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E. Coli
Have you ever wondered why people are always talking about E. coli, what it is, and how you can
get it? What are the conditions this bacteria lives in? These interesting questions led the investigator
to find out which material inhibits E. coli replication in an aqueous environment the most. E. coli
(also known as escherichia coli) is a bacteria that normally lives in the intestines of people and
animals named after Dr. Theodor Escherich. Most E. coli are harmless and actually are vital to a
healthy human intestinal tract. However, some E. coli are pathogenic, meaning they can cause either
diarrhea or illness outside of the intestinal tract(cdc.gov). According to Food Safety.gov, you can get
E. coli by eating contaminated food, especially undercooked ground beef, ... Show more content on
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coli like to live at body temperature (37.4ºC), can obtain energy from a wide variety of sources,
don't need oxygen to survive, and under ideal conditions, individual E. coli cells can double every
20 minutes. At that rate, it would be possible to produce a million E. coli cells from one parent cell
within about 7 hours(The University of Waikato). These pollutants in the water will not only affect
those insects who are able to "walk on water", but the birds and other animals that feed on these
insects. Many shorebirds use the surface tension of water to move their prey to the surface of the
water. "The birds swim in small, fast circle on the surface of the water, creating a vortex that pulls
creatures up within their reach," where they peck and eat them (Choi 32). To determine how E. coli
develops in different environments, the researcher will be investigating how E. coli inhibits different
materials in an aqueous environment. During the experiment, the researcher will then calculate the
colonies in a 1 centimeter radius in the most dense spot of the petri dishes of each material. Then he
will find the averages of the 3 petri dishes of each material and compare with the results of each
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E. Coli
E Coli Plates Lab Report
The experiment was a success and the four E Coli plates brought forth the expected results. The two
control plates were –pGLo LB and –pGLo LB/amp. On the –pGLo LB plate, there was no
ampicillin to prevent the growth of E Coli so the bacteria thrived and grew massively across the
plate. There were no specific colonies, rather there was E Coli spread out across the entirety of the
gel. This serves as a control because it proves that E Coli was able to grow in the environment
provided for it. On the other control plate –pGLo LB/amp, there was no growth of E Coli. Although
that might not sound ideal, it proves that the ampicillin was present in the agar and able to cause the
bacteria to die out. The two experimental plates +pGLo/amp/ara, and +pGLo/amp also gave the
expected results. On the experimental plate +pGLo LB/amp. E Coli was able to grow because the
pGLo is positive and works against the ampicillin. This plate had a relatively small growth of
around 11 colonies and it did not fluoresce in UV light. On the other experimental plate +pGLo
LB/amp/ara, arabinose was added to the bacteria which would cause the E Coli colonies to fluoresce
in UV light. In the end, the E Coli on this plate did fluoresce in UV light and all ... Show more
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Gene regulation systems are internal systems that cause plasmids to turn "off" the gene from being
expressed. The gene will turn "on" once arabinose becomes present in the plasmid. In this
experiment, gene regulation is functioning in the E Coli colonies. The only difference between the
+pGLo LB/amp plate and the +pGLo/LB/amp/ara plate is that arabinose is added to the +pGLo
LB/amp/ara. In the +pGLo LB/amp plate, GFP is present within the bacteria but there is no
arabinose present to cause that gene to be expressed which is why that plate does not fluoresce in
UV light. However, the +pGLo LB/amp/ara plate does indeed have arabinose which is what causes
that plate to fluoresce in UV
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E. Coli
E. Coli Lab Report
Escherichia coli, or E. coli, is a common bacterium that can be found in diverse environments all
over the planet, including the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many of these strains of
E. Coli are essential mechanisms in the digestive tract, while others are pathogens that can cause
complications in urinary and intestinal tracts. (Payne & Sparks) In research, E. Coli is commonly
used as a model organism, meaning they are widely studied by scientists for a variety of purposes
due to their experimental advantages. E. Coli is comparatively simple, and there are many
advantages to studying these prokaryotic cells in the fields of biochemistry and molecular biology.
E. Coli has this simplicity and is relatively easy to propagate in a lab environment. Their genome
has been completely sequenced and many things we know about DNA, protein synthesis, and gene
linkage have been derived from studies regarding this particular organism. (Cooper)
Certain E. Coli strains are also known to show resistance to bacteria killing antibiotics. This
resistance is due to the plasmids, or small round DNA molecules, in the bacteria that carry the
resistant genes. R Plasmids (resistance plasmids) are widely studied and bestow resistance to factors
that inhibit growth of the organism. R plasmids code for proteins that can ... Show more content on
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Coli. The first standard E. Coli has no resistance plasmid while the second strain contains a
resistance plasmid with genes protecting it from ampicillin. This standard E. Coli and pAMP
(plasmid–Ampicillin) E. Coli were each streaked across plates containing the antibiotic and
containing growth supportive Lurithea Broth. The purpose of this lab was to test their growth in
each medium. Our hypothesis was that while the ampicillin resistant E. Coli would show growth in
both LB and LB–AMP plate, the standard E. Coli would only grow in the LB plate for it contains no
resistant plasmids against the
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E. Coli
E. Coli : Coli
One of hundreds of strains of the tiny germ Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7 is a newly–visible
cause of food carried/held and waterborne sicknesses. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless
and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals, this strain produces a powerful poisonous
chemical and can cause extreme illness. E. coli O157:H7 was first recognized as a cause of illness
during an outbreak in 1982 traced to contaminated hamburgers. Since then, most infections are
believed to have come from eating undercooked ground beef. Be that as it may, some have been
waterborne. In 1999, individuals wound up noticeably debilitated subsequent to drinking polluted
water in Washington County, New York and from swimming in tainted ... Show more content on
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Frequently, no fever is present. It should be noted that these symptoms are common to a variety of
diseases, and may be caused by sources other than contaminated drinking water. Be that as it may,
some have been waterborne. In 1999, individuals wound up noticeably debilitated subsequent to
drinking polluted water in Washington County, New York and from swimming in tainted water in
Clark County, Washington. Data about the well being impacts of E. coli O157:H7, and moves you
can make to shield yourself and your family from E. coli disease. What is E. coli and where does it
originate from? E. coli is a kind of fecal coli form microbes regularly found in the digestion tracts of
creatures and people. E. coli is short for Escherichia coli. The nearness of E. coli in water is a solid
sign of late sewage or creature squander pollution. Sewage may contain many sorts of infection
creating living beings. How does E. coli or other fecal coli forms get in the water? E. coli originates
from human and creature squander. Amid rainfalls, snow liquefies, or different sorts of precipitation,
E. coli might be washed into rivers, waterways, streams, lakes, or groundwater. At the point when
these waters are utilized as wellsprings of drinking water and the water is not treated or deficiency
treated, E. coli may wind up in the drinking water. There are two wellsprings of drinking water,
surface water and ground water and they are each overseen, checked and managed
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E. Coli
E. Coli Lab Report
Discussion While conducting this experiment many questions came to mind what effect can
plasmids had on the transformation of E. coli and why did CaCl2 had to be used. During the
experiment the solution was used to neutralized negative charges and heat sock was done to
traumatize the cell membrane to get the cell ready for the intake of plasmids. As shown above
observation can be made from the agar plate which describes the affect that plasmid had on the each.
First, with the LB c, LB np and LB lux DNA exhibited lawn growth consequently lux brought about
the bioluminescence effect on plates LB lux. This was the result of the absence of the Ampicillin
antibiotic and the lux together. So, agar plates labeled LB/AMP c and LB/AMP lux, shown colonial
growth which is a clear indication that minimal ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Colonies appeared 2–3 days when incubated in the dark room and viewing of the plates done at that
time this is because delays may lead to failure in bioluminescence because it decreases with time
once the colonies have formed. Finally, the Agar plate containing the LB/AMP np showed no
growth because of the presence of Ampicillin and no plasmid to make the antibiotic resistant. As
well lux brought about the bioluminescence effect also on plates LB/AMP lux. As human being's
errors are committed every day, so may have been the case. One observation that may have
manipulated the results in the no growth exhibition was the amount of reagent from the pipette and
the measurements were not as accurate as expected. Or reagents may have been lost during the
transfer from the plates. Some stuck on the cell spreader. Another during the HEAT SCHOCK, water
bath had been preheated and may have lost some heat affecting the intake of plasmid. Another factor
upon introducing plasmid pUC18 into the Eppendorf tube and mixed damage can be physical
damage may have been produced since it very susceptible. To correct the errors in future
experiments, the amount of
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E. Coli
E. Coli Paper
Research Paper on E.Coli Paper Summary: This article is written about the issues regarding E.coli
being found in meat that is being sold to consumers in stores nation wide. Each section looks at a
different department and what efforts they are making to try and prevent further cases of E.coli in
meat products. Culprit in Article: the Company that is considered the culprit in this article and is the
one who has been accused for the selling of the frozen hamburger that paralyzed Ms. Smith from the
waist down was Cargill. Even though Cargill is one big company they sale meat products under
fifteen different brands nation wide. Currently Cargill has made huge improvements is trying to
make there meat packing facilities safer and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
U.S. Department of Agriculture: the USDA has tried to impose mandatory testing for all ground beef
but the industry argued that the cost would unfairly burden small producers. Testing has been a main
concern for the U.S. department of agriculture and due to the wide spread opposition to industry
wide testing. However The Agriculture Department opted to carry out its own tests for E. coli, but it
acknowledges that its 15,000 spot checks a year at thousands of meat plants and groceries
nationwide is not meant to be comprehensive. Even though there has not been any mandatory
regulations passed for meat industries to test their products some industries have made some attempt
to create testing standards within their our company's to improve the safety of their sales. Center for
Disease Control: The CDC is always trying to improve their treatments and preventive methods to
control diseases and their outbreaks. For E.coli they are currently combining efforts with major
groups like the FDA and the United States Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service to fight
against current outbreaks in E.coli. United States Food/Drug Association: The FDA is solely in
charge of regulating domestic and imported food it does not really have much of an impact on the
regulation of meat because the USDA handles that part of the
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E. Coli
Preparing Disinfectant To Clean E. Coli
Part 1. Introduction
1.1 Research Question
Do disinfectants – sodium hypochlorite (Bleach), Lysol©, and Allium sativum (Garlic) extract –
reduce the development of evolutionary bacterial resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and which
disinfectant has the greatest effect on the bacteria?
1.2 Context
Other research concerning antibiotics/resistance/disinfectants
1.3 Significance
The results of this investigation has a large degree of significance to the real world. Many people
use disinfectants, such as the ones used in this investigation, to clean their outside environments (the
outside world) and their inside environment (their body) from the E. Coli disease. Investigating and
determining which disinfectants can continually clean ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Use a new cotton swabs for each plate.
7. On the Antibiotic Sensitivity Discs, use a pencil or permanent marker to label each disk with a
code that signifies which disinfectant it is and which round.
a. Lysol – L
b. Bleach – B
c. Garlic Extract – G
d. Ethanol – E
8. Wrap the discs in aluminum foil and set in oven for 30 minutes and 300 degrees for sterilization.*
Find source to confirm this
9. Using sterile forceps hold each disk by the edge and dip it into the respective disinfectant to be
tested. Touch the disk to the side of the test tube to get rid of excess liquid.
10. Place the disk on the respective testing plate in the center of one of the quadrants. Press the disk
slightly into the agar.
11. Repeat with the remaining disinfectants and the control of that round. Use the same technique
for each disk.
a. Sterilize the forceps after each disinfectant and the control.
12. Incubate all of the testing plate, inverted (agar on top), overnight at 37 degrees Celsius (98.6
degrees Fahrenheit). Incubate longer if necessary if at lower temperature.
Measuring Zones of Inhibition
1. After incubation, examine the testing plates (keep covers
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E. Coli
E. Coli Case Study
There is a bacterial infection affecting a large percent of band students at Truman and Jackson
Middle School. The type of bacteria is E. coli.
Student's symptoms are consistent with symptoms of E coli. Parents and students of Truman and
Jackson explained the types of symptoms students were experiencing and in which patients were
observing. On the TMS and JMS summary Interview sheet symptoms were vomiting,diarrhea,fever
and stomach aches. These are the same types of symptoms that are common with E. coli
This is a bacteria because viruses cannot live in water and food. The illness was being spread from
water and food. Viruses are not waterborne or food–borne. Only bacteria can live in water and food.
