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SOLID STATE
SOLID STATE
SOLID STATE
SOLID STATE
 Anything that
Matter
What is matter ?
occupies some space and
possesses some mass
SOLID STATE
Matter
Solid
Liquid
Gas
States of matter that
we come across are…
SOLID STATE
SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES
+D
–D –D
+D
Matter
Are all the three states
interconvertible ?
+ D = means heating
 D = means cooling
yes
SOLIDS
SOLID STATE
 DIPOLE – DIPOLE INTERACTION,
 DIPOLE–INDUCED DIPOLE INTERACTION,
 LONDON FORCES,
 HYDROGEN BONDING etc.
Matter
SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES
+D +D
–D –D
 This physical state of matter is the result of interplay of
INTERMOLECULAR
 FORCES OFATTRACTION like
SOLID STATE
1. Matter is anything that occupies _______and possess _______.
a) Some mass, some space
b) Some space, some mass
c) Some mass, some mass
d) Some space, some space
SOLID STATE
2. The general perceivable states of matter that we come across in our
daily life are…
a) 3
b) 5
c) 7
d) 8
SOLID STATE
3. Physical state of matter is a result of interplay of…
a) Intermolecular forces
b) Intramolecular forces
c) Mutual forces
d) Both a & b
SOLID STATE
4. Intermolecular forces are…
a) Dipole - dipole
b) Dipole induced dipole
c) London forces
d) All of these
SOLID STATE
SOLID STATE
SOLID STATE
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLIDS
1. Solids have
Fixed Composition
MASS,
VOLUME,
Definite SHAPE
and Density
SOLID STATE
More Closely
packed
Less closely packed Very loose packing
or
Least close packing
2) Packing
3) Density =
Mass
Volume
High Moderate Least
SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES
SOLID STATE
Microscopic view of a solid
SOLID STATE
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLIDS
1. Solids of fixed composition have fixed MASS, VOLUME, SHAPE and
DENSITY. Order of density :Solids > Liquids > Gases
Exception : densityICE < densityWATER
2. In solids - Intermolecular distance is shortest
CAN IT BE
COMPRESSED?
Hence solids are incompressible
NO
SOLID STATE
CHARACTERISTIC OF SOLIDS
 Solids with weak IMF - low M.P.
 Solids with strong IMF - high M.P.
3. Solids have the strongest intermolecular force of attraction
SOLID STATE
FIXED
VIBRATORY
motion of solid state particles of
matter
SOLID STATE
1. Solids with fixed composition have fixed…
a) mass
b) volume
c) shape
d) All of these
SOLID STATE
2. Solid particles have… intermolecular force of attraction…
a) weak
b) strong
c) moderate
d) zero
SOLID STATE
3. Solids have…motion
a) linear
b) rotational
c) translational
d) vibratory
SOLID STATE
4. Select the false statement…
a) Solids are incompressible
b) Solids have small intermolecular distance
c) Solid particles have random position
d) Solids have high density
SOLID STATE
SOLID STATE
CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS
SOLIDS
Crystalline Amorphous
SOLID STATE
CRYSTALLINE SOLID
CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID
Common Salt – An Example of Crystalline
solid
What is the formula of
Common salt?
Common Salt i.e.
Sodium chloride has
the formula NaCl
How Na+ and Cl- ion
are arranged in the
crystal lattice?
Regular / homogenous
/ uniform
Three Dimensional Figure
SOLID STATE
Regular / homogenous
/ uniform
Such homogeneous / uniform
arrangement is observed in Crystalline
solid.
CRYSTALLINE SOLID
CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID
SOLID STATE
Three Dimensional Figure
These 3D image structure can be
represented as
Thus the general structure can be
represented as
1. Crystalline Solids are homogeneous solids.
CRYSTALLINE SOLID
CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID
A
B
B
B
A
A
A
B
B
B
A
A
A
B
B
B
A
A
A B A B A B
SOLID STATE
A
B
B
B
A
A
A
B
B
B
A
A
A
B
B
B
A
A
A B A B A B
What is an order ?
2. It exhibits long range order.
Order implies some sort of repetition
in the structure
Some what like PERIODICITY
1. Crystalline Solids are homogeneous solids.
So, why long range ?
Long range simply implies continuity
CRYSTALLINE SOLID
CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID
SOLID STATE
How are these
solids built?
2. It exhibits long range order.
1. Crystalline Solids are homogeneous solids.
3. DEFINITION : The constituent particles are arranged in definite
repeating pattern.
