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Costs of Closed Science
1.

3.5 mg / 100g

2.

3.5 mg / 100g  ~ 30 mg / 100g
fresh

(c) by http://www.flickr.com/photos/nick_hardcastle

dry

http://www.flickr.com/photos/f4/2339969681
+ 30 % !
IN NEED FOR MONEY
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Median_and_Average_Sales_Prices_of_New_Homes_Sold_in_the_US_1963-2010_Monthly.png
http://www.nber.org/papers/w15639.pdf
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Bold Statements

1. Median growth rates for countries with public debt over 90
percent of GDP are roughly one percent lower than
otherwise;
2. Mean growth rates are several percent lower.
3. Countries with debt-to-GDP ratios above 90 percent have
a slightly negative average growth rate, in fact.

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 7

ADV ShareConomy
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Hard Actions (Dancing)

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 8

ADV ShareConomy
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Save the Dime

http://www.stern.de/politik/deutschland/medienschlacht-zur-eurokrise-merkel-ist-in-griechenland-haeftling-4339-1866072.html
Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 9

ADV ShareConomy
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Data, where aret thou?

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 10

ADV ShareConomy
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Inconsistencies and Errors within data material
1. Unjustified, selective Exclusions
2. Unconventional grouping and weighting of data
3. Excel region selection mistakes

“

… future historians note that

one of the core empirical points
providing the intellectual foundation
for the global move to austerity in
the early 2010s was based on
someone accidentally not updating
a row formula in Excel

”

http://www.nextnewdeal.net/rortybomb/researchers-finally-replicated-reinhart-rogoff-and-there-are-serious-problems#.UW14rDQo2L4.twitter

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 11

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PUBLICATION MECHANISM
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Science Busters

To be part of it
requires a TV-set
Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 13

ADV ShareConomy
www.donau-uni.ac.at

To be part of it requires
scientific rigor

OR?
Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 14

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<< I knew that their business depends
on publishing “sexy” papers >>

http://www.michaeleisen.org/blog/?p=1439

http://www.flickr.com/photos/joker21/3684005076
I’d discovered a species of bacteria that uses arsenic
in its DNA instead of phosphorus

But I made the science so egregiously bad … poor or absent controls in every
figure …. failed to include a simple, obvious experiment that would have
definitively shown that arsenic was really in the bacteria’s DNA.

I then submitted the paper to Science, punching up the impact the work would
have on our understanding of extraterrestrials and the origins of life on Earth

http://www.fanpop.com/clubs/monsters-vs-aliens/images/5375160/title/monsters-vs-aliens-photo
http://www.zazzle.at/weissbecher_des_elements_33_arsen_tee_tasse-168479586161372168
And what do you know? They

accepted it!
www.donau-uni.ac.at

What has happened?
• Subscription-based Journals
– Are seeking to increase the number of citations to their articles
– Would like to increase the number of subscriptions (subscriptions =
money)

Department for E-Governance
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10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 18

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The Blogosphere Voice

• If journals are serious about advancing knowledge ..
• Ummm - No. Journals are serious about making money.
That means being restrictive, closed and inaccessible as
possible to everybody, especially laymen.
• Even professional academics for the most part, are not
interested in advancing knowledge. For the most part they
are interested only in advancing themselves...
http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20090820/0153145940.shtml

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 19

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COSTS OF OVERLY CLOSED SCIENCE
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Closed Science
1. Closed Science is unpublished scientific research, available
only to the researcher and a select few others (very drastic)
- or 2. Closed Science involves publishing proprietary, often
corporately funded, research in pay-per-use journals
Problem – Public funded research is payed twice by the tax
payer
1. Spending tax money to fund the research;
2. by paying through university library subscriptions to access the
results of that research.
2012: 13.000+ petitions against that habit of Elsevier
http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/feb/02/academics-boycott-publisher-elsevier

Department for E-Governance
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Costs hard to measure

1984: High-doses of Methylprednisolon will ameliorate the
devastating neurologic consequences of posttraumatic spinal
cord degeneration and thereby SCI (USA, NASCIS-I (& II)
study)
„From the very beginning the study was heavily criticized for
study design, clinical study, relive effect, results after 6
months and after a year, statistical methods, cancelled
studies, reactions of study representatives in PR, prior peerto-peer publications “
2008: 3% increased mortality rating, effects without statistical
relevance