On Activity map T and J it stated that almost
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E. Coli
E. Coli Research Paper
Escherichia coli, commonly known as E. coli, is a bacteria. Though most types of E. coli are not
harmful, there are certain pathogenic varieties. In shape, E. coli is a rod shaped (bacilli,) and about
1–2 micrometers in size. On the outer membrane, they have flagellum which they use for
movement, and fimbria. Fimbria is slightly shorter than flagellum and is known as the "attachment
pill," as it is what the bacterium uses to attach to the host organism, in this case mostly the inside of
an organism's intestines. On the inside, E. coli has cytoplasm and DNA. E. coli is a bacterium that
can affect people of any age, although young children and the elderly are more susceptible to
develop a severe illness and HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome.) The
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E. Coli
E. Coli Case Study
Results After incubating of the two replicate strains of E. coli each in the 0%, 0.1%, 0.25% and
0.5% garlic extract dilutions, the optical densities of E. coli were taken at an absorbance reading of
600 nm in a spectrophotometer over a growth timespan of 25 hours. The exponential growth curves
as seen in Figure 2A were measured from the timepoint of the hour 2 to hour 6, the growth phase,
which was where majority of the growth grew in an upward slope, and then the growth curves had
slowed into the stationary phase around the seventh to eighth hour where the growth curves were
becoming more constant all the way to the 25th hour timepoint as seen in Figure 1A. The results of
the growth showed that E. coli had similar growth curves among the garlic extract dilutions as seen
Figure 1A. The exponential growth rate constant showed a trend of having an increase in garlic
extract would show an increase in the growth rate as seen in Table 2B. The growth rate constants
were calculated with the growth curve equation with the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
coli was seen to have a faster growth rate in the 0.5% garlic extract dilution. The growth rate of the
0.5% garlic extract was 1.358 generations per hour. In contrast, the growth rate for 0% garlic extract
was 0.882 generations per hour which was the smallest out of the four garlic extracts. In between the
0% and 0.5% garlic extract, the 0.1% and 0.25% garlic extract had growth rates of 0.907 generations
per hour and 0.816 generations per hour respectively. With 0.5% garlic had the fastest growing rate,
a E. coli generation forms as fast as 44.181 minutes. The 0% garlic extract developed a generation
with a time generation of 68.028 minutes, and the 0.1% and 0.25% garlic extracts had time
generations of 54.410 minutes and 48.912 minutes respectively. E. coli in the 0.5% garlic extract
dilution had grown quickly and surpassed the other 3 dilutions by hour 8 with an OD600 of 1.735
and remained the second highest at hour 25 with an OD600 of
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E. Coli
E. Coli Bacterial Growth
Figure 2 represents the agar plates after E. coli bacterial growth. Agar plate (top left) labeled "–
DNA" did not contain any bacterial cells with plasmid DNA ,and had cell growth in the form of a
lawn. The "–DNA/+AMP" (top right) labeled plate lacked bacterial cells with plasmid DNA, but
contained the antibiotic ampicillin. There was no bacterial cell growth observed in this plate. Agar
plate (bottom left) labeled "+DNA/+AMP" contained "competent" bacterial cells, as well as
ampicillin. For this plate there was localized bacterial cell growth with minimal color observed. The
"+DNA/+AMP/+IPTG" (bottom right) plate contained "competent" bacterial cells, ampicillin, and
isopropyl–β–D–thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Bacterial cell growth was present, ... Show more
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Results of the "–DNA" plate coincide with the expectation of lawn growth due to the non–selective
Luria broth and agar plate which allows for almost anything to grow. The "–DNA/+AMP" labeled
plate also yields expected results with no bacterial cell growth. The cells do not contain DNA
plasmid that encode for the antibiotic resistant gene, preventing the formation of the bacterial cell
wall. There is a discrepancy in the agar plate labeled "+DNA/+AMP" because a blue colony is
observed and the plate contains bacterial cells. This unexpected growth could be due to cross
contamination with the "+DNA/+AMP/+IPTG" plate. For the last plate (+DNA/+AMP/+IPTG), the
observations solidify the expectancy of minimal bacterial growth with production of pigmentation.
One colony is observed with satellite cells, in addition to a miniscule spot of blue pigmentation. The
"Competent" cells are capable of resisting ampicillin. IPTG, the inducible promoter, results in the
production of color. With gene regulation, "competent" cells can acclimate to their environment due
to methods of turning genes on and off5.
This experiment was completed to conduct bacterial transformation and introduce ampicillin
resistant DNA plasmid to E. coli bacterial cells. Observations are made of the difference in cell
growth due to various environments provided within agar
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E. Coli
The Prevalence Of E. Coli
4– Results
4.1The prevalence of E. coli isolates according to a source of water The results showed that there
was a high frequency of E. coli isolates in tap water 40/46 (86.9%) and low frequency of isolates in
Tank 1/46 (2.2%) as showed in figure 4–1. Figure 4–1: The prevalence of E. coli isolates according
to a source of water.
4.2 The prevalence of E. coli isolates according to the place
The results showed that there was a high frequency of isolates from houses 36/46 (78.3%) followed
by dormitory (15.2%) and (2.2%) from pharmacy, company and cafeteria in figure 4–2.
Figure 4–2: The prevalence of E. coli isolates according to the place.
4.3. The prevalence of E. coli isolates according to the ward and the province ... Show more content
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coli virulence factor isolate according to ward and province. The diarrheagenic E. coli virulence
factors are distributed according to the ward and province as shown in table 4–3, there is a high
frequency of IPaH gene 9 (19.6%) in ward as same as in province 9 (19.6%).
Table 4–3: The presence of virulence factors of E. coli isolates according to the ward.
Source AggR Stx IPaH eae total + + + +
Khartoum 6
(13.0%) 3
(6.5%) 9
(19.6%) 0
(0.00%)
18
(39.1%)
Omdurman 5
(10.9%) 0
(0.00%) 7
(15.2%) 0
(0.00%)
12
(26.0%)
Bahri 3
(6.5%) 2
(4.3%) 3
(6.5%) 0
(0.00%)
8
(17.3%)
Total 14
(30.4%) 5
(10.9%) 19
(41.3%) 0
(0.00%)
38
(82.6%)
Key: + positive
4.6 Antimicrobial susceptibility of diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from drinking water samples Table
4–4 showed antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from drinking
water. 67.4% of them were sensitive to Chloramphenicol, (63%) to Ceftriaxone, (52.2%) to
Ciprofloxacin and (41.3%) to Gentamicin with high resistance rate to Tetracycline 97.8%. Table 4–
4: The activity of antibiotics on E. coli isolated from drinking water.
Antibiotics Sensitive Resistance Intermediate Total
Chloramphenicol 31
(67.4%) 8
(17.4%) 7
(15.2%) 46
(100%)
Ceftriaxone 29
(63.0%) 4
(8.7%) 13
(28.3%) 46
(100%)
Ciprofloxacin 24
(52.2%) 11
(23.9%) 11
(23.9%) 46
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E. Coli
E. Coli ( Coli )
Breaking news, 107 persons contacted Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial infection after visiting a
petting zoo at a North Carolina County fair . . . a 2–year–old boy died.¹ E. coli bacterial infection is
a growing concern for public health officials in the North Carolina Department of Health and
Human Services and other local health departments. This is the most recent condition on E. coli
outbreaks in North Carolina. In 2004, E. coli O157:H7 infection was responsible for making 108
visitors to the North Carolina State fair's petting zoo ill.¹ This condition posed a serious health risk
to the unsuspecting petting zoos' patrons. Kids are more susceptible to these kinds of infections,
because they are more prone to touching animals on display; then touching their mouths, noses, and
eyes, which can lead to autoinfection. Most people are unaware of the infectious danger that lurks in
the innocent coats of these cute furry creatures. The above condition is a great platform for applying
the epidemiology triangle. This will show the correlation of how this infection can become an
epidemic if intervention is not swift. In addition, the supporting data from credible websites will be
an invaluable asset in determining the causation of the condition. For this case, I shall conduct an
investigation of the E. coli outbreak at the Cleveland County Fair in North Carolina.
E. coli Snapshot The E. coli bacteria are a native flora of humans and animals intestinal track, and it
is
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E. Coli
The Transformation Of E. Coli
Jack Dildabanian
Ms. Buckley
Genetics
11/6/15
The Transformation of E. coli using the plasmid GFP
Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to observe bacterial growth under various conditions including
the transformation of bacteria; to understand how the process of transformation occurs.
Background Information: Transformation is the "process by which the genetic material carried by an
individual cell is altered by the incorporation of foreign (exogenous) DNA into its genome"
(MedicineNet.com, "Definition of Genetic transformation"). Transformation in bacterial cells occurs
when the cell incorporates DNA into its genetic material. Bacteria cells that have the ability to take
up DNA are called "competent." In a lab setting, this is encouraged by placing the mixtures of
transformation solution and plasmid DNA on ice, then rapidly transferring them to a hot water bath
for about fifty seconds, and then placing them back on ice again. This procedure is called heat shock
and increases the permeability of the cell membrane to DNA. The agent which the new genetic
material is incorporated into is the bacterial plasmid. A plasmid is a circular deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) molecule that replicates independently of the bacterial chromosome and often permits a
bacteria to gain resistance to an antibiotic. Recombinant plasmids are those which have DNA from
two or more sources incorporated into a single plasmid. To make recombinant plasmids, two
different plasmids are cut with the same
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E. Coli
Effectiveness Of E. Coli
GROWING AND EXTERMINATING E. COLI INVESTIGATION
AIM – The aim of the experiment is to determine the relative effectiveness of several anti–microbial
substances on developing pathogens. (E. coli)
BACKGROUND – E. coli is a food–borne bacterium that inhabits the bowels of warm blooded
creatures such as humans and animals. If the individual is infected by E. coli, some symptoms can
be "diarrhea, gas, abdominal cramping, fatigue, fever and vomiting." (Pietrangelo") If someone is
infected with this bacterium, anti–biotics, which is explained by Oxford Dictionaries as "A medicine
(such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms" can
successfully treat the disease if it is outside of the digestive tract. ... Show more content on
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coli, followed by the vinegar, then salty water is proven to be incorrect. The Ajax killed more E. coli
and prevented it from returning but the vinegar had a much larger and more effective zone of
inhibition, even though it was faint and not properly killed. Different substances were chosen so that
the effectiveness could be tested and comparisons made.
Ajax, which was thought to have killed the most E. coli, was because of its ingredient lactic acid,
which was used as a natural anti–bacterial. A potential reason why the Ajax didn't kill as much E.
coli as what was predicted might have been that the amount of Ajax solution soaked up was not
actually sufficient enough to cause an effect. Therefore, the results varied. The results were different
and had a large gap between them causing three varied answers. Vinegar was thought to kill not as
much as Ajax but as it turned out, had a larger zone of inhibition but didn't efficiently kill or clear as
much. The vinegar tried to kill more because of the high acid levels that entered the cell membrane
and killed the cell. The vinegar that was used didn't kill as many cells because the concentration was
not high enough. Again, the same as the ajax, there were 3 varied answers. This is proposed to be
because of different of length of time that it spent in the solution. Salty water which was presumed
to kill the least was correct.
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E. Coli
E. Coli And Plasmid Transformation
Transformation of E. Coli With a Transgene and Confirmation of Transgene
Cristina Goldy
Abstract:
In this experiment the goal was to insert the plasmid pBI121 to our E. coli cells. This was
accomplished by making our E. coli cells with plasmid competent via heat shock. Our cells were
then inoculated onto a kanamycin plate and incubated at 37 degrees Celsius for a day. Our next lab
period we preformed a mini prep and extracted our plasmid, through a series of buffers and
centrifugation. Once we obtained our isolated plasmid we then preformed a restriction digest and
added two restriction enzymes to our plasmid BAM and SAC and preformed a gel electrophoresis.
In theory we should have seen two bands, one at the 2kb and the other at 14.7kb. If ... Show more
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We weren't sure why our digest didn't work, at the point when we loaded our sample to the gel we
only had about 5ul when we were supposed to have 20ul. This may have been due to improper use
of the pipette technique leading to inaccurate measurement or improper closing of the lid allowing
for our digest to evaporate in the incubator, it is also possible that all the ingredients weren't added
to the digest. To eliminate this possibility for our next experiment instead of having a different
person load an individual enzyme as did in this experiment we should have one person prepare an
entire digest. Our pipette was giving us some trouble when adjusting the volume setting; next time
we should get a pipette that is easier to maneuver. When running our gel we could improve our
strategy in that we might want to lower the voltage and run it longer, since we have smiling bands
this will make our bands straight and more professional
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E. Coli
E. Coli Lab Report
Introduction:
Background Information:
E. coli or Escherichia coli is a prokaryotic cell found the in lower digestive track of mammals and
other warm blooded animals. E. coli is an easy bacteria to work with as it doubles quickly and is
relatively easy to grow, millions of cells can be grown in several hours. E. coli is an ideal bacteria in
the lab because it does not require its temperature to be too hot, too cold, or too precise. A general
warm temperature is perfect for this bacteria. E. coli is also easy to care for it does not need a
specific type of nutrient, in a lab setting it can be feed any agar, making the bacteria over all cheaper
to care for. Strains of E. coli can also operate in aerobic or anaerobic environments.
The plasmid ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
It will also highlight how successfully integrated plasmids can affect the cell and what proteins are
produced by the DNA, and how easy it is to change the genetics of cell and the future generations of
that cell. The experiment also demonstrates how natural selection would work in a lab environment,
and how the addition of a gene or a mutation can protect an organism from adverse conditions in the
environment. This lab also illustrates the change in DNA in a visual sense. Molecular genetics is a
very small scale science that cannot be seen by the human eye, however by illuminating the bacteria
with the GFP it will produce the very small process can be clearly seen before and after the genetic
splicing. The bacteria will produce quickly and the successful bacteria will be clearly seen by the
human eye, even after generations upon generations of bacteria.
Hypothesis:
The petri plate with the +pGLO LB/amp/ara will allow for the E. coli who have accepted the
plasmid to glow and express the GFP. The E. coli will only express GFP if they are exposed to the
arabinose sugar, and the bacteria also have to be exposed to the pGLO. Also the bacteria that are
exposed to the ampicillin, but are not exposed to the pGLO will perish. Other plates may grow, but
not express the protein.
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E. Coli
E. Coli Research Paper
HISTORY/BACKGROUND 1
E.coli O157:H7 bacteria was discovered in 1885 by a German scientist Theodor Escherich, his
discovery also found that strands of the bacteria caused infants diarrhea and gastroenteritis which
made this an important health discovery." E. coli is one of the most frequent causes of many
common bacterial infections, including cholecystitis bacteremia, cholangitis, urinary tract infection
(UTI), and traveler's diarrhea, and other clinical infections such as neonatal meningitis and
pneumonia." Says the food poison journal, All You Need To Know About E. coli. The bacteria was
first called bacterium coli but then was changed to Escherichia coli to honor the scientist that
discovered it. There are over 700 serotypes of E. coli that are identified and not all of the ones
identified are necessarily cause diseases in us humans, some help us and some give us infections.
This disease is responsible for a big amount of contaminated foods and drinks. Foods that are ...