4. They are aggregates of small tiny crystals called unit cell.
UNIT CELL
CRYSTALLINE SOLID
CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID
SOLID STATE
1. Crystalline solids are… and have -------------------order
a) Homogeneous, long range
b) Homogeneous, short range
c) Heterogeneous, long range
d) Heterogeneous, short range
SOLID STATE
2. NaCl is an example of ________ solid.
a) Amorphous
b) Crystalline
c) Both
d) None
SOLID STATE
3. Order implies…
a) Repetivity
b) Periodicity
c) Unity
d) Both a & b
SOLID STATE
4. The basic unit of crystalline solid is…
a) Unit cell
b) Small tiny crystal
c) Both a & b
d) None of these
SOLID STATE
Thank you…

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CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)

  • 3. SOLID STATE  Anything that Matter What is matter ? occupies some space and possesses some mass
  • 4. SOLID STATE Matter Solid Liquid Gas States of matter that we come across are…
  • 5. SOLID STATE SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES +D –D –D +D Matter Are all the three states interconvertible ? + D = means heating  D = means cooling yes SOLIDS
  • 6. SOLID STATE  DIPOLE – DIPOLE INTERACTION,  DIPOLE–INDUCED DIPOLE INTERACTION,  LONDON FORCES,  HYDROGEN BONDING etc. Matter SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES +D +D –D –D  This physical state of matter is the result of interplay of INTERMOLECULAR  FORCES OFATTRACTION like
  • 7. SOLID STATE 1. Matter is anything that occupies _______and possess _______. a) Some mass, some space b) Some space, some mass c) Some mass, some mass d) Some space, some space
  • 8. SOLID STATE 2. The general perceivable states of matter that we come across in our daily life are… a) 3 b) 5 c) 7 d) 8
  • 9. SOLID STATE 3. Physical state of matter is a result of interplay of… a) Intermolecular forces b) Intramolecular forces c) Mutual forces d) Both a & b
  • 10. SOLID STATE 4. Intermolecular forces are… a) Dipole - dipole b) Dipole induced dipole c) London forces d) All of these
  • 13. SOLID STATE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLIDS 1. Solids have Fixed Composition MASS, VOLUME, Definite SHAPE and Density
  • 14. SOLID STATE More Closely packed Less closely packed Very loose packing or Least close packing 2) Packing 3) Density = Mass Volume High Moderate Least SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES
  • 16. SOLID STATE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLIDS 1. Solids of fixed composition have fixed MASS, VOLUME, SHAPE and DENSITY. Order of density :Solids > Liquids > Gases Exception : densityICE < densityWATER 2. In solids - Intermolecular distance is shortest CAN IT BE COMPRESSED? Hence solids are incompressible NO
  • 17. SOLID STATE CHARACTERISTIC OF SOLIDS  Solids with weak IMF - low M.P.  Solids with strong IMF - high M.P. 3. Solids have the strongest intermolecular force of attraction
  • 18. SOLID STATE FIXED VIBRATORY motion of solid state particles of matter
  • 19. SOLID STATE 1. Solids with fixed composition have fixed… a) mass b) volume c) shape d) All of these
  • 20. SOLID STATE 2. Solid particles have… intermolecular force of attraction… a) weak b) strong c) moderate d) zero
  • 21. SOLID STATE 3. Solids have…motion a) linear b) rotational c) translational d) vibratory
  • 22. SOLID STATE 4. Select the false statement… a) Solids are incompressible b) Solids have small intermolecular distance c) Solid particles have random position d) Solids have high density
  • 24. SOLID STATE CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS SOLIDS Crystalline Amorphous
  • 25. SOLID STATE CRYSTALLINE SOLID CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID Common Salt – An Example of Crystalline solid What is the formula of Common salt? Common Salt i.e. Sodium chloride has the formula NaCl How Na+ and Cl- ion are arranged in the crystal lattice? Regular / homogenous / uniform Three Dimensional Figure
  • 26. SOLID STATE Regular / homogenous / uniform Such homogeneous / uniform arrangement is observed in Crystalline solid. CRYSTALLINE SOLID CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID
  • 27. SOLID STATE Three Dimensional Figure These 3D image structure can be represented as Thus the general structure can be represented as 1. Crystalline Solids are homogeneous solids. CRYSTALLINE SOLID CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID A B B B A A A B B B A A A B B B A A A B A B A B
  • 28. SOLID STATE A B B B A A A B B B A A A B B B A A A B A B A B What is an order ? 2. It exhibits long range order. Order implies some sort of repetition in the structure Some what like PERIODICITY 1. Crystalline Solids are homogeneous solids. So, why long range ? Long range simply implies continuity CRYSTALLINE SOLID CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID
  • 29. SOLID STATE How are these solids built? 2. It exhibits long range order. 1. Crystalline Solids are homogeneous solids. 3. DEFINITION : The constituent particles are arranged in definite repeating pattern. 4. They are aggregates of small tiny crystals called unit cell. UNIT CELL CRYSTALLINE SOLID CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID
  • 30. SOLID STATE 1. Crystalline solids are… and have -------------------order a) Homogeneous, long range b) Homogeneous, short range c) Heterogeneous, long range d) Heterogeneous, short range
  • 31. SOLID STATE 2. NaCl is an example of ________ solid. a) Amorphous b) Crystalline c) Both d) None
  • 32. SOLID STATE 3. Order implies… a) Repetivity b) Periodicity c) Unity d) Both a & b
  • 33. SOLID STATE 4. The basic unit of crystalline solid is… a) Unit cell b) Small tiny crystal c) Both a & b d) None of these