Department for E-Governance
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10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 22

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„Based on the controversial data and the vague
clinical proves Methylprednisolon can no
longer be generally advised“

http://www.medicalforum.ch/pdf/pdf_d/2008/2008-14/2008-14-425.PDF

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 23

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WHAT IS OPEN ACCESS?
Costs of Closed Science
Grey Literature
Costs of Closed Science
WAS IST OPEN SCIENCE?
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Open Science is …

1. Transparency in experimental
methodology, observation, and collection of data

2. Public availability and reusability of scientific data.
3. Public accessibility and transparency of scientific
communication.
4. Using web-based tools to facilitate scientific collaboration.
http://www.openscience.org/blog/?p=269

Department for E-Governance
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10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 29

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THE STATE OF OPEN ACCESS AND OPEN
SCIENCE IN AUSTRIA AND THE EU
www.donau-uni.ac.at

FWF – Wissenschaftsfond
• Open Access Policy
–
–
–
–

Re-producibility of results
Science as a public good
Visibility and knowledge transfer
Scientific networking

• Funding for OA-Journals in Humanities and Social Sciences
• Support for the Green Road
– Publishers shall no longer receive unrestricted exploitation rights

• Support for the Gold Road
– Publication funds for those journals requiring publication fee
– “robust, empirical proves that non-commercial publication bodies […] a
much better value-for-money ratio provide compared to commercial
publishers“

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 31

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http://oa.mpg.de/files/2010/04/publwege_en.jpg
www.donau-uni.ac.at

• Open Access at Academy of Sciences
– Explicit Open-Access-Policy
– Recommendation to all researchers to publish according to the
Green-Road-Principles

• University of Vienna
–
–
–
–

Open Access Office
Open Access working group
Open Access Board
Phaidra: Archive and Share Research and Teaching
https://phaidra.univie.ac.at/

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 33

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https://phaidra.univie.ac.at/
http://epub.wu.ac.at/
www.donau-uni.ac.at

EU – Level
• EU: Open Access Policy Officer (DG RTD)
• Horizon 2020: Research results have to be published
according to an OA-policy
– However there is no obligation to publish

• Digital Agenda: Scientific data: Open Access to research
results will boost Europe's innovation capacity
http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-12-790_en.htm?locale=en

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 36

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Costs of Closed Science
NOT ALL PROBLEMS WILL BE
SOLVED BY OPEN SCIENCE
1999
NASA uses the metric system
while Lockheed Martin uses the English system when building a satellite

busted, $165.6 million gone
Costs of Closed Science
www.donau-uni.ac.at

• Ocorrafoo Cobange of Wassee Institute of Medicine in
Asmara receives a letter of acceptance for a paper he
submitted
• Properties of a Chemicals from a lichen have clear
anticancer properties

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 41

ADV ShareConomy
www.donau-uni.ac.at

But …
• There is no Ocorrafoo Cobange
• There is no Wassee Institute of Medicine
• The results are drawn without any scientific rigor

• He received 150+ acceptances of Open Access Journals
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6154/60.full

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education.

10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 42

ADV ShareConomy
TimBerners Lee created the Web in 1991 with the aim of
better facilitating scientific communication and the
dissemination of scientific research.
He didn’t designed it for
bookstores, telecommunications, newspapers, pornography, st
ock trading, music distribution, or LOLcats.

after http://eaves.ca/2011/12/22/the-future-of-academic-research/
Today we buy books online, listen to music
from the cloud and Skype for communication.
But our way of scientific communication is
pretty much there where it used to be in 1991.

Time for a shift.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Open Data, Transparency and Open Innovation
E-Democracy and E-Participation
E-Voting
Bottom-Up Movements
Social and Mobile Media for Public Administration
Open Collaborative Government
Democracy, Globalization and Migration
Connected Smart City
Technology and Architecture
Self-governance in Complex Networks
Rethinking Information Visualization for the
People
Freedom and Ethics in Digital Societies
Design and Co-creation for E-democracy

• PhD Colloquium

Important Deadlines
Deadline for the submission of papers,
workshop proposals, reflections:

6. December 2013
Notification of acceptance

7. February 2014
Camera-ready paper submission

28 February 2014
Conference

21. - 23. May 2014
Johann Höchtl
johann.hoechtl@donau-uni.ac.at
http://www.slideshare.net/jhoechtl/
https://www.facebook.com/myprivate42

http://at.linkedin.com/in/johannhoechtl/

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Costs of Closed Science

  • 1. Costs of Closed Science
  • 2. 1. 3.5 mg / 100g 2. 3.5 mg / 100g  ~ 30 mg / 100g fresh (c) by http://www.flickr.com/photos/nick_hardcastle dry http://www.flickr.com/photos/f4/2339969681
  • 3. + 30 % !
  • 4. IN NEED FOR MONEY
  • 7. www.donau-uni.ac.at Bold Statements 1. Median growth rates for countries with public debt over 90 percent of GDP are roughly one percent lower than otherwise; 2. Mean growth rates are several percent lower. 3. Countries with debt-to-GDP ratios above 90 percent have a slightly negative average growth rate, in fact. Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 7 ADV ShareConomy
  • 8. www.donau-uni.ac.at Hard Actions (Dancing) Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 8 ADV ShareConomy
  • 9. www.donau-uni.ac.at Save the Dime http://www.stern.de/politik/deutschland/medienschlacht-zur-eurokrise-merkel-ist-in-griechenland-haeftling-4339-1866072.html Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 9 ADV ShareConomy
  • 10. www.donau-uni.ac.at Data, where aret thou? Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 10 ADV ShareConomy
  • 11. www.donau-uni.ac.at Inconsistencies and Errors within data material 1. Unjustified, selective Exclusions 2. Unconventional grouping and weighting of data 3. Excel region selection mistakes “ … future historians note that one of the core empirical points providing the intellectual foundation for the global move to austerity in the early 2010s was based on someone accidentally not updating a row formula in Excel ” http://www.nextnewdeal.net/rortybomb/researchers-finally-replicated-reinhart-rogoff-and-there-are-serious-problems#.UW14rDQo2L4.twitter Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 11 ADV ShareConomy
  • 13. www.donau-uni.ac.at Science Busters To be part of it requires a TV-set Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 13 ADV ShareConomy
  • 14. www.donau-uni.ac.at To be part of it requires scientific rigor OR? Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 14 ADV ShareConomy
  • 15. << I knew that their business depends on publishing “sexy” papers >> http://www.michaeleisen.org/blog/?p=1439 http://www.flickr.com/photos/joker21/3684005076
  • 16. I’d discovered a species of bacteria that uses arsenic in its DNA instead of phosphorus But I made the science so egregiously bad … poor or absent controls in every figure …. failed to include a simple, obvious experiment that would have definitively shown that arsenic was really in the bacteria’s DNA. I then submitted the paper to Science, punching up the impact the work would have on our understanding of extraterrestrials and the origins of life on Earth http://www.fanpop.com/clubs/monsters-vs-aliens/images/5375160/title/monsters-vs-aliens-photo http://www.zazzle.at/weissbecher_des_elements_33_arsen_tee_tasse-168479586161372168
  • 17. And what do you know? They accepted it!
  • 18. www.donau-uni.ac.at What has happened? • Subscription-based Journals – Are seeking to increase the number of citations to their articles – Would like to increase the number of subscriptions (subscriptions = money) Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 18 ADV ShareConomy
  • 19. www.donau-uni.ac.at The Blogosphere Voice • If journals are serious about advancing knowledge .. • Ummm - No. Journals are serious about making money. That means being restrictive, closed and inaccessible as possible to everybody, especially laymen. • Even professional academics for the most part, are not interested in advancing knowledge. For the most part they are interested only in advancing themselves... http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20090820/0153145940.shtml Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 19 ADV ShareConomy
  • 20. COSTS OF OVERLY CLOSED SCIENCE
  • 21. www.donau-uni.ac.at Closed Science 1. Closed Science is unpublished scientific research, available only to the researcher and a select few others (very drastic) - or 2. Closed Science involves publishing proprietary, often corporately funded, research in pay-per-use journals Problem – Public funded research is payed twice by the tax payer 1. Spending tax money to fund the research; 2. by paying through university library subscriptions to access the results of that research. 2012: 13.000+ petitions against that habit of Elsevier http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/feb/02/academics-boycott-publisher-elsevier Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 21 ADV ShareConomy
