad base and flexible columns • To escape from rubbles, you got to be flexible, live in a circular hole. • You can’t do this, earthquake has the capacity to kill like Cobra • Wish we had understood much more through Sheshnag- the symbol of great Indian earthquake mythology.
  • 102. •Study of infrasonic frequency spectrum over Himalayas and over the eastern coastal zones of India: ~ Rs. 40.0 Lakhs •Study of planetary boundary layer over X places Pollution Control Board~ Rs. 10 L •Design and development of digital acoustic sounder-AICTE ~ 12.0 Lakhs •Development of automatic Pattern recognition software for acoustic sounder facsimile charts-DST ~ Rs. 20 Lakhs •Networking of acoustic sounders over India-DST ~ RS. 10 Lakhs •Design and development of infrasonic detection and display system-DST ~ 20 L •Maintenance of data server and dissemination of data through a secure link- ?? • Development of Simulation Software for infrasonic signal propagation from Himalayas towards Indian locations-DST Rs. 20.0 Lakhs ?? •Persistence of atmospheric perturbations at various heights?? •Development of Statistical Software for pattern identification in space and time?? •Development of low frequency testing and calibration lab in India?? •Design and development of acoustic sounder array over northern India for detection of earthquake precursor-DST Rs. 5-10 Crores. •There will be many other projects which will come up from time to time as more and more professionals will interact with each other. In any case, everything will be done for the first time in India and some work first time in the world. •A large number of projects can be submitted on Antarctica and in MoEF. • Heat recovery projects after taking patents
  • 103. oxide common name fresh rock weathered rock SiO2 silica 71.54 70.30 Al2O3 alumina 14.62 18.34 Fe2O3 ferric oxide 0.69 1.55 FeO ferrous oxide 1.64 0.22 MgO magnesia 0.77 0.21 CaO lime 2.08 0.10 Na2O soda 3.84 0.09 K2O potash 0.32 5.88 H2O water 0.32 5.88 others 0.65 0.54 total 100.07 99.70
  • 104. Let us thank our ancestors / mythology • Cobra is the most intelligent reptile which can see a man eye-to-eye • They knew that low frequencies do not require Ears for sensing • Cobra is sensitive to seismic vibrations : 50% body touch • Before an earthquake strikes, charges on the earth’s surface increase. It has been found that snakes respond to these charges and become vertical in order to minimize the potential gradient between the head and tail. • Low maintenance cost and reliability: Can live for One year, without food. • Age ~ 28 years. Several times More than age of any modern equipment. • Biological precursors are economical-High indigenous availability • To stabilize, you need broad base and flexible columns • To escape from rubbles, you got to be flexible, live in a circular hole. • You can’t do this, earthquake has the capacity to kill like Cobra • Wish we had understood much more through Sheshnag- the symbol of great Indian earthquake mythology.
  • 105. Thinking outside the rocks in the search for ancient knowledge hidden our Vedas, Purans and ancient books. EARTHQUAKES IN VARAHAMIHIRA’S BRIHATSAMHITA- CORRELATION WITH MODERN SCIENCE The Use Of Animals In Earthquake Prediction The earliest reference we have to unusual animal behavior prior to a significant earthquake is from Greece in 373 BC. Rats, weasels, snakes, and centipedes reportedly left their homes and headed for safety several days before a destructive earthquake. Earthquake Precursor Science & Technology: Social Relevance and Technological Challenges (Can we accept challenges?)
  • 106. India: The Earth is held up by four elephants that stand on the back of a turtle. The turtle is balanced on top of a cobra. When any of these animals move, the Earth trembles and shakes. Seven serpents share the task of guarding the seven sections of the lowest heaven. The seven of them also take turns holding up the Earth. When one finishes its turn and another moves into place, people on the Earth may feel a jolt.
  • 107. Brahmaji-Originator E/C2 = m (Lord manipulates Time in superstring dimension) Vishnuji-Destiny (Flow of Time) Lord Shiva-TIME: Death Useful becomes useless The energy that fulfills this task, is called Mahakal Total annihilation m = E /C2 Death and birth are interlinked as one is the result of the other Material world is a temporary manifestation of Lord
  • 109. Under such a situation where life and death is part of divine, it is in the hands of LORD, it is his domain…