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coli are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others
can make people sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract
infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. Still other kinds of E. coli are used
as markers for water contamination". – Paul Cocharne. The causes of this disease are caused by
consuming foods like undercooked ground beef which can be used in hamburgers, Vegetables
washed in contaminated water and fruit juice that hasn't been pasteurized which means that it hasn't
been through a process that uses heat to kill germs. Ways that help prevent to get E. coli is to always
wash your hands after using the bathroom and before you eat, don't swallow pool, lake or ocean
water and to make sure that at a restaurant you order your burger meat well done and not pink inside
(preventions given by the
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E. Coli
E. Coli O157 Bacteria
Micro 2924, section 310 July 21, 2010
Escherichia Coli
Introduction:
Esherichia coli also known as E. coli is a bacterium that lives in your gut. (1). it was founded by
Theodore von Esherich in 1888. There are many people that can get the bacteria. Also there are
thousands of strands of E.coli. Six E. coli O157 outbreaks were identified during 2007. Four of the
outbreaks involved foodborne transmission. (Eshericha Coli). Six Minnesota cases and one
Wisconsin case with the same or closely–related PFGE subtype of E. coli O157:H7, and an
additional Minnesota case of Shiga–toxin producing E. coli that was not culture–confirmed,
attended the Minnesota State Fair in August. All but one of the cases showed cattle or visited the
cattle ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In ground beef you can get E. coli because they slaughter the cow and then the E. coli from there
intestine gets on the ground meat and they mix the meat and then that gives it a higher risk of
spreading it.(Staff Mayo Clinic) In unpasteurized milk it comes from the udder of the cow and then
it gets into the milk. (Staff Mayo Clinic) In fresh food it comes from the farms that can contaminate
the farm. The most vulnerable to this is lettuce and spinach. (Staff Mayo Clinic) In contaminated
water there can be E. coli because it untreated and there is feces in it.(Staff Mayo Clinic) Also
personal contact which means that adults can give it to their kids because they do not wash their
hands after using the bathroom.(Staff Mayo Clinic) Also it passed in restaurants because cooks or
people working back their do not wash their hands. E. coli causes the hemolytic–urine syndrome,
which is a blood and kidney disease in children. It can also cause Uninary tract infections and
bladder infections or it can lead to sepsis. There is another cause Thrombotic thrombocytopenic
Purpura. This is a rare blood disease. It causes clots to form in small blood vessels throughout the
body. This usually causes through the infectious parts of E. coli.
Symptoms:
The signs or symptoms of E. coli O157:H7. The symptoms begin like three or four days after you
are exposed to the bacteria but some people can also feel the effects in like a day to a week. The first
symptoms are Diarrhea, which could
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E. Coli
Common Type Of E. Coli
Most strains of E. coli are not pathogenic; however, some types of E. coli cause painful
infections and diseases. Although E. coli resides primarily in the intestinal tract, pathogenic E.
coli strains can affect all parts of the human body. The bacteria is mainly spread through
contaminated food and water; affecting the victim within 8 days of consuming the organism. The
most common type of E. coli–related illnesses is E. coli infection; its symptoms include
abdominal cramps, fever and bloody diarrhea. The vast majority of E. coli–related illnesses do
not require medical attention and pass within a week, but severe infections such as urinary tract
infections, bloodstream infections, respiratory illness, and hemolytic uremic ... Show more content
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Shiga toxin
producing E. coli (STEC) are categorized into two main divisions, the E. coli O157:H7 strain and
the other STEC strains. Non–0157 STECs are the main cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome
(HUS) among pathogenic E. coli strains; HUS causes kidney failure and can often prove fatal.
Usually, E. coli–related illnesses are produced by the STEC O157 strain, but other common non–
O157 STEC strains include O45, O121, and O1455 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
Pathogenic E. coli strains are most often transmitted through food; however, the bacteria
can also spread through person–to–person contact, water, and animal contact. E. coli O157:H7 is
most often found in the gastrointestinal tracts of livestock, commonly cattle. Raw meat is often
contaminated when the meat of an animal comes into contact with an infected animal 's intestinal
contents during slaughter and meat processing. Other foods that E. coli transmit from include
raw milk, prepackaged cookie dough, and fresh greens such as bean sprouts, lettuce, and green
onions. The spread of pathogenic E. coli is most prevalent in daycare centers in nursing home,
with persons younger than 9 or older than 50 being more at risk to contract the illness. Contact
with animals such as in farms, petting zoos, or county fairs is a prime source of E. coli
transmission; the bacteria from infected livestock contaminates any surrounding food
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E. Coli
E. Coli Experiment
Introduction
In the experiment we conducted there were many method in which we could have used to help us
manipulate and identify bacterium on different agar plates. First part of the experiment involved the
manipulation of the bacterial growth where we used different streaking methods to see which
method was best suited to give me colonies. We have used 2 types of bacteria Escherichia coli (E.
coli) and Yakult (Lactobacillus casei). E. coli is a bacteria that is rod shaped, Gram negative and is a
genus of enterobacteriacae, the rate of its growth varies on if the right conditions are met which
include the right PH, temperature, energy source and nutrient. Yakult consists of probiotic bacteria
which is good bacteria that is beneficial to our digestive system and in each bottle of ... Show more
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MacConkey agar is a selective agar which is a good medium to use for E. coli since it does not
contain bile salt and crystal violet, it contains a PH indicator which gives it colour red, it is also a
disaccharide known as lactose. Lactose is a sugar molecule that is derived from Galactose and
glucose . MRS agar was developed by de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe who decided it was best to have
a different media which can be used for cultivating bacteria, this media is nonselective and
lactobacillus can grow on it, they found out that acetate and citrate helps the growth of lactobacillus
(De MAN, ROGOSA, and SHARPE, 1960). Gram staining was first used by Hans Christian Gram
who devised this method to help identify bacteria, Gram positive bacteria have a bigger
peptidoglycan and smaller lipid content in comparison to Gram negative bacteria. This was first
tested in 1882 and later published in 1884, it the most common technique used by microbiologist.
Being able to manipulate bacteria gives us an advantage to understand its structure, function, time
taken to asexually reproduce etc. This information can be used to either coming close to curing the
bacteria or changing the bacteria to
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E. Coli
Effect Of E. Coli On Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotic resistance is and continues to be a global public health issue1.One of the main concerns
stems from the ability for bacteria to obtain antibiotic resistance very easily as a result of
chromosomal changes, or through plasmids and transposons which generate an exchange of genetic
material2. Resistance can also result from single or multiple mutations1,3. To combat this rising
force, scientists must research and analyse the many possibilities of mutations in a variety of genes
and proteins in specific bacteria and ways to combat them.
As a model organism, Escherichia coli helps in identifying confounding proteins and enzymes that
confer antibiotic resistance. There are specific strains of E. coli that are a common cause of urinary
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One of the more important proteins residing in E. coli is DHFR. This is an enzyme that catalyzes the
reduction of dihy­
drofolate to tetrahydrofolate in cells5. Since nucleic and amino acid synthesis is
affected by the amount of tetrahydrofolate present, DHFR has a direct impact on all actively
dividing and growing cells5. This plays a vital role in antibiotics, as having the ability to target the
enzyme which controls the production of these new cells would allow for the control of the bacteria.
By analyzing DHFR, researchers identified that parallel populations of DHFR evolved and acquired
similar mutations in a similar order, implying some sort of evolutionary pathway to antibiotic
resistance1. Additionally, many of the mutations were observed near the promotor, and it was
calculated that the mutations were most likely not due to chance. This leads to a better
understanding of the possible pathways of mutation, which allows scientists to circumvent antibiotic
resistance and develop novel
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E. Coli
E. Coli: An Experimental Analysis
When analyzing the results, one can see that the data supports that each of the plasmid's genes are
unrelated, supporting the original hypothesis. Since each strain of the E. Coli. were collected from
three separate farm of considerable difference the results are logical. Three different strains of
bacterial contamination because there are three different genes. In order to stop the outbreak on the
farms, each of the farmers should test the food, building material, etc. to determine the source of
contamination. In order to prevent future outbreaks in the meat, the farmers should take more
carefully precautions in handling, preparing, and packaging the meat. Even though E. Coli. is found
naturally in the intestine, if the bacteria is spread
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E. Coli
Inhibition Of E-Coli
Research Question:
To investigate the antimicrobial substances, bleach and lemon and their effectiveness in eliminating
the zone of inhibition of Escherichia coli (E–coli).
Background Information:
An infection usually matures within 3 to 4 days of the consummation of food that is contaminated
and symptoms usually include severe bloody diarrhoea and abdominal cramps, however in some
cases, the infection causes no symptoms. Practical measures to control the spread of the bacteria
include practicing thorough hygiene, avoiding cross contamination when cooking, and cleaning and
sanitizing all vegetables and fruit prior to consumption. E.coli contain different amino acid
mutations which is most likely contributing to the antibiotic resistance ... Show more content on
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These results are not particularly conclusive and more research can be done on the inhibition of the
growth of E.coli however, with other common and practical substances. A particular weakness of
this investigation is the fact that one inhibition test does not necessarily indicate that
microorganisms have been killed by an antimicrobial product. It merely shows that the bacteria have
been prevented from growing. This means that a constant appliance of the antimicrobial is necessary
or the bacteria will simply grow back. If this experiment were to be repeated again, results would be
improved by achieving a greater variety of comparison with more possible antimicrobial substances
tested and
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E. Coli
E. Coli And Its Effects On The United States
E.coli outbreaks have steadily grown over the last few decades. An expansion in big farming has led
to E. coli not only being found in meat, but vegetation as well, due to waste runoff. This has
increased our need for adequate antibiotics that can fight bacteria, like E. coli. The best way to
pinpoint which antibiotics work is by measuring their ability to create antimicrobial agents or zones
of inhibition. When a paper disc that has been saturated in an antibiotic is inserted in a solution of
E.coli and medium, the zone of inhibition will be noted as the clear ring that forms around the disk.
The antibiotics efficacy is then determined by measuring each disk zone of inhibition, and
comparing these measurements to the zone measurements of an untreated specimen. If an antibiotic
is to be deemed sufficient for treating E. coli it should show a zone of inhibition that is at least
double the size of the untreated specimen.
On August 19th, 2015 this experiment was performed, by 6 separate lab groups.The experiment
began by measuring 1 Ml of E. coli into a pipette and pump, then placing the bacteria into a culture
medium. The E. coli and medium were then swirled together for a period of 15 minutes, until
completely mixed. This mixture was then poured into a petri dish and allowed to solidify for 45
minutes. After the 45 minute solidification time, 5 small paper disks were inserted into the dish. 4 of
the disk contained treatments of antibiotic and 1 was left untreated. The
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E. Coli
E. Coli : H7
E. coli O157:H7 is a gram negative, rod shaped bacteria that is being found in many foodborne and
waterborne illnesses. It is also called Hemorrhagic colitis, the acute disease caused by E. coli
(EHEC) because it causes abdominal pain, and bloody diarrhea. It generally lives in the intestines of
healthy humans and is generally harmless. It is also found in healthy cattle and can contaminate
meat during slaughtering, as it produces a toxin that can cause illness. The E.coli O157:H7 is rare
variety of E. coli that produces large quantities of one or more related, potent toxins that cause
severe damage to the lining of the intestine. The Verotoxins that cause the disease are also called
shiga toxins, because they were acquired from the Shigella strain. It is believed that the widespread
use of antibiotics by American farmers has promoted the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and
pathogenicity islands that has led to the creation of new pathogenic strains such as E. coli O157:H7.
It was first identified as a new cause of disease in the United States in 1982 after an outbreak of
gastrointestinal illnesses from undercooked meat after eating hamburgers from fast food restaurants.
It has also been found in the drinking water in Washington County, New York and in some area
swimming waters in Clark County Washington in 1999. Other outbreaks in recent years have been
found in alfalfa sprouts, unpasteurized fruit juices, dry–cured salami, lettuce, game meat, and cheese
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E. Coli
E Coli : A Public Health Concern
Introduction Escherichia coli are bacteria commonly found in the intestines of humans and other
animals (Water: Basic Information about Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants 2009). Many
strains of E.coli are harmless and contribute to healthy intestinal tracts. However, some strains can
cause illness, including abdominal cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic
uremic syndrome (Tian Ding 2012).
Most infections caused by pathogenic strains of E. coli are caused by ingestion of undercooked
meat, but other sources include eating vegetables or drinking water contaminated by the bacteria or
coming in contact with people or animals that have the bacteria (Water: Basic Information about
Regulated Drinking Water ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Methods For this experiment, a non–virulent strain of Escherichia coli was used to illustrate
differences in growth rates for different temperatures. The culture was created by placing 35.0 ml of
L–Broth into a 125 ml flask and adding 0.025 ml of an overnight bacteria culture. This culture
mixture was divided and placed into 3 shaking incubators that were kept at 25˚C, 30˚C, or 37˚C
(Timmons 2004).
Readings were taken approximately every 20 minutes from 7:20AM until 5:30PM, throughout
different lab classes. To measure population growth, light absorbance was measured using a
spectrophotometer. Bacteria are microscopic and therefore it would be impractical to try to count
individuals for this experiment. The spectrophotometer measures light absorbance. The more E. coli
bacteria present in a sample, the more light is absorbed. Thus, the population in the sample can be
approximated using light absorption (Timmons 2004).
Each group of students was assigned to bacteria from one of the 3 temperatures. Group E was one of
the groups assigned to measure the 30˚C bacteria. Groups obtained a 1 ml sample of the assigned
bacteria from incubators using cuvettes. Fingerprints can create errors in readings, so it was vital
that the cuvettes only be held by the "frosted" sides. Light absorption was measured using the
spectrophotometer, which was preset to OD 600 on the absorbance scale. Samples were discarded
after readings were taken, and new samples from incubators were
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E. Coli
E. Coli Research Papers
Escherichia coli, also known as E.coli, is a type of bacterium that was first recognized hundreds of
years ago by a German bacteriologist, Theodor Escherich. Escherichia coli was initially named
Bacterium coli, but later was changed to credit the founder of the bacteria. E.coli is the most
commonly used bacteria for biological lab research and experiments. E.coli is characterized as a
gram–negative, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped bacteria that can be found almost everywhere,
from plant soil to animal feces to the lower intestine of humans and animals. There are several
different strains of E.coli, differing in their genotype. Due to the natural biological process of
mutations, there have been 700 serotypes of E.coli identified. E.coli serotypes ... Show more content
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Different strains of E.coli can be isolated and identified by a variety of biochemical tests. The
biochemical tests commonly used to identify E.coli include: lactose, oxidase, indole, and beta–
glucuronidase tests. The use of lactose to identify a strain of E.coli is an appropriate method since
intestinal bacteria, such as E.coli, typically undergo lactose fermentation. Using MacConkey agar,
microbiologist are able to analyze if lactose is fermented and detected by the change of color in the
medium. The oxidase test is used to identify if the bacteria synthesizes the enzyme cytochrome c
oxidase that is part of the electron transport chain. When the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase is
present, the reduced reagent, tetramethyl–p–phenylenediamine will donate its electron to
cytochrome c oxidase and a purple color end product will show in the media. The indole test is
performed by microbiologist to determine if E.coli is capable of converting tryptophan to indole.