  • 22. www.donau-uni.ac.at Costs hard to measure 1984: High-doses of Methylprednisolon will ameliorate the devastating neurologic consequences of posttraumatic spinal cord degeneration and thereby SCI (USA, NASCIS-I (& II) study) „From the very beginning the study was heavily criticized for study design, clinical study, relive effect, results after 6 months and after a year, statistical methods, cancelled studies, reactions of study representatives in PR, prior peerto-peer publications “ 2008: 3% increased mortality rating, effects without statistical relevance Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 22 ADV ShareConomy
  • 23. www.donau-uni.ac.at „Based on the controversial data and the vague clinical proves Methylprednisolon can no longer be generally advised“ http://www.medicalforum.ch/pdf/pdf_d/2008/2008-14/2008-14-425.PDF Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 23 ADV ShareConomy
  • 24. WHAT IS OPEN ACCESS?
  • 28. WAS IST OPEN SCIENCE?
  • 29. www.donau-uni.ac.at Open Science is … 1. Transparency in experimental methodology, observation, and collection of data 2. Public availability and reusability of scientific data. 3. Public accessibility and transparency of scientific communication. 4. Using web-based tools to facilitate scientific collaboration. http://www.openscience.org/blog/?p=269 Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 29 ADV ShareConomy
  • 30. THE STATE OF OPEN ACCESS AND OPEN SCIENCE IN AUSTRIA AND THE EU
  • 31. www.donau-uni.ac.at FWF – Wissenschaftsfond • Open Access Policy – – – – Re-producibility of results Science as a public good Visibility and knowledge transfer Scientific networking • Funding for OA-Journals in Humanities and Social Sciences • Support for the Green Road – Publishers shall no longer receive unrestricted exploitation rights • Support for the Gold Road – Publication funds for those journals requiring publication fee – “robust, empirical proves that non-commercial publication bodies […] a much better value-for-money ratio provide compared to commercial publishers“ Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 31 ADV ShareConomy
  • 33. www.donau-uni.ac.at • Open Access at Academy of Sciences – Explicit Open-Access-Policy – Recommendation to all researchers to publish according to the Green-Road-Principles • University of Vienna – – – – Open Access Office Open Access working group Open Access Board Phaidra: Archive and Share Research and Teaching https://phaidra.univie.ac.at/ Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 33 ADV ShareConomy
  • 36. www.donau-uni.ac.at EU – Level • EU: Open Access Policy Officer (DG RTD) • Horizon 2020: Research results have to be published according to an OA-policy – However there is no obligation to publish • Digital Agenda: Scientific data: Open Access to research results will boost Europe's innovation capacity http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-12-790_en.htm?locale=en Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 36 ADV ShareConomy
  • 38. NOT ALL PROBLEMS WILL BE SOLVED BY OPEN SCIENCE
  • 39. 1999 NASA uses the metric system while Lockheed Martin uses the English system when building a satellite busted, $165.6 million gone
  • 41. www.donau-uni.ac.at • Ocorrafoo Cobange of Wassee Institute of Medicine in Asmara receives a letter of acceptance for a paper he submitted • Properties of a Chemicals from a lichen have clear anticancer properties Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 41 ADV ShareConomy
  • 42. www.donau-uni.ac.at But … • There is no Ocorrafoo Cobange • There is no Wassee Institute of Medicine • The results are drawn without any scientific rigor • He received 150+ acceptances of Open Access Journals http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6154/60.full Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 42 ADV ShareConomy
  • 43. TimBerners Lee created the Web in 1991 with the aim of better facilitating scientific communication and the dissemination of scientific research. He didn’t designed it for bookstores, telecommunications, newspapers, pornography, st ock trading, music distribution, or LOLcats. after http://eaves.ca/2011/12/22/the-future-of-academic-research/
  • 44. Today we buy books online, listen to music from the cloud and Skype for communication. But our way of scientific communication is pretty much there where it used to be in 1991. Time for a shift.
  • 45. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Open Data, Transparency and Open Innovation E-Democracy and E-Participation E-Voting Bottom-Up Movements Social and Mobile Media for Public Administration Open Collaborative Government Democracy, Globalization and Migration Connected Smart City Technology and Architecture Self-governance in Complex Networks Rethinking Information Visualization for the People Freedom and Ethics in Digital Societies Design and Co-creation for E-democracy • PhD Colloquium Important Deadlines Deadline for the submission of papers, workshop proposals, reflections: 6. December 2013 Notification of acceptance 7. February 2014 Camera-ready paper submission 28 February 2014 Conference 21. - 23. May 2014