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Consumers' Online Cognitive
Scripts: A Neurophysiological
Approach

                     Sylvain Sénécal (HEC Montréal)
              Pierre-Majorique Léger (HEC Montréal)
                      Marc Fredette (HEC Montréal)
                      René Riedl (University of Linz)
                       Gmunden Retreat on NeuroIS 2012
                            Gmunden, Austria, June 3-6
Tech3Lab
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Consumers' Online Cognitive Scripts: A Neurophysiological Approach
Cognitive Script
• “Coherent sequence of events expected by the
  individual, involving him either as a participant or as an
  observer” (Abelson 1976)
• “Predetermined, stereotyped sequence of actions that
  define a well-known situation.” (Shank and Abelson
  1977)
• Basically, it allows people to understand and behave
  appropriately in a particular situation (Abelson 1981).
• Experts form more elaborate, distinctive, contingent,
  and hypothetical scripts than novices (Leong et al.
  1989; Martin 1991)
Research Objectives

1. Validate if consumers activate cognitive scripts
   when shopping online;
2. Understand how cognitive scripts are formed by
   consumers over multiple shopping trips;
3. Investigate how consumers activating different
   cognitive scripts respond when facing a novel
   shopping environment (e.g., a new store).
Potential Contributions

• To theory:
   – Better understand script activation over multiple
     interactions
   – Script and Self-service technology
• To practice:
   – Help managers provide satisfying online experiences
   – Potentially, locking-in consumers with easier to learn
     websites (Johnson and Bellman 2003).
Cognitive Script and Neuroscience
• When encountering a situation, the brain tries to match the
  input information (e.g., Burger King) with a similar
  representation existing in memory (Barr 2009).
• By activating a certain analogy, information that is associated
  with this analogy in memory is triggered, generating a
  prediction of what to expect next (Bar 2009, Bar and Neta
  2008).
• Hence, cognitive scripts could be at the basis of human brain
  activity and consequently human behaviors
• “Information encoded in our memory guides and sometimes
  dictates our future behavior. One can look at our experience
  as stored in memory as scripts.” (Bar 2009, p.1239)
Hypotheses
• H1: Consumers, whose script was formed during
  repeated visits to a single website (intrascript
  consumers), will possess a different script than
  those whose script was formed during single visits
  to different websites (interscript consumers).
Neurophysiological differences between
Novices and Experts




                 Hill and Schneider, 2006
Hypotheses

• H2: When revisiting the website, intrascript
  consumers will more use automatic processing.
• H3: When visiting a new and dissimilar website,
  intrascript consumers will use more controlled
  processing.
Hypotheses

• H4: When visiting a new and dissimilar website,
  interscript consumers will have more positive
  attitudes toward the website than intrascript
  consumers.
Method

• Pretest conducted in Summer 2011
• Main study
  – Lab expriment
  – Subjects: No online music purchase experience
  – Data collected in March - April 2012
  – Data analysis: ongoing
Method – Main study
• Questionnaire 1
   – « Online music purchase » script elicitation 1
   – List of 10 songs
• Random assignment to Group A (same site) or B (different
  sites)
   – Purchase task: One song per website (1 hour and/or 10 websites
     max.)
• Questionnaire 2
   – « Online music purchase » script elicitation 2
   – Website evaluation (Bressolles and Nantel 2008)
   – Demographics
Experimental Design

                                  One Hour (maximum)


Intrascript   A   A   A   A   A    A   A   A   A   A   L   Questionnaire




Interscript   B   C   D   E   F    G   H   I   J   K   L   Questionnaire
Consumers' Online Cognitive Scripts: A Neurophysiological Approach
Measures
• Neurophysiological
   – Electroencephalography (EEG) and Heart Rate (HR)
      • B-Alert® X10
      • EEG based engagement index (Berka 2007): sleep onset,
        distraction, low engagement, and high engagement.
      • EEG based workload index
   – Electrodermal response (EDR)
      • Procomp Infinity (Thought Technology)
• Self-reported
   – Website evaluation (Bressolles and Nantel 2008)
      • Aesthetics, Ease of Use, Information Quality,
        Interactivity/Personalisation
Pretest and Main Study
B-Alert EEG Headset
Results

• Pre-test done in Summer 2011 with 6 subjects.
• Real test done in March-April 2012 with 20
  subjects.
• Once the data are processed, we still have about
  20 measures per subject per thousandth of second
  (approx. 75,000,000 observations per subject).
• Per subject, we have approx. 250Mo of data
  (unstructured data excluded)
Description des données
Consumers' Online Cognitive Scripts: A Neurophysiological Approach
H1 : Consumers, whose script was formed during repeated visits to a single website
(intrascript consumers), will possess a different script than those whose script was
formed during single visits to different websites (interscript consumers).


• Two independent judges coded each participant’s initial
  and final scripts (Intercoder reliability coefficient 0.97)
• Average number of events between the initial and final
  script:
     – Intrascript condition : from 5.70 to 5.65 events
     – Interscript condition : from from 7.18 to 7.55 events
     – Difference in variation (-0.05 vs. 0.37) was not statistically
       significant based on a Mann-Whitney test (n1=10 and
       n2=11)
H2: When revisiting the website, intrascript consumers will more use automatic
    processing.
    H3: When visiting a new and dissimilar website, intrascript consumers will use more
    controlled processing.