Lastly, beta–glucuronidase test is used to determine if an organism produces the enzyme
glucuronidase by hydrolysis of nitrophenyl–beta–glucopyranosiduronic acid. In the presence of
glucuronidase, the medium develops a yellow color (Trepeta & Edberg,
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E. Coli
Bacterial Transformation : Escherichia Coli ( E. Coli )
Bacterial transformation is the insertion of a plasmid containing a gene or genes of importance into
bacteria. It can be used to make large quantities of a promising gene. Bacterial Transformation can
be artificial or natural. A plasmid is a small, circular, double–stranded DNA molecule that is
separate from a cell 's chromosome DNA. Plasmids exist in bacterial cells and they also appear in
some eukaryotes. The genes carried in plasmids offer bacteria with genetic benefits, like resistance
to antibiotics. Definite conditions can help bacterial cells absorb external DNA. Cells treated in this
condition become more likely to be competent to take up, greatly increasing their transformation
efficiency. Transformation efficiency is the number of transformed cells gained per microgram of
plasmid DNA. It is a sign of the success of a bacterial transformation experiment. Escherichia coli
(E. coli) is a common bacterium that makes single celled plasmids exchange easy. It yields clones so
that the DNA will not be mixed up. In this experiment students attempt to transform E. coli with a
plasmid. The plasmid that will be used to transform the bacteria in this experiment is pGal and
occurs naturally in E. coli. Transformed bacteria cells will grow in the presence of the antibiotic
while bacteria cells that did not take up the plasmid, will not grow. Students will use mathematical
calculations to determine the efficiency of the transformation process. The transformed E. coli with
the
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E. Coli
Plasmid Transformation Of E. Coli
Plasmid transformation of E. coli using pVIB
Savannah Jacobs
April 4th, 2016
BIO 335 Spring 2016
Dr. Koester Abstract Since bacteria are haploid, asexually reproducing organisms it is important for
these organisms to be able to accept genetic variability into their genome. A process called
transformation, which involves absorbing small segments of DNA from deceased organisms in the
natural world, does this. Transformation can also be mimicked in the laboratory using plasmid.
Plasmids are small segments of DNA that occur in bacteria that allow us to regulate if
transformation was successful. We attempted transformation of E. coli cells using plasmid called
pVIB, which allows for luminescence and resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin, from Vibrio
fischeri, however, we did not achieve a successful transformation.
Introduction
Some organisms, such as bacteria, have the ability to transform into a new form by picking up small
segments of DNA from other organisms. This process is known as transformation and happens quite
often in nature. Quite often organisms die and release their DNA into aqueous environments. The
DNA is broken down but it is a while before it is fully destroyed allowing for bacteria cells and
other organisms to transform their own DNA using the broken down segments from the deceased
organism (Dodd). Transformation is an extremely important step in increasing genetic variation in
organisms that reproduce asexually, allowing for them to make both
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E. Coli
E. Coli Lab Report
Safety Protocols E. coli is a bacterium capable of being transmitted from one person to another. To
ensure that the bacteria used in this experiment were not transmitted to other places, items, or
organisms, several safety protocols were followed. When streaking bacteria and handling mannitol
and xylitol solutions, the experimenter wore an apron, nitrile gloves on both hands and plastic
protective goggles. After each set of plates were prepared, the experimenter removed the gloves
from both hands without skin contact and thoroughly washed their hands for approximately 20
seconds with soap and warm water. Throughout the entire experiment the experimenter was cautious
also to avoid contacting bacteria with eyes, mouth, or open wound. ... Show more content on
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The volume is 10 mL when the pipette is full. To calculate percent uncertainty: (0.02 mL)/(10
mL)*100=0.2%.
Calculating the percentage uncertainty for a 250 mL volumetric flask
The uncertainty for a 250 mL volumetric flask is ± 0.15 mL. The volume is 250 mL when the flask
is full. To calculate percent uncertainty: (0.15 mL)/(250 mL)*100=0.06%
Calculating the percentage uncertainty for a 50 mL graduated cylinder
The uncertainty of the graduated cylinder is ±0.5 mm. The volume of the substance measured is 50
mL because the density of water is 1 g/〖cm〗^3 and the mass is 1 gram per milliliter. To calculate
percent uncertainty: (0.5 mm)/(50 mL)*100=1%
Calculating the percentage uncertainty for an electronic scale
The uncertainty for an electronic scale is ±0.01 because the scale measures into the hundredths
place. The volume of the sugars is V=M/D, where V is volume, M is mass, and D is density. V=(25
g+25 g)/(1.52 g⁄〖cm〗^3 +1.5 g⁄〖cm〗^3 ), V=16.56. To calculate percent
uncertainty:0.01/16.56*100=0.06%
The percent uncertainty for beakers was not calculated. The beakers were only used for storing the
solutions. Therefore, the accuracy of the beakers did not affect the outcome of the
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E. Coli
E Coli And Its Effects On The Environment
Introduction When we think of bacteria we don't think of them as being a good thing especially
when we think of Salmonella or Ecoli. It brings a sick feeling to your stomach or a cringe. But these
microbes are being used for the greater good. Scientist are putting them to work. They are being
genetically altered or medically laced to fight disease or to absorb lethal substances in the
environment that contaminates our soil, water, and vegetation. If you can teach them or expose them
to the appropriate environment they can be beneficial. Some might call this playing God while
others may see it as a useful tool to put something there is an abundance of or is naturally occurring
in a place where there is contamination and create a healthy ... Show more content on
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There is hopes that some of the Mercury that has been filtered can then be recovered for later use in
industrial technologies (Griggs, 2011).
Geobacter sulfurreducens
Geobacter Sulfurreducens is an obligate anaerobe, non–fermentative, non–motile comma–shaped
rod, gram–negative bacteria commonly found in soil (Runge 2003). Mining for Uranium became a
necessity during the Cold War but eventually we came to our senses The old Rifle Mill in Western
Colorado was where The United States obtained its resources for uranium to help build nuclear
bombs. Now that we have stopped trying to blow eachother up, the lasting effects still linger. Some
microbes such as Geobacter sulfurreducens change uranium from its harmful form that can be
dissolved in water to a form that will not dissolve. This allows it to settle out and be removed.
Vinegar added to the soil containing the microbe helps it grow. The United States paid for research
completed by The Department of Energy that tested this microbe. The research was conducted on
wells, that were contaminated with Uranium, in the Old Rifle Uranium Mills. The tests were a
success and the uranium levels were initially lowered by over 70%. Later tests showed the uranium
levels were lowered by 90%. Besides lowering uranium levels, scientist isolated a specific gene of
the Geobacter sulfurreducens that might help in creating a supermicrobe that may be used to clean
up uranium sights around the world.
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E. Coli
Effects Of E. Coli On Bacteria
There are many types of bacteria. Bacteria are a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have
cells walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus. Some bacteria can cause diseases that are
becoming resistant to antibiotics. One of these bacteria is Escherichia coli. If garlic can prevent the
growth of E. coli, a special of rod–shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine of
humans and other animals, it might prevent the growth of other bacteria (WebMD, 2010). E. coli is
commonly found in the intestines of animals and humans. Actually, E. coli and other bacteria in our
intestines is a necessity to help the body grow properly and to remain healthy. Although some strains
of E. coli are dangerous one specific strain ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
coli, then the bacteria cluster would be killed because garlic contains allicin, which is an
antimicrobial substance. Allicin was discovered in 1944 by Cavallito, who first noted its potent
antimicrobial activity. To maintain the antibacterial properties of garlic, it must be consumed or
applied as raw garlic because cooking will destroy the allicin (www.allicin.com, 2013). E. coli can
be grown easily at room temperature in a petri dish. The petri dishes are usually filled with sheep
blood agar, a nutrient culture medium that is enriched with whole blood and used for the growth of
certain strains of bacteria. Bibliography
Ayaz, Erol and Goncagul, Gulsen. "Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Traditional
Medicine." Internet: 2010. Available: http://www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/?doi=javaa.2010.1.4.
"Basic Information about E. coli 0157:H7 in Drinking Water." Internet: November 19, 2013.
Available: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/ecoli.cfm.
"E. coli Infection." Internet: Jun. 14, 2010. Available: http://www.webmd.com/a–to–z–guides/e–
coli–infection–topic–overview.
"E. coli 0157:H7 Infection." Internet: December 2006. Available:
http://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/e_coli/fact_sheet.htm. "Welcome to Allicin.com."
Internet: Nov. 7, 2013. Available:
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E. Coli
Pros And Cons Of E Coli
Reading the story fast food nation made me think about many possible outcomes from the situation
at hand. After finishing the story it made me think what actually is e coli.
is the name of a germ, or bacterium, that lives in the digestive tract of humans and animals.
There are many types of E. coli, and most of them are harmless. But some can cause bloody
diarrhea. Some strains of E. coli bacteria may also cause severe anemia or kidney failure , which can
lead to death.
By looking at this statement you can tell that some people can die by some strains of e coli, but how
many people actually die from e coli.
It shows that in 1999 73,000 people in the us were affected by e coli and only 60 of those cases
resulted in death, so the strain that
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E. Coli
E. Coli Bacteria
Certain people work well at high altitudes. People who live at higher altitudes have a higher
hemoglobin count since it helps blood cells deliver oxygen to nourish body tissues. The oxygen
level in the atmosphere decreases as the altitude increases. This is true with the majority of people
who live in these high altitude regions like the Andes. There is a group of people from Tibet who
does not follow this trend. They have a much lower hemoglobin level than an average person, and
they live and work as successfully as other groups. Scientists questioned why did the Tibetans have
a lower hemoglobin count that allows them to live and work successfully? The discovery of the
mutation in the EPAS1 gene may have an answer.
Normally, the EPAS1 gene ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
By studying the health outcomes, we may be able to learn more about its mechanism, and we may
be able to use this information to contribute to the field of medicine by getting a better
understanding of how to treat diseases and health conditions associated with this gene. Another
model system that could be used for future research on this gene is model organisms. Using
organisms such as lab rats makes it easier to breed and manipulate the organism to study the
biological and scientific processes. It's unethical perform scientific testing on human subjects, so
using a model organism is a great way to manipulate and study the health effects of the EPAS1–TD
gene further in
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E. Coli
Transformation And Survival Of E. Coli Essay
TRANSFORMATION AND SURVIVAL OF E. COLI
Introduction:
With changes in technology over the past decades, came new knowledge of the biology realm. With
this new knowledge and understanding of biology came about Biotechnology. Biotechnology is the
process of harnessing the ability of living systems to quickly and inexpensively produce important
biological materials. We can see the results of Biotechnology in all areas of our life including the
food we eat and the medicine we take.
Today, we are using Biotechnology to by–pass nature 's random fashion of generating variation. We
will be genetically engineering a new organism through a process known as transformation (transfer
of genetic information between organism's takes places via the movement of an extracellular piece
of DNA). Bacteria are great for experiments for genetic manipulation simply because of how long
they take to produce, their simplicity, and how easily recognizable they are. The bacteria that we
will be using for this experiment is Escherichia Coli, also known as E. coli. Most of this bacteria
genetic information is carried on small pieces of extrachromosomal DNA. The small DNA
molecules are known as plasmids. Plasmids carry genes that allow bacteria to neutralize antibiotics
that would typically kill them only one molecule in 10,000 can successfully transform a bacterium
in the most favorable conditions in the laboratory, so for it happen in nature by itself is incredible. It
is a true test of survival of
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E. Coli
E. Coli Personal Experience
E. Coli PERSONAL EXPERIENCE Myah Winter | Sanitation and Safety | November 16 2016 I had
recently experienced the terror that is referred to as E. Coli. I can tell you all about how it is much
worse than the flu, although I will also be talking about this one girl I stumbled upon on the internet
also. She had a life threatening experience that you can definitely experience if you go untreated
when finding out that you have E. Coli. She had it for 19 days straight when I had been extremely
lucky that I had only had it for eight days. I know that I definitely did not feel lucky, but doing this
project has let me realize that I was very fortunate. Some people just chalk it up as the stomach flu
like my mother and aunt did, but my grandmother knew it was something more than that. She ended
up taking me to Med Express which is not a very good place to go if you want to get a work release
on the same day or week by the way. On top of the issues I had at the doctor it was nonstop viral–
like symptoms that only got worse until they got better. You might think that it will just go away, but
you have another thing coming for you if you think it will just pass. It took me half the time to
completely get rid of it and it was one painful process. I am not completely sure of the medicine that
they gave me, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
She shows how she turned this horrific event into a positive learning experience. She is one of the
very few people in the world that look at an illness and see something positive from it for sure. I
know that if I would not have read it, then I would not have learned too much besides the fact that I
am still leery to try hamburger from certain places or people. The experience made me more
cautious and aware of what could happen if you eat that taco even if you are very hungry. Avoid the
severe flu like symptoms and prepare your beef with pride and perfection for you and others to
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
E. Coli
The Outbreak Of E. Coli
Introduction
In the year, 2005 a major outbreak of the bacterium E. coli perished in the South Wales and more
than 157 people were affected by this bacterium, which mainly included the children. The reason
found out behind this incident was connected with a meat supplier who used to serve the local
schools and old age homes. A five–year–old child lost his life during the course of this outbreak.
Therefore, this paper is written with the aim of exploring the outbreak of E. coli in South Wales, to
witness the actual reasons of the diseases, the difficulties that arise during the course of the event
and to give a look on the things that this incident has taught us.
E. coli
E. coli or Escherichia coli are a kind of bacteria that affects the intestinal or the digestive system of a
human being, which can even lead to death. It is one of the subgroup of fecal coliform bacteria. E.
coli O157:H7 is that toxic microorganism or bacteria which causes the intestinal disease in the
human beings which is most likely to last about a week. The common symptoms of these diseases
are that the patient will have diarrhea with blood (Clermont, Bonacorsi and Bingen 2000). However,
the serve cases of this disease may lead to kidney problems, which can lead to death especially when
the patient is a child or an elderly person. That is, it can act severely in those patients who have does
not have a strong immune system. Some types of E. coli are normally found in the intestines of
people and animals
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
E. Coli
E. Coli Bacterial Suspension
In this experimental part of the lab, two bacterial suspensions were made by adding 250µl of a
transformation solution of calcium chloride, as well as adding and completely dispersing two large
colonies of E. coli of approximately 2 mm in diameter, that were collected from the starter plate.
Each suspension was labeled, one as +pGLO, and the other as –pGLO. 10µl of p–GLO plasmid was
added to the +p–GLO suspension. Both suspensions were incubated for a period of 10 minutes on
ice.
The bacterial suspensions were removed from the ice and then heat shocked in a water bath at 42 °C
for exactly 50 seconds, both suspensions were quickly placed back on the ice for an incubation
period of 2 minutes.
The LB nutrient broth was added to both bacterial suspensions and incubated for 15 minutes in a
water bath at 37 °C.
Bacterial Cells Spreading
Four LB nutrient agar plates were obtained and labeled. Two of the plates were the transformations
plates appropriate labeled as +pGLO/LB/amp ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The results obtained in the bacterial culture plates were the following: In Plate # I, the bacteria grew
as a lawn of bacteria, making it uncountable. In plate # II without pGLO plasmid, there were no
bacteria, all of them died in the presence of ampicillin. In plate # II with pGLO plasmid, the
bacterial culture lived and grew. In plate # III with pGLO plasmid and araC protein, the bacterial
culture grew and glowed. The transformation efficiency is the number of colonies on LB/amp/ara
plate divided by the amount of DNA on the plate. Figure 1 shows the culture plates under visible
light, figure 2 shows the culture plates under ultraviolet light, table 1 shows the characteristics of the
culture plates obtained after the experiment, and Table 2 shows the calculations done for finding the
transformation
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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E. Coli

  • 1. E. Coli Have you ever wondered why people are always talking about E. coli, what it is, and how you can get it? What are the conditions this bacteria lives in? These interesting questions led the investigator to find out which material inhibits E. coli replication in an aqueous environment the most. E. coli (also known as escherichia coli) is a bacteria that normally lives in the intestines of people and animals named after Dr. Theodor Escherich. Most E. coli are harmless and actually are vital to a healthy human intestinal tract. However, some E. coli are pathogenic, meaning they can cause either diarrhea or illness outside of the intestinal tract(cdc.gov). According to Food Safety.gov, you can get E. coli by eating contaminated food, especially undercooked ground beef, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... coli like to live at body temperature (37.4ºC), can obtain energy from a wide variety of sources, don't need oxygen to survive, and under ideal conditions, individual E. coli cells can double every 20 minutes. At that rate, it would be possible to produce a million E. coli cells from one parent cell within about 7 hours(The University of Waikato). These pollutants in the water will not only affect those insects who are able to "walk on water", but the birds and other animals that feed on these insects. Many shorebirds use the surface tension of water to move their prey to the surface of the water. "The birds swim in small, fast circle on the surface of the water, creating a vortex that pulls creatures up within their reach," where they peck and eat them (Choi 32). To determine how E. coli develops in different environments, the researcher will be investigating how E. coli inhibits different materials in an aqueous environment. During the experiment, the researcher will then calculate the colonies in a 1 centimeter radius in the most dense spot of the petri dishes of each material. Then he will find the averages of the 3 petri dishes of each material and compare with the results of each ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. E Coli Plates Lab Report The experiment was a success and the four E Coli plates brought forth the expected results. The two control plates were –pGLo LB and –pGLo LB/amp. On the –pGLo LB plate, there was no ampicillin to prevent the growth of E Coli so the bacteria thrived and grew massively across the plate. There were no specific colonies, rather there was E Coli spread out across the entirety of the gel. This serves as a control because it proves that E Coli was able to grow in the environment provided for it. On the other control plate –pGLo LB/amp, there was no growth of E Coli. Although that might not sound ideal, it proves that the ampicillin was present in the agar and able to cause the bacteria to die out. The two experimental plates +pGLo/amp/ara, and +pGLo/amp also gave the expected results. On the experimental plate +pGLo LB/amp. E Coli was able to grow because the pGLo is positive and works against the ampicillin. This plate had a relatively small growth of around 11 colonies and it did not fluoresce in UV light. On the other experimental plate +pGLo LB/amp/ara, arabinose was added to the bacteria which would cause the E Coli colonies to fluoresce in UV light. In the end, the E Coli on this plate did fluoresce in UV light and all ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Gene regulation systems are internal systems that cause plasmids to turn "off" the gene from being expressed. The gene will turn "on" once arabinose becomes present in the plasmid. In this experiment, gene regulation is functioning in the E Coli colonies. The only difference between the +pGLo LB/amp plate and the +pGLo/LB/amp/ara plate is that arabinose is added to the +pGLo LB/amp/ara. In the +pGLo LB/amp plate, GFP is present within the bacteria but there is no arabinose present to cause that gene to be expressed which is why that plate does not fluoresce in UV light. However, the +pGLo LB/amp/ara plate does indeed have arabinose which is what causes that plate to fluoresce in UV ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. E. Coli Lab Report Escherichia coli, or E. coli, is a common bacterium that can be found in diverse environments all over the planet, including the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many of these strains of E. Coli are essential mechanisms in the digestive tract, while others are pathogens that can cause complications in urinary and intestinal tracts. (Payne & Sparks) In research, E. Coli is commonly used as a model organism, meaning they are widely studied by scientists for a variety of purposes due to their experimental advantages. E. Coli is comparatively simple, and there are many advantages to studying these prokaryotic cells in the fields of biochemistry and molecular biology. E. Coli has this simplicity and is relatively easy to propagate in a lab environment. Their genome has been completely sequenced and many things we know about DNA, protein synthesis, and gene linkage have been derived from studies regarding this particular organism. (Cooper) Certain E. Coli strains are also known to show resistance to bacteria killing antibiotics. This resistance is due to the plasmids, or small round DNA molecules, in the bacteria that carry the resistant genes. R Plasmids (resistance plasmids) are widely studied and bestow resistance to factors that inhibit growth of the organism. R plasmids code for proteins that can ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Coli. The first standard E. Coli has no resistance plasmid while the second strain contains a resistance plasmid with genes protecting it from ampicillin. This standard E. Coli and pAMP (plasmid–Ampicillin) E. Coli were each streaked across plates containing the antibiotic and containing growth supportive Lurithea Broth. The purpose of this lab was to test their growth in each medium. Our hypothesis was that while the ampicillin resistant E. Coli would show growth in both LB and LB–AMP plate, the standard E. Coli would only grow in the LB plate for it contains no resistant plasmids against the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. E. Coli : Coli One of hundreds of strains of the tiny germ Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7 is a newly–visible cause of food carried/held and waterborne sicknesses. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals, this strain produces a powerful poisonous chemical and can cause extreme illness. E. coli O157:H7 was first recognized as a cause of illness during an outbreak in 1982 traced to contaminated hamburgers. Since then, most infections are believed to have come from eating undercooked ground beef. Be that as it may, some have been waterborne. In 1999, individuals wound up noticeably debilitated subsequent to drinking polluted water in Washington County, New York and from swimming in tainted ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Frequently, no fever is present. It should be noted that these symptoms are common to a variety of diseases, and may be caused by sources other than contaminated drinking water. Be that as it may, some have been waterborne. In 1999, individuals wound up noticeably debilitated subsequent to drinking polluted water in Washington County, New York and from swimming in tainted water in Clark County, Washington. Data about the well being impacts of E. coli O157:H7, and moves you can make to shield yourself and your family from E. coli disease. What is E. coli and where does it originate from? E. coli is a kind of fecal coli form microbes regularly found in the digestion tracts of creatures and people. E. coli is short for Escherichia coli. The nearness of E. coli in water is a solid sign of late sewage or creature squander pollution. Sewage may contain many sorts of infection creating living beings. How does E. coli or other fecal coli forms get in the water? E. coli originates from human and creature squander. Amid rainfalls, snow liquefies, or different sorts of precipitation, E. coli might be washed into rivers, waterways, streams, lakes, or groundwater. At the point when these waters are utilized as wellsprings of drinking water and the water is not treated or deficiency treated, E. coli may wind up in the drinking water. There are two wellsprings of drinking water, surface water and ground water and they are each overseen, checked and managed ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. E. Coli Lab Report Discussion While conducting this experiment many questions came to mind what effect can plasmids had on the transformation of E. coli and why did CaCl2 had to be used. During the experiment the solution was used to neutralized negative charges and heat sock was done to traumatize the cell membrane to get the cell ready for the intake of plasmids. As shown above observation can be made from the agar plate which describes the affect that plasmid had on the each. First, with the LB c, LB np and LB lux DNA exhibited lawn growth consequently lux brought about the bioluminescence effect on plates LB lux. This was the result of the absence of the Ampicillin antibiotic and the lux together. So, agar plates labeled LB/AMP c and LB/AMP lux, shown colonial growth which is a clear indication that minimal ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Colonies appeared 2–3 days when incubated in the dark room and viewing of the plates done at that time this is because delays may lead to failure in bioluminescence because it decreases with time once the colonies have formed. Finally, the Agar plate containing the LB/AMP np showed no growth because of the presence of Ampicillin and no plasmid to make the antibiotic resistant. As well lux brought about the bioluminescence effect also on plates LB/AMP lux. As human being's errors are committed every day, so may have been the case. One observation that may have manipulated the results in the no growth exhibition was the amount of reagent from the pipette and the measurements were not as accurate as expected. Or reagents may have been lost during the transfer from the plates. Some stuck on the cell spreader. Another during the HEAT SCHOCK, water bath had been preheated and may have lost some heat affecting the intake of plasmid. Another factor upon introducing plasmid pUC18 into the Eppendorf tube and mixed damage can be physical damage may have been produced since it very susceptible. To correct the errors in future experiments, the amount of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. E. Coli Paper Research Paper on E.Coli Paper Summary: This article is written about the issues regarding E.coli being found in meat that is being sold to consumers in stores nation wide. Each section looks at a different department and what efforts they are making to try and prevent further cases of E.coli in meat products. Culprit in Article: the Company that is considered the culprit in this article and is the one who has been accused for the selling of the frozen hamburger that paralyzed Ms. Smith from the waist down was Cargill. Even though Cargill is one big company they sale meat products under fifteen different brands nation wide. Currently Cargill has made huge improvements is trying to make there meat packing facilities safer and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... U.S. Department of Agriculture: the USDA has tried to impose mandatory testing for all ground beef but the industry argued that the cost would unfairly burden small producers. Testing has been a main concern for the U.S. department of agriculture and due to the wide spread opposition to industry wide testing. However The Agriculture Department opted to carry out its own tests for E. coli, but it acknowledges that its 15,000 spot checks a year at thousands of meat plants and groceries nationwide is not meant to be comprehensive. Even though there has not been any mandatory regulations passed for meat industries to test their products some industries have made some attempt to create testing standards within their our company's to improve the safety of their sales. Center for Disease Control: The CDC is always trying to improve their treatments and preventive methods to control diseases and their outbreaks. For E.coli they are currently combining efforts with major groups like the FDA and the United States Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service to fight against current outbreaks in E.coli. United States Food/Drug Association: The FDA is solely in charge of regulating domestic and imported food it does not really have much of an impact on the regulation of meat because the USDA handles that part of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Preparing Disinfectant To Clean E. Coli Part 1. Introduction 1.1 Research Question Do disinfectants – sodium hypochlorite (Bleach), Lysol©, and Allium sativum (Garlic) extract – reduce the development of evolutionary bacterial resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and which disinfectant has the greatest effect on the bacteria? 1.2 Context Other research concerning antibiotics/resistance/disinfectants 1.3 Significance The results of this investigation has a large degree of significance to the real world. Many people use disinfectants, such as the ones used in this investigation, to clean their outside environments (the outside world) and their inside environment (their body) from the E. Coli disease. Investigating and determining which disinfectants can continually clean ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Use a new cotton swabs for each plate. 7. On the Antibiotic Sensitivity Discs, use a pencil or permanent marker to label each disk with a code that signifies which disinfectant it is and which round. a. Lysol – L b. Bleach – B c. Garlic Extract – G d. Ethanol – E 8. Wrap the discs in aluminum foil and set in oven for 30 minutes and 300 degrees for sterilization.* Find source to confirm this 9. Using sterile forceps hold each disk by the edge and dip it into the respective disinfectant to be tested. Touch the disk to the side of the test tube to get rid of excess liquid. 10. Place the disk on the respective testing plate in the center of one of the quadrants. Press the disk slightly into the agar. 11. Repeat with the remaining disinfectants and the control of that round. Use the same technique for each disk. a. Sterilize the forceps after each disinfectant and the control. 12. Incubate all of the testing plate, inverted (agar on top), overnight at 37 degrees Celsius (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit). Incubate longer if necessary if at lower temperature. Measuring Zones of Inhibition 1. After incubation, examine the testing plates (keep covers