             Intrascript group                              Interscript group




N = 14
H4 : When visiting a new and dissimilar website, interscript consumers will have more
positive attitudes toward the website than intrascript consumers.




 N = 21
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Consumers' Online Cognitive Scripts: A Neurophysiological Approach

  • 1. Consumers' Online Cognitive Scripts: A Neurophysiological Approach Sylvain Sénécal (HEC Montréal) Pierre-Majorique Léger (HEC Montréal) Marc Fredette (HEC Montréal) René Riedl (University of Linz) Gmunden Retreat on NeuroIS 2012 Gmunden, Austria, June 3-6
  • 8. Cognitive Script • “Coherent sequence of events expected by the individual, involving him either as a participant or as an observer” (Abelson 1976) • “Predetermined, stereotyped sequence of actions that define a well-known situation.” (Shank and Abelson 1977) • Basically, it allows people to understand and behave appropriately in a particular situation (Abelson 1981). • Experts form more elaborate, distinctive, contingent, and hypothetical scripts than novices (Leong et al. 1989; Martin 1991)
  • 9. Research Objectives 1. Validate if consumers activate cognitive scripts when shopping online; 2. Understand how cognitive scripts are formed by consumers over multiple shopping trips; 3. Investigate how consumers activating different cognitive scripts respond when facing a novel shopping environment (e.g., a new store).
  • 10. Potential Contributions • To theory: – Better understand script activation over multiple interactions – Script and Self-service technology • To practice: – Help managers provide satisfying online experiences – Potentially, locking-in consumers with easier to learn websites (Johnson and Bellman 2003).
  • 11. Cognitive Script and Neuroscience • When encountering a situation, the brain tries to match the input information (e.g., Burger King) with a similar representation existing in memory (Barr 2009). • By activating a certain analogy, information that is associated with this analogy in memory is triggered, generating a prediction of what to expect next (Bar 2009, Bar and Neta 2008). • Hence, cognitive scripts could be at the basis of human brain activity and consequently human behaviors • “Information encoded in our memory guides and sometimes dictates our future behavior. One can look at our experience as stored in memory as scripts.” (Bar 2009, p.1239)
  • 12. Hypotheses • H1: Consumers, whose script was formed during repeated visits to a single website (intrascript consumers), will possess a different script than those whose script was formed during single visits to different websites (interscript consumers).
  • 13. Neurophysiological differences between Novices and Experts Hill and Schneider, 2006
  • 14. Hypotheses • H2: When revisiting the website, intrascript consumers will more use automatic processing. • H3: When visiting a new and dissimilar website, intrascript consumers will use more controlled processing.
  • 15. Hypotheses • H4: When visiting a new and dissimilar website, interscript consumers will have more positive attitudes toward the website than intrascript consumers.
  • 16. Method • Pretest conducted in Summer 2011 • Main study – Lab expriment – Subjects: No online music purchase experience – Data collected in March - April 2012 – Data analysis: ongoing
  • 17. Method – Main study • Questionnaire 1 – « Online music purchase » script elicitation 1 – List of 10 songs • Random assignment to Group A (same site) or B (different sites) – Purchase task: One song per website (1 hour and/or 10 websites max.) • Questionnaire 2 – « Online music purchase » script elicitation 2 – Website evaluation (Bressolles and Nantel 2008) – Demographics
  • 18. Experimental Design One Hour (maximum) Intrascript A A A A A A A A A A L Questionnaire Interscript B C D E F G H I J K L Questionnaire
  • 20. Measures • Neurophysiological – Electroencephalography (EEG) and Heart Rate (HR) • B-Alert® X10 • EEG based engagement index (Berka 2007): sleep onset, distraction, low engagement, and high engagement. • EEG based workload index – Electrodermal response (EDR) • Procomp Infinity (Thought Technology) • Self-reported – Website evaluation (Bressolles and Nantel 2008) • Aesthetics, Ease of Use, Information Quality, Interactivity/Personalisation
  • 21. Pretest and Main Study B-Alert EEG Headset
  • 22. Results • Pre-test done in Summer 2011 with 6 subjects. • Real test done in March-April 2012 with 20 subjects. • Once the data are processed, we still have about 20 measures per subject per thousandth of second (approx. 75,000,000 observations per subject). • Per subject, we have approx. 250Mo of data (unstructured data excluded)
  • 25. H1 : Consumers, whose script was formed during repeated visits to a single website (intrascript consumers), will possess a different script than those whose script was formed during single visits to different websites (interscript consumers). • Two independent judges coded each participant’s initial and final scripts (Intercoder reliability coefficient 0.97) • Average number of events between the initial and final script: – Intrascript condition : from 5.70 to 5.65 events – Interscript condition : from from 7.18 to 7.55 events – Difference in variation (-0.05 vs. 0.37) was not statistically significant based on a Mann-Whitney test (n1=10 and n2=11)
  • 26. H2: When revisiting the website, intrascript consumers will more use automatic processing. H3: When visiting a new and dissimilar website, intrascript consumers will use more controlled processing. Intrascript group Interscript group N = 14
  • 27. H4 : When visiting a new and dissimilar website, interscript consumers will have more positive attitudes toward the website than intrascript consumers. N = 21