  • 14. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16. E. Coli Case Study There is a bacterial infection affecting a large percent of band students at Truman and Jackson Middle School. The type of bacteria is E. coli. Student's symptoms are consistent with symptoms of E coli. Parents and students of Truman and Jackson explained the types of symptoms students were experiencing and in which patients were observing. On the TMS and JMS summary Interview sheet symptoms were vomiting,diarrhea,fever and stomach aches. These are the same types of symptoms that are common with E. coli This is a bacteria because viruses cannot live in water and food. The illness was being spread from water and food. Viruses are not waterborne or food–borne. Only bacteria can live in water and food. On Activity map T and J it stated that almost ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18. E. Coli Research Paper Escherichia coli, commonly known as E. coli, is a bacteria. Though most types of E. coli are not harmful, there are certain pathogenic varieties. In shape, E. coli is a rod shaped (bacilli,) and about 1–2 micrometers in size. On the outer membrane, they have flagellum which they use for movement, and fimbria. Fimbria is slightly shorter than flagellum and is known as the "attachment pill," as it is what the bacterium uses to attach to the host organism, in this case mostly the inside of an organism's intestines. On the inside, E. coli has cytoplasm and DNA. E. coli is a bacterium that can affect people of any age, although young children and the elderly are more susceptible to develop a severe illness and HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome.) The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20. E. Coli Case Study Results After incubating of the two replicate strains of E. coli each in the 0%, 0.1%, 0.25% and 0.5% garlic extract dilutions, the optical densities of E. coli were taken at an absorbance reading of 600 nm in a spectrophotometer over a growth timespan of 25 hours. The exponential growth curves as seen in Figure 2A were measured from the timepoint of the hour 2 to hour 6, the growth phase, which was where majority of the growth grew in an upward slope, and then the growth curves had slowed into the stationary phase around the seventh to eighth hour where the growth curves were becoming more constant all the way to the 25th hour timepoint as seen in Figure 1A. The results of the growth showed that E. coli had similar growth curves among the garlic extract dilutions as seen Figure 1A. The exponential growth rate constant showed a trend of having an increase in garlic extract would show an increase in the growth rate as seen in Table 2B. The growth rate constants were calculated with the growth curve equation with the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... coli was seen to have a faster growth rate in the 0.5% garlic extract dilution. The growth rate of the 0.5% garlic extract was 1.358 generations per hour. In contrast, the growth rate for 0% garlic extract was 0.882 generations per hour which was the smallest out of the four garlic extracts. In between the 0% and 0.5% garlic extract, the 0.1% and 0.25% garlic extract had growth rates of 0.907 generations per hour and 0.816 generations per hour respectively. With 0.5% garlic had the fastest growing rate, a E. coli generation forms as fast as 44.181 minutes. The 0% garlic extract developed a generation with a time generation of 68.028 minutes, and the 0.1% and 0.25% garlic extracts had time generations of 54.410 minutes and 48.912 minutes respectively. E. coli in the 0.5% garlic extract dilution had grown quickly and surpassed the other 3 dilutions by hour 8 with an OD600 of 1.735 and remained the second highest at hour 25 with an OD600 of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22. E. Coli Bacterial Growth Figure 2 represents the agar plates after E. coli bacterial growth. Agar plate (top left) labeled "– DNA" did not contain any bacterial cells with plasmid DNA ,and had cell growth in the form of a lawn. The "–DNA/+AMP" (top right) labeled plate lacked bacterial cells with plasmid DNA, but contained the antibiotic ampicillin. There was no bacterial cell growth observed in this plate. Agar plate (bottom left) labeled "+DNA/+AMP" contained "competent" bacterial cells, as well as ampicillin. For this plate there was localized bacterial cell growth with minimal color observed. The "+DNA/+AMP/+IPTG" (bottom right) plate contained "competent" bacterial cells, ampicillin, and isopropyl–β–D–thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Bacterial cell growth was present, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Results of the "–DNA" plate coincide with the expectation of lawn growth due to the non–selective Luria broth and agar plate which allows for almost anything to grow. The "–DNA/+AMP" labeled plate also yields expected results with no bacterial cell growth. The cells do not contain DNA plasmid that encode for the antibiotic resistant gene, preventing the formation of the bacterial cell wall. There is a discrepancy in the agar plate labeled "+DNA/+AMP" because a blue colony is observed and the plate contains bacterial cells. This unexpected growth could be due to cross contamination with the "+DNA/+AMP/+IPTG" plate. For the last plate (+DNA/+AMP/+IPTG), the observations solidify the expectancy of minimal bacterial growth with production of pigmentation. One colony is observed with satellite cells, in addition to a miniscule spot of blue pigmentation. The "Competent" cells are capable of resisting ampicillin. IPTG, the inducible promoter, results in the production of color. With gene regulation, "competent" cells can acclimate to their environment due to methods of turning genes on and off5. This experiment was completed to conduct bacterial transformation and introduce ampicillin resistant DNA plasmid to E. coli bacterial cells. Observations are made of the difference in cell growth due to various environments provided within agar ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24. The Prevalence Of E. Coli 4– Results 4.1The prevalence of E. coli isolates according to a source of water The results showed that there was a high frequency of E. coli isolates in tap water 40/46 (86.9%) and low frequency of isolates in Tank 1/46 (2.2%) as showed in figure 4–1. Figure 4–1: The prevalence of E. coli isolates according to a source of water. 4.2 The prevalence of E. coli isolates according to the place The results showed that there was a high frequency of isolates from houses 36/46 (78.3%) followed by dormitory (15.2%) and (2.2%) from pharmacy, company and cafeteria in figure 4–2. Figure 4–2: The prevalence of E. coli isolates according to the place. 4.3. The prevalence of E. coli isolates according to the ward and the province ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... coli virulence factor isolate according to ward and province. The diarrheagenic E. coli virulence factors are distributed according to the ward and province as shown in table 4–3, there is a high frequency of IPaH gene 9 (19.6%) in ward as same as in province 9 (19.6%). Table 4–3: The presence of virulence factors of E. coli isolates according to the ward. Source AggR Stx IPaH eae total + + + + Khartoum 6 (13.0%) 3 (6.5%) 9 (19.6%) 0 (0.00%) 18 (39.1%) Omdurman 5 (10.9%) 0 (0.00%) 7 (15.2%) 0 (0.00%) 12 (26.0%) Bahri 3 (6.5%) 2
  • 25. (4.3%) 3 (6.5%) 0 (0.00%) 8 (17.3%) Total 14 (30.4%) 5 (10.9%) 19 (41.3%) 0 (0.00%) 38 (82.6%) Key: + positive 4.6 Antimicrobial susceptibility of diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from drinking water samples Table 4–4 showed antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from drinking water. 67.4% of them were sensitive to Chloramphenicol, (63%) to Ceftriaxone, (52.2%) to Ciprofloxacin and (41.3%) to Gentamicin with high resistance rate to Tetracycline 97.8%. Table 4– 4: The activity of antibiotics on E. coli isolated from drinking water. Antibiotics Sensitive Resistance Intermediate Total Chloramphenicol 31 (67.4%) 8 (17.4%) 7 (15.2%) 46 (100%) Ceftriaxone 29 (63.0%) 4 (8.7%) 13 (28.3%) 46 (100%) Ciprofloxacin 24 (52.2%) 11 (23.9%) 11 (23.9%) 46 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. E. Coli ( Coli ) Breaking news, 107 persons contacted Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial infection after visiting a petting zoo at a North Carolina County fair . . . a 2–year–old boy died.¹ E. coli bacterial infection is a growing concern for public health officials in the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services and other local health departments. This is the most recent condition on E. coli outbreaks in North Carolina. In 2004, E. coli O157:H7 infection was responsible for making 108 visitors to the North Carolina State fair's petting zoo ill.¹ This condition posed a serious health risk to the unsuspecting petting zoos' patrons. Kids are more susceptible to these kinds of infections, because they are more prone to touching animals on display; then touching their mouths, noses, and eyes, which can lead to autoinfection. Most people are unaware of the infectious danger that lurks in the innocent coats of these cute furry creatures. The above condition is a great platform for applying the epidemiology triangle. This will show the correlation of how this infection can become an epidemic if intervention is not swift. In addition, the supporting data from credible websites will be an invaluable asset in determining the causation of the condition. For this case, I shall conduct an investigation of the E. coli outbreak at the Cleveland County Fair in North Carolina. E. coli Snapshot The E. coli bacteria are a native flora of humans and animals intestinal track, and it is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. The Transformation Of E. Coli Jack Dildabanian Ms. Buckley Genetics 11/6/15 The Transformation of E. coli using the plasmid GFP Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to observe bacterial growth under various conditions including the transformation of bacteria; to understand how the process of transformation occurs. Background Information: Transformation is the "process by which the genetic material carried by an individual cell is altered by the incorporation of foreign (exogenous) DNA into its genome" (MedicineNet.com, "Definition of Genetic transformation"). Transformation in bacterial cells occurs when the cell incorporates DNA into its genetic material. Bacteria cells that have the ability to take up DNA are called "competent." In a lab setting, this is encouraged by placing the mixtures of transformation solution and plasmid DNA on ice, then rapidly transferring them to a hot water bath for about fifty seconds, and then placing them back on ice again. This procedure is called heat shock and increases the permeability of the cell membrane to DNA. The agent which the new genetic material is incorporated into is the bacterial plasmid. A plasmid is a circular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that replicates independently of the bacterial chromosome and often permits a bacteria to gain resistance to an antibiotic. Recombinant plasmids are those which have DNA from two or more sources incorporated into a single plasmid. To make recombinant plasmids, two different plasmids are cut with the same ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. Effectiveness Of E. Coli GROWING AND EXTERMINATING E. COLI INVESTIGATION AIM – The aim of the experiment is to determine the relative effectiveness of several anti–microbial substances on developing pathogens. (E. coli) BACKGROUND – E. coli is a food–borne bacterium that inhabits the bowels of warm blooded creatures such as humans and animals. If the individual is infected by E. coli, some symptoms can be "diarrhea, gas, abdominal cramping, fatigue, fever and vomiting." (Pietrangelo") If someone is infected with this bacterium, anti–biotics, which is explained by Oxford Dictionaries as "A medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms" can successfully treat the disease if it is outside of the digestive tract. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... coli, followed by the vinegar, then salty water is proven to be incorrect. The Ajax killed more E. coli and prevented it from returning but the vinegar had a much larger and more effective zone of inhibition, even though it was faint and not properly killed. Different substances were chosen so that the effectiveness could be tested and comparisons made. Ajax, which was thought to have killed the most E. coli, was because of its ingredient lactic acid, which was used as a natural anti–bacterial. A potential reason why the Ajax didn't kill as much E. coli as what was predicted might have been that the amount of Ajax solution soaked up was not actually sufficient enough to cause an effect. Therefore, the results varied. The results were different and had a large gap between them causing three varied answers. Vinegar was thought to kill not as much as Ajax but as it turned out, had a larger zone of inhibition but didn't efficiently kill or clear as much. The vinegar tried to kill more because of the high acid levels that entered the cell membrane and killed the cell. The vinegar that was used didn't kill as many cells because the concentration was not high enough. Again, the same as the ajax, there were 3 varied answers. This is proposed to be because of different of length of time that it spent in the solution. Salty water which was presumed to kill the least was correct. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. E. Coli And Plasmid Transformation Transformation of E. Coli With a Transgene and Confirmation of Transgene Cristina Goldy Abstract: In this experiment the goal was to insert the plasmid pBI121 to our E. coli cells. This was accomplished by making our E. coli cells with plasmid competent via heat shock. Our cells were then inoculated onto a kanamycin plate and incubated at 37 degrees Celsius for a day. Our next lab period we preformed a mini prep and extracted our plasmid, through a series of buffers and centrifugation. Once we obtained our isolated plasmid we then preformed a restriction digest and added two restriction enzymes to our plasmid BAM and SAC and preformed a gel electrophoresis. In theory we should have seen two bands, one at the 2kb and the other at 14.7kb. If ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... We weren't sure why our digest didn't work, at the point when we loaded our sample to the gel we only had about 5ul when we were supposed to have 20ul. This may have been due to improper use of the pipette technique leading to inaccurate measurement or improper closing of the lid allowing for our digest to evaporate in the incubator, it is also possible that all the ingredients weren't added to the digest. To eliminate this possibility for our next experiment instead of having a different person load an individual enzyme as did in this experiment we should have one person prepare an entire digest. Our pipette was giving us some trouble when adjusting the volume setting; next time we should get a pipette that is easier to maneuver. When running our gel we could improve our strategy in that we might want to lower the voltage and run it longer, since we have smiling bands this will make our bands straight and more professional ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. E. Coli Lab Report Introduction: Background Information: E. coli or Escherichia coli is a prokaryotic cell found the in lower digestive track of mammals and other warm blooded animals. E. coli is an easy bacteria to work with as it doubles quickly and is relatively easy to grow, millions of cells can be grown in several hours. E. coli is an ideal bacteria in the lab because it does not require its temperature to be too hot, too cold, or too precise. A general warm temperature is perfect for this bacteria. E. coli is also easy to care for it does not need a specific type of nutrient, in a lab setting it can be feed any agar, making the bacteria over all cheaper to care for. Strains of E. coli can also operate in aerobic or anaerobic environments. The plasmid ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It will also highlight how successfully integrated plasmids can affect the cell and what proteins are produced by the DNA, and how easy it is to change the genetics of cell and the future generations of that cell. The experiment also demonstrates how natural selection would work in a lab environment, and how the addition of a gene or a mutation can protect an organism from adverse conditions in the environment. This lab also illustrates the change in DNA in a visual sense. Molecular genetics is a very small scale science that cannot be seen by the human eye, however by illuminating the bacteria with the GFP it will produce the very small process can be clearly seen before and after the genetic splicing. The bacteria will produce quickly and the successful bacteria will be clearly seen by the human eye, even after generations upon generations of bacteria. Hypothesis: The petri plate with the +pGLO LB/amp/ara will allow for the E. coli who have accepted the plasmid to glow and express the GFP. The E. coli will only express GFP if they are exposed to the arabinose sugar, and the bacteria also have to be exposed to the pGLO. Also the bacteria that are exposed to the ampicillin, but are not exposed to the pGLO will perish. Other plates may grow, but not express the protein. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. E. Coli Research Paper HISTORY/BACKGROUND 1 E.coli O157:H7 bacteria was discovered in 1885 by a German scientist Theodor Escherich, his discovery also found that strands of the bacteria caused infants diarrhea and gastroenteritis which made this an important health discovery." E. coli is one of the most frequent causes of many common bacterial infections, including cholecystitis bacteremia, cholangitis, urinary tract infection (UTI), and traveler's diarrhea, and other clinical infections such as neonatal meningitis and pneumonia." Says the food poison journal, All You Need To Know About E. coli. The bacteria was first called bacterium coli but then was changed to Escherichia coli to honor the scientist that discovered it. There are over 700 serotypes of E. coli that are identified and not all of the ones identified are necessarily cause diseases in us humans, some help us and some give us infections. This disease is responsible for a big amount of contaminated foods and drinks. Foods that are ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... coli are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make people sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. Still other kinds of E. coli are used as markers for water contamination". – Paul Cocharne. The causes of this disease are caused by consuming foods like undercooked ground beef which can be used in hamburgers, Vegetables washed in contaminated water and fruit juice that hasn't been pasteurized which means that it hasn't been through a process that uses heat to kill germs. Ways that help prevent to get E. coli is to always wash your hands after using the bathroom and before you eat, don't swallow pool, lake or ocean water and to make sure that at a restaurant you order your burger meat well done and not pink inside (preventions given by the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. E. Coli O157 Bacteria Micro 2924, section 310 July 21, 2010 Escherichia Coli Introduction: Esherichia coli also known as E. coli is a bacterium that lives in your gut. (1). it was founded by Theodore von Esherich in 1888. There are many people that can get the bacteria. Also there are thousands of strands of E.coli. Six E. coli O157 outbreaks were identified during 2007. Four of the outbreaks involved foodborne transmission. (Eshericha Coli). Six Minnesota cases and one Wisconsin case with the same or closely–related PFGE subtype of E. coli O157:H7, and an additional Minnesota case of Shiga–toxin producing E. coli that was not culture–confirmed, attended the Minnesota State Fair in August. All but one of the cases showed cattle or visited the cattle ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In ground beef you can get E. coli because they slaughter the cow and then the E. coli from there intestine gets on the ground meat and they mix the meat and then that gives it a higher risk of spreading it.(Staff Mayo Clinic) In unpasteurized milk it comes from the udder of the cow and then it gets into the milk. (Staff Mayo Clinic) In fresh food it comes from the farms that can contaminate the farm. The most vulnerable to this is lettuce and spinach. (Staff Mayo Clinic) In contaminated water there can be E. coli because it untreated and there is feces in it.(Staff Mayo Clinic) Also personal contact which means that adults can give it to their kids because they do not wash their hands after using the bathroom.(Staff Mayo Clinic) Also it passed in restaurants because cooks or people working back their do not wash their hands. E. coli causes the hemolytic–urine syndrome, which is a blood and kidney disease in children. It can also cause Uninary tract infections and bladder infections or it can lead to sepsis. There is another cause Thrombotic thrombocytopenic Purpura. This is a rare blood disease. It causes clots to form in small blood vessels throughout the body. This usually causes through the infectious parts of E. coli. Symptoms: The signs or symptoms of E. coli O157:H7. The symptoms begin like three or four days after you are exposed to the bacteria but some people can also feel the effects in like a day to a week. The first symptoms are Diarrhea, which could ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41. Common Type Of E. Coli Most strains of E. coli are not pathogenic; however, some types of E. coli cause painful infections and diseases. Although E. coli resides primarily in the intestinal tract, pathogenic E. coli strains can affect all parts of the human body. The bacteria is mainly spread through contaminated food and water; affecting the victim within 8 days of consuming the organism. The most common type of E. coli–related illnesses is E. coli infection; its symptoms include abdominal cramps, fever and bloody diarrhea. The vast majority of E. coli–related illnesses do not require medical attention and pass within a week, but severe infections such as urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, respiratory illness, and hemolytic uremic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) are categorized into two main divisions, the E. coli O157:H7 strain and the other STEC strains. Non–0157 STECs are the main cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) among pathogenic E. coli strains; HUS causes kidney failure and can often prove fatal. Usually, E. coli–related illnesses are produced by the STEC O157 strain, but other common non– O157 STEC strains include O45, O121, and O1455 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pathogenic E. coli strains are most often transmitted through food; however, the bacteria can also spread through person–to–person contact, water, and animal contact. E. coli O157:H7 is most often found in the gastrointestinal tracts of livestock, commonly cattle. Raw meat is often contaminated when the meat of an animal comes into contact with an infected animal 's intestinal
  • 42. contents during slaughter and meat processing. Other foods that E. coli transmit from include raw milk, prepackaged cookie dough, and fresh greens such as bean sprouts, lettuce, and green onions. The spread of pathogenic E. coli is most prevalent in daycare centers in nursing home, with persons younger than 9 or older than 50 being more at risk to contract the illness. Contact with animals such as in farms, petting zoos, or county fairs is a prime source of E. coli transmission; the bacteria from infected livestock contaminates any surrounding food ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44. E. Coli Experiment Introduction In the experiment we conducted there were many method in which we could have used to help us manipulate and identify bacterium on different agar plates. First part of the experiment involved the manipulation of the bacterial growth where we used different streaking methods to see which method was best suited to give me colonies. We have used 2 types of bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Yakult (Lactobacillus casei). E. coli is a bacteria that is rod shaped, Gram negative and is a genus of enterobacteriacae, the rate of its growth varies on if the right conditions are met which include the right PH, temperature, energy source and nutrient. Yakult consists of probiotic bacteria which is good bacteria that is beneficial to our digestive system and in each bottle of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... MacConkey agar is a selective agar which is a good medium to use for E. coli since it does not contain bile salt and crystal violet, it contains a PH indicator which gives it colour red, it is also a disaccharide known as lactose. Lactose is a sugar molecule that is derived from Galactose and glucose . MRS agar was developed by de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe who decided it was best to have a different media which can be used for cultivating bacteria, this media is nonselective and lactobacillus can grow on it, they found out that acetate and citrate helps the growth of lactobacillus (De MAN, ROGOSA, and SHARPE, 1960). Gram staining was first used by Hans Christian Gram who devised this method to help identify bacteria, Gram positive bacteria have a bigger peptidoglycan and smaller lipid content in comparison to Gram negative bacteria. This was first tested in 1882 and later published in 1884, it the most common technique used by microbiologist. Being able to manipulate bacteria gives us an advantage to understand its structure, function, time taken to asexually reproduce etc. This information can be used to either coming close to curing the bacteria or changing the bacteria to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46. Effect Of E. Coli On Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance is and continues to be a global public health issue1.One of the main concerns stems from the ability for bacteria to obtain antibiotic resistance very easily as a result of chromosomal changes, or through plasmids and transposons which generate an exchange of genetic material2. Resistance can also result from single or multiple mutations1,3. To combat this rising force, scientists must research and analyse the many possibilities of mutations in a variety of genes and proteins in specific bacteria and ways to combat them. As a model organism, Escherichia coli helps in identifying confounding proteins and enzymes that confer antibiotic resistance. There are specific strains of E. coli that are a common cause of urinary ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... One of the more important proteins residing in E. coli is DHFR. This is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of dihy­ drofolate to tetrahydrofolate in cells5. Since nucleic and amino acid synthesis is affected by the amount of tetrahydrofolate present, DHFR has a direct impact on all actively dividing and growing cells5. This plays a vital role in antibiotics, as having the ability to target the enzyme which controls the production of these new cells would allow for the control of the bacteria. By analyzing DHFR, researchers identified that parallel populations of DHFR evolved and acquired similar mutations in a similar order, implying some sort of evolutionary pathway to antibiotic resistance1. Additionally, many of the mutations were observed near the promotor, and it was calculated that the mutations were most likely not due to chance. This leads to a better understanding of the possible pathways of mutation, which allows scientists to circumvent antibiotic resistance and develop novel ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48. E. Coli: An Experimental Analysis When analyzing the results, one can see that the data supports that each of the plasmid's genes are unrelated, supporting the original hypothesis. Since each strain of the E. Coli. were collected from three separate farm of considerable difference the results are logical. Three different strains of bacterial contamination because there are three different genes. In order to stop the outbreak on the farms, each of the farmers should test the food, building material, etc. to determine the source of contamination. In order to prevent future outbreaks in the meat, the farmers should take more carefully precautions in handling, preparing, and packaging the meat. Even though E. Coli. is found naturally in the intestine, if the bacteria is spread ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50. Inhibition Of E-Coli Research Question: To investigate the antimicrobial substances, bleach and lemon and their effectiveness in eliminating the zone of inhibition of Escherichia coli (E–coli). Background Information: An infection usually matures within 3 to 4 days of the consummation of food that is contaminated and symptoms usually include severe bloody diarrhoea and abdominal cramps, however in some cases, the infection causes no symptoms. Practical measures to control the spread of the bacteria include practicing thorough hygiene, avoiding cross contamination when cooking, and cleaning and sanitizing all vegetables and fruit prior to consumption. E.coli contain different amino acid mutations which is most likely contributing to the antibiotic resistance ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These results are not particularly conclusive and more research can be done on the inhibition of the growth of E.coli however, with other common and practical substances. A particular weakness of this investigation is the fact that one inhibition test does not necessarily indicate that microorganisms have been killed by an antimicrobial product. It merely shows that the bacteria have been prevented from growing. This means that a constant appliance of the antimicrobial is necessary or the bacteria will simply grow back. If this experiment were to be repeated again, results would be improved by achieving a greater variety of comparison with more possible antimicrobial substances tested and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52. E. Coli And Its Effects On The United States E.coli outbreaks have steadily grown over the last few decades. An expansion in big farming has led to E. coli not only being found in meat, but vegetation as well, due to waste runoff. This has increased our need for adequate antibiotics that can fight bacteria, like E. coli. The best way to pinpoint which antibiotics work is by measuring their ability to create antimicrobial agents or zones of inhibition. When a paper disc that has been saturated in an antibiotic is inserted in a solution of E.coli and medium, the zone of inhibition will be noted as the clear ring that forms around the disk. The antibiotics efficacy is then determined by measuring each disk zone of inhibition, and comparing these measurements to the zone measurements of an untreated specimen. If an antibiotic is to be deemed sufficient for treating E. coli it should show a zone of inhibition that is at least double the size of the untreated specimen. On August 19th, 2015 this experiment was performed, by 6 separate lab groups.The experiment began by measuring 1 Ml of E. coli into a pipette and pump, then placing the bacteria into a culture medium. The E. coli and medium were then swirled together for a period of 15 minutes, until completely mixed. This mixture was then poured into a petri dish and allowed to solidify for 45 minutes. After the 45 minute solidification time, 5 small paper disks were inserted into the dish. 4 of the disk contained treatments of antibiotic and 1 was left untreated. The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54. E. Coli : H7 E. coli O157:H7 is a gram negative, rod shaped bacteria that is being found in many foodborne and waterborne illnesses. It is also called Hemorrhagic colitis, the acute disease caused by E. coli (EHEC) because it causes abdominal pain, and bloody diarrhea. It generally lives in the intestines of healthy humans and is generally harmless. It is also found in healthy cattle and can contaminate meat during slaughtering, as it produces a toxin that can cause illness. The E.coli O157:H7 is rare variety of E. coli that produces large quantities of one or more related, potent toxins that cause severe damage to the lining of the intestine. The Verotoxins that cause the disease are also called shiga toxins, because they were acquired from the Shigella strain. It is believed that the widespread use of antibiotics by American farmers has promoted the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and pathogenicity islands that has led to the creation of new pathogenic strains such as E. coli O157:H7. It was first identified as a new cause of disease in the United States in 1982 after an outbreak of gastrointestinal illnesses from undercooked meat after eating hamburgers from fast food restaurants. It has also been found in the drinking water in Washington County, New York and in some area swimming waters in Clark County Washington in 1999. Other outbreaks in recent years have been found in alfalfa sprouts, unpasteurized fruit juices, dry–cured salami, lettuce, game meat, and cheese ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56. E Coli : A Public Health Concern Introduction Escherichia coli are bacteria commonly found in the intestines of humans and other animals (Water: Basic Information about Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants 2009). Many strains of E.coli are harmless and contribute to healthy intestinal tracts. However, some strains can cause illness, including abdominal cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (Tian Ding 2012). Most infections caused by pathogenic strains of E. coli are caused by ingestion of undercooked meat, but other sources include eating vegetables or drinking water contaminated by the bacteria or coming in contact with people or animals that have the bacteria (Water: Basic Information about Regulated Drinking Water ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Methods For this experiment, a non–virulent strain of Escherichia coli was used to illustrate differences in growth rates for different temperatures. The culture was created by placing 35.0 ml of L–Broth into a 125 ml flask and adding 0.025 ml of an overnight bacteria culture. This culture mixture was divided and placed into 3 shaking incubators that were kept at 25˚C, 30˚C, or 37˚C (Timmons 2004). Readings were taken approximately every 20 minutes from 7:20AM until 5:30PM, throughout different lab classes. To measure population growth, light absorbance was measured using a spectrophotometer. Bacteria are microscopic and therefore it would be impractical to try to count individuals for this experiment. The spectrophotometer measures light absorbance. The more E. coli bacteria present in a sample, the more light is absorbed. Thus, the population in the sample can be approximated using light absorption (Timmons 2004). Each group of students was assigned to bacteria from one of the 3 temperatures. Group E was one of the groups assigned to measure the 30˚C bacteria. Groups obtained a 1 ml sample of the assigned bacteria from incubators using cuvettes. Fingerprints can create errors in readings, so it was vital that the cuvettes only be held by the "frosted" sides. Light absorption was measured using the spectrophotometer, which was preset to OD 600 on the absorbance scale. Samples were discarded after readings were taken, and new samples from incubators were ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58. E. Coli Research Papers Escherichia coli, also known as E.coli, is a type of bacterium that was first recognized hundreds of years ago by a German bacteriologist, Theodor Escherich. Escherichia coli was initially named Bacterium coli, but later was changed to credit the founder of the bacteria. E.coli is the most commonly used bacteria for biological lab research and experiments. E.coli is characterized as a gram–negative, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped bacteria that can be found almost everywhere, from plant soil to animal feces to the lower intestine of humans and animals. There are several different strains of E.coli, differing in their genotype. Due to the natural biological process of mutations, there have been 700 serotypes of E.coli identified. E.coli serotypes ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Different strains of E.coli can be isolated and identified by a variety of biochemical tests. The biochemical tests commonly used to identify E.coli include: lactose, oxidase, indole, and beta– glucuronidase tests. The use of lactose to identify a strain of E.coli is an appropriate method since intestinal bacteria, such as E.coli, typically undergo lactose fermentation. Using MacConkey agar, microbiologist are able to analyze if lactose is fermented and detected by the change of color in the medium. The oxidase test is used to identify if the bacteria synthesizes the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase that is part of the electron transport chain. When the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase is present, the reduced reagent, tetramethyl–p–phenylenediamine will donate its electron to cytochrome c oxidase and a purple color end product will show in the media. The indole test is performed by microbiologist to determine if E.coli is capable of converting tryptophan to indole. Lastly, beta–glucuronidase test is used to determine if an organism produces the enzyme glucuronidase by hydrolysis of nitrophenyl–beta–glucopyranosiduronic acid. In the presence of glucuronidase, the medium develops a yellow color (Trepeta & Edberg, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60. Bacterial Transformation : Escherichia Coli ( E. Coli ) Bacterial transformation is the insertion of a plasmid containing a gene or genes of importance into bacteria. It can be used to make large quantities of a promising gene. Bacterial Transformation can be artificial or natural. A plasmid is a small, circular, double–stranded DNA molecule that is separate from a cell 's chromosome DNA. Plasmids exist in bacterial cells and they also appear in some eukaryotes. The genes carried in plasmids offer bacteria with genetic benefits, like resistance to antibiotics. Definite conditions can help bacterial cells absorb external DNA. Cells treated in this condition become more likely to be competent to take up, greatly increasing their transformation efficiency. Transformation efficiency is the number of transformed cells gained per microgram of plasmid DNA. It is a sign of the success of a bacterial transformation experiment. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common bacterium that makes single celled plasmids exchange easy. It yields clones so that the DNA will not be mixed up. In this experiment students attempt to transform E. coli with a plasmid. The plasmid that will be used to transform the bacteria in this experiment is pGal and occurs naturally in E. coli. Transformed bacteria cells will grow in the presence of the antibiotic while bacteria cells that did not take up the plasmid, will not grow. Students will use mathematical calculations to determine the efficiency of the transformation process. The transformed E. coli with the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62. Plasmid Transformation Of E. Coli Plasmid transformation of E. coli using pVIB Savannah Jacobs April 4th, 2016 BIO 335 Spring 2016 Dr. Koester Abstract Since bacteria are haploid, asexually reproducing organisms it is important for these organisms to be able to accept genetic variability into their genome. A process called transformation, which involves absorbing small segments of DNA from deceased organisms in the natural world, does this. Transformation can also be mimicked in the laboratory using plasmid. Plasmids are small segments of DNA that occur in bacteria that allow us to regulate if transformation was successful. We attempted transformation of E. coli cells using plasmid called pVIB, which allows for luminescence and resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin, from Vibrio fischeri, however, we did not achieve a successful transformation. Introduction Some organisms, such as bacteria, have the ability to transform into a new form by picking up small segments of DNA from other organisms. This process is known as transformation and happens quite often in nature. Quite often organisms die and release their DNA into aqueous environments. The DNA is broken down but it is a while before it is fully destroyed allowing for bacteria cells and other organisms to transform their own DNA using the broken down segments from the deceased organism (Dodd). Transformation is an extremely important step in increasing genetic variation in organisms that reproduce asexually, allowing for them to make both ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64. E. Coli Lab Report Safety Protocols E. coli is a bacterium capable of being transmitted from one person to another. To ensure that the bacteria used in this experiment were not transmitted to other places, items, or organisms, several safety protocols were followed. When streaking bacteria and handling mannitol and xylitol solutions, the experimenter wore an apron, nitrile gloves on both hands and plastic protective goggles. After each set of plates were prepared, the experimenter removed the gloves from both hands without skin contact and thoroughly washed their hands for approximately 20 seconds with soap and warm water. Throughout the entire experiment the experimenter was cautious also to avoid contacting bacteria with eyes, mouth, or open wound. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The volume is 10 mL when the pipette is full. To calculate percent uncertainty: (0.02 mL)/(10 mL)*100=0.2%. Calculating the percentage uncertainty for a 250 mL volumetric flask The uncertainty for a 250 mL volumetric flask is ± 0.15 mL. The volume is 250 mL when the flask is full. To calculate percent uncertainty: (0.15 mL)/(250 mL)*100=0.06% Calculating the percentage uncertainty for a 50 mL graduated cylinder The uncertainty of the graduated cylinder is ±0.5 mm. The volume of the substance measured is 50 mL because the density of water is 1 g/〖cm〗^3 and the mass is 1 gram per milliliter. To calculate percent uncertainty: (0.5 mm)/(50 mL)*100=1% Calculating the percentage uncertainty for an electronic scale The uncertainty for an electronic scale is ±0.01 because the scale measures into the hundredths place. The volume of the sugars is V=M/D, where V is volume, M is mass, and D is density. V=(25 g+25 g)/(1.52 g⁄〖cm〗^3 +1.5 g⁄〖cm〗^3 ), V=16.56. To calculate percent uncertainty:0.01/16.56*100=0.06% The percent uncertainty for beakers was not calculated. The beakers were only used for storing the solutions. Therefore, the accuracy of the beakers did not affect the outcome of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66. E Coli And Its Effects On The Environment Introduction When we think of bacteria we don't think of them as being a good thing especially when we think of Salmonella or Ecoli. It brings a sick feeling to your stomach or a cringe. But these microbes are being used for the greater good. Scientist are putting them to work. They are being genetically altered or medically laced to fight disease or to absorb lethal substances in the environment that contaminates our soil, water, and vegetation. If you can teach them or expose them to the appropriate environment they can be beneficial. Some might call this playing God while others may see it as a useful tool to put something there is an abundance of or is naturally occurring in a place where there is contamination and create a healthy ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There is hopes that some of the Mercury that has been filtered can then be recovered for later use in industrial technologies (Griggs, 2011). Geobacter sulfurreducens Geobacter Sulfurreducens is an obligate anaerobe, non–fermentative, non–motile comma–shaped rod, gram–negative bacteria commonly found in soil (Runge 2003). Mining for Uranium became a necessity during the Cold War but eventually we came to our senses The old Rifle Mill in Western Colorado was where The United States obtained its resources for uranium to help build nuclear bombs. Now that we have stopped trying to blow eachother up, the lasting effects still linger. Some microbes such as Geobacter sulfurreducens change uranium from its harmful form that can be dissolved in water to a form that will not dissolve. This allows it to settle out and be removed. Vinegar added to the soil containing the microbe helps it grow. The United States paid for research completed by The Department of Energy that tested this microbe. The research was conducted on wells, that were contaminated with Uranium, in the Old Rifle Uranium Mills. The tests were a success and the uranium levels were initially lowered by over 70%. Later tests showed the uranium levels were lowered by 90%. Besides lowering uranium levels, scientist isolated a specific gene of the Geobacter sulfurreducens that might help in creating a supermicrobe that may be used to clean up uranium sights around the world. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68. Effects Of E. Coli On Bacteria There are many types of bacteria. Bacteria are a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cells walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus. Some bacteria can cause diseases that are becoming resistant to antibiotics. One of these bacteria is Escherichia coli. If garlic can prevent the growth of E. coli, a special of rod–shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine of humans and other animals, it might prevent the growth of other bacteria (WebMD, 2010). E. coli is commonly found in the intestines of animals and humans. Actually, E. coli and other bacteria in our intestines is a necessity to help the body grow properly and to remain healthy. Although some strains of E. coli are dangerous one specific strain ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... coli, then the bacteria cluster would be killed because garlic contains allicin, which is an antimicrobial substance. Allicin was discovered in 1944 by Cavallito, who first noted its potent antimicrobial activity. To maintain the antibacterial properties of garlic, it must be consumed or applied as raw garlic because cooking will destroy the allicin (www.allicin.com, 2013). E. coli can be grown easily at room temperature in a petri dish. The petri dishes are usually filled with sheep blood agar, a nutrient culture medium that is enriched with whole blood and used for the growth of certain strains of bacteria. Bibliography Ayaz, Erol and Goncagul, Gulsen. "Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Traditional Medicine." Internet: 2010. Available: http://www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/?doi=javaa.2010.1.4. "Basic Information about E. coli 0157:H7 in Drinking Water." Internet: November 19, 2013. Available: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/ecoli.cfm. "E. coli Infection." Internet: Jun. 14, 2010. Available: http://www.webmd.com/a–to–z–guides/e– coli–infection–topic–overview. "E. coli 0157:H7 Infection." Internet: December 2006. Available: http://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/e_coli/fact_sheet.htm. "Welcome to Allicin.com." Internet: Nov. 7, 2013. Available: ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70. Pros And Cons Of E Coli Reading the story fast food nation made me think about many possible outcomes from the situation at hand. After finishing the story it made me think what actually is e coli. is the name of a germ, or bacterium, that lives in the digestive tract of humans and animals. There are many types of E. coli, and most of them are harmless. But some can cause bloody diarrhea. Some strains of E. coli bacteria may also cause severe anemia or kidney failure , which can lead to death. By looking at this statement you can tell that some people can die by some strains of e coli, but how many people actually die from e coli. It shows that in 1999 73,000 people in the us were affected by e coli and only 60 of those cases resulted in death, so the strain that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72. E. Coli Bacteria Certain people work well at high altitudes. People who live at higher altitudes have a higher hemoglobin count since it helps blood cells deliver oxygen to nourish body tissues. The oxygen level in the atmosphere decreases as the altitude increases. This is true with the majority of people who live in these high altitude regions like the Andes. There is a group of people from Tibet who does not follow this trend. They have a much lower hemoglobin level than an average person, and they live and work as successfully as other groups. Scientists questioned why did the Tibetans have a lower hemoglobin count that allows them to live and work successfully? The discovery of the mutation in the EPAS1 gene may have an answer. Normally, the EPAS1 gene ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... By studying the health outcomes, we may be able to learn more about its mechanism, and we may be able to use this information to contribute to the field of medicine by getting a better understanding of how to treat diseases and health conditions associated with this gene. Another model system that could be used for future research on this gene is model organisms. Using organisms such as lab rats makes it easier to breed and manipulate the organism to study the biological and scientific processes. It's unethical perform scientific testing on human subjects, so using a model organism is a great way to manipulate and study the health effects of the EPAS1–TD gene further in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74. Transformation And Survival Of E. Coli Essay TRANSFORMATION AND SURVIVAL OF E. COLI Introduction: With changes in technology over the past decades, came new knowledge of the biology realm. With this new knowledge and understanding of biology came about Biotechnology. Biotechnology is the process of harnessing the ability of living systems to quickly and inexpensively produce important biological materials. We can see the results of Biotechnology in all areas of our life including the food we eat and the medicine we take. Today, we are using Biotechnology to by–pass nature 's random fashion of generating variation. We will be genetically engineering a new organism through a process known as transformation (transfer of genetic information between organism's takes places via the movement of an extracellular piece of DNA). Bacteria are great for experiments for genetic manipulation simply because of how long they take to produce, their simplicity, and how easily recognizable they are. The bacteria that we will be using for this experiment is Escherichia Coli, also known as E. coli. Most of this bacteria genetic information is carried on small pieces of extrachromosomal DNA. The small DNA molecules are known as plasmids. Plasmids carry genes that allow bacteria to neutralize antibiotics that would typically kill them only one molecule in 10,000 can successfully transform a bacterium in the most favorable conditions in the laboratory, so for it happen in nature by itself is incredible. It is a true test of survival of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76. E. Coli Personal Experience E. Coli PERSONAL EXPERIENCE Myah Winter | Sanitation and Safety | November 16 2016 I had recently experienced the terror that is referred to as E. Coli. I can tell you all about how it is much worse than the flu, although I will also be talking about this one girl I stumbled upon on the internet also. She had a life threatening experience that you can definitely experience if you go untreated when finding out that you have E. Coli. She had it for 19 days straight when I had been extremely lucky that I had only had it for eight days. I know that I definitely did not feel lucky, but doing this project has let me realize that I was very fortunate. Some people just chalk it up as the stomach flu like my mother and aunt did, but my grandmother knew it was something more than that. She ended up taking me to Med Express which is not a very good place to go if you want to get a work release on the same day or week by the way. On top of the issues I had at the doctor it was nonstop viral– like symptoms that only got worse until they got better. You might think that it will just go away, but you have another thing coming for you if you think it will just pass. It took me half the time to completely get rid of it and it was one painful process. I am not completely sure of the medicine that they gave me, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... She shows how she turned this horrific event into a positive learning experience. She is one of the very few people in the world that look at an illness and see something positive from it for sure. I know that if I would not have read it, then I would not have learned too much besides the fact that I am still leery to try hamburger from certain places or people. The experience made me more cautious and aware of what could happen if you eat that taco even if you are very hungry. Avoid the severe flu like symptoms and prepare your beef with pride and perfection for you and others to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 78. The Outbreak Of E. Coli Introduction In the year, 2005 a major outbreak of the bacterium E. coli perished in the South Wales and more than 157 people were affected by this bacterium, which mainly included the children. The reason found out behind this incident was connected with a meat supplier who used to serve the local schools and old age homes. A five–year–old child lost his life during the course of this outbreak. Therefore, this paper is written with the aim of exploring the outbreak of E. coli in South Wales, to witness the actual reasons of the diseases, the difficulties that arise during the course of the event and to give a look on the things that this incident has taught us. E. coli E. coli or Escherichia coli are a kind of bacteria that affects the intestinal or the digestive system of a human being, which can even lead to death. It is one of the subgroup of fecal coliform bacteria. E. coli O157:H7 is that toxic microorganism or bacteria which causes the intestinal disease in the human beings which is most likely to last about a week. The common symptoms of these diseases are that the patient will have diarrhea with blood (Clermont, Bonacorsi and Bingen 2000). However, the serve cases of this disease may lead to kidney problems, which can lead to death especially when the patient is a child or an elderly person. That is, it can act severely in those patients who have does not have a strong immune system. Some types of E. coli are normally found in the intestines of people and animals ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 80. E. Coli Bacterial Suspension In this experimental part of the lab, two bacterial suspensions were made by adding 250µl of a transformation solution of calcium chloride, as well as adding and completely dispersing two large colonies of E. coli of approximately 2 mm in diameter, that were collected from the starter plate. Each suspension was labeled, one as +pGLO, and the other as –pGLO. 10µl of p–GLO plasmid was added to the +p–GLO suspension. Both suspensions were incubated for a period of 10 minutes on ice. The bacterial suspensions were removed from the ice and then heat shocked in a water bath at 42 °C for exactly 50 seconds, both suspensions were quickly placed back on the ice for an incubation period of 2 minutes. The LB nutrient broth was added to both bacterial suspensions and incubated for 15 minutes in a water bath at 37 °C. Bacterial Cells Spreading Four LB nutrient agar plates were obtained and labeled. Two of the plates were the transformations plates appropriate labeled as +pGLO/LB/amp ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The results obtained in the bacterial culture plates were the following: In Plate # I, the bacteria grew as a lawn of bacteria, making it uncountable. In plate # II without pGLO plasmid, there were no bacteria, all of them died in the presence of ampicillin. In plate # II with pGLO plasmid, the bacterial culture lived and grew. In plate # III with pGLO plasmid and araC protein, the bacterial culture grew and glowed. The transformation efficiency is the number of colonies on LB/amp/ara plate divided by the amount of DNA on the plate. Figure 1 shows the culture plates under visible light, figure 2 shows the culture plates under ultraviolet light, table 1 shows the characteristics of the culture plates obtained after the experiment, and Table 2 shows the calculations done for finding the transformation ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...