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CIDOC CRM in Practice
               - Experiences, Problems, and Possible Solutions -




Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Background

           • BRICKS Project (2003 - 2007)
           • Goal
            • build an infrastructure for integrating contents
                        and metadata from heterogeneous sources
                 • build value added services on top

Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Background
           • Build an application that provides access to
                  archaeological findings from two distinct
                  institutions
           • Provided advanced search (e.g. faceted search)
           • Use the CIDOC-CRM to deal with metadata
                  heterogeneities


Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Background




Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
CIDOC CRM Mapping
       • Metadata Schemes:
                                                   !&,?@;                   A&589-                        !"#$%&'&(                  7&589-
                      .!#$%&'()*$+(*,-,*,




                                                                                                                                                 !"#$%&'()*$+(*,-,*,
                                                 )*+&,-./$&                  'B%&1                        )*+&,-./$&                :#$&121

                                                012"34&1523              ;&<2#5<"-52<                     012"34&1523             ;&<2#5<"-52<

                                               415#"1/6"-&15"%               65<-                       415#"1/6"-&15"%               65<-

                                             )*=&1>&C3&>,15$-52<      '&=&1>&C3&>,15$-52<                     )*=&1>&               '&=&1>&

                                            6&-923)(6"<B(",-B1&               DDD                             ;2<21                 ;2<21'&(



                                                            !/<-",-5,"%%/E"<3E>&#"<-5,"%%/E&FB5="%&<-              !&#"<-5,"%%/E&FB5="%&<-

                                                                                            G2E&FB5="%&<,&>




Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
CIDOC CRM Mapping
       • Sample Metadata Instance:
                                                                       !"#$%&'(
                                                              !"#$%&         !""#$%&'()*+"#,"%

                                                            '()"#*+,-"                '-./

                                                         '()"#*&".#/0-*012    0-12/34-563789

                                                              3"045*                 (:#%34

                                                         6/078/,98*"/08:              ;-56

                                                         9"*51;'<982=<>           <=>?@A3->3789

                                                                >>>                    :::




Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
CIDOC CRM Mapping
       • The CIDOC CRM:                                                                                          !""#&0?)I)<2()0'
                                                                                                                                        !"+#510?K<()0'

                                                                                                                                         EEE

                                                         !;#$0'?)()0'#:(2(-                                                            !;M#O)6K23#7(-.    !;J#7.2B-
                                                                                               !4#D<()P)(*           EEE
                                  !+#,-./0123#!'()(*                                                                                   !;"#>0<K.-'(         EEE
                                                             !=#5-1)0?          !8#!P-'(         EEE
                                                                                                             !4;#7'I01.2()0'#FGH-<(     !+C#>-6)B'#01#510<-?K1-
                                                                                                                                          EEE
                                                                                                                                                     !8M#N2'BK2B-
                                                             !4@#,A)'B        !++#&2'9&2?-#FGH-<(            !+J#$0'<-/(K23#FGH-<(
                                                                                                                                       !88#,*/-       !84#&2(-1)23
                                                             !;C#D<(01              EEE                        EEE
                                 !44#5-16)6(-'(#7(-.                                                                                     EEE         !8J#&-26K1-.-'(#L')(
                                                         !8"#$0'(2<(#50)'(      !=8#D??1-66
               !"#$%&#!'()(*
                                                                                !=+#FGH-<(#7?-'()I)-1

                                                          !="#D//-332()0'       !=C#,).-#D//-332()0'          !8@#>2(-
                                   !8+#,).-9:/2'
                                                                               !==#532<-#D//-332()0'         !=4#:/2()23#$001?)'2(-6
                                      !8;#532<-
                                                                                    EEE                        EEE
                                   !8=#>).-'6)0'


                                                                                                 !M@#QK.G-1

                                                              !8C#51).)()P-#O23K-             !M"#,).-#51).)()P-

                                                                                                  !M+#:(1)'B

Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
CIDOC CRM Mapping
       • Source Metadata Expressed in CRM:
                                >MH$/66#,,-2130                    >MH$/66#,,-2130
                                                                                              GH$1.$1E#02141#E$78$
                                                                                                  51E#02141#.=                                                        >LL$!86#
                                                                                                                              >?H$'3+<A#02
                                      K<L                      GHH-?.B!+I=AH-JH.                                                                                            !40&
                                                                                              GHJK$1.$+3A63.#E$34$
                                                                                                543:A.$6-:2$34=                 GIJ$E3+<A#02.$
                                            GH$1.$1E#02141#E$78$
                                                                              >?H$'3+<A#02                                    51.$E3+<A#02#E$10=             GC$"-.$286#$
                                                51E#02141#.=
                                                                                                                                                             51.$286#$34=


                                 >LI$*-2#:1-,                                                                         >CC$*-0D*-E#$(7F#+2
                                                          GHCK$#A6,38#E              GHJ@$"-.$6:3E<+#E
                                     M4"6                59-.$#A6,38#E$10=           59-.$6:3E<+#E$78=                                             G?$"-.$032#       >KC$Q2:10B
                                                                                                                                                                 2345#&2*4"62#78)7$2
                                                                   >HC$G:3E<+2130                             GM?$"-.$E1A#0.130                                  492:)842;<=2>?@ABC,2
                                                                                                               51.$E1A#0.130$34=      GH?@$:#6:#.#02.            DEF)20$$7)62(08(#2<=2
                                                         GHK$<.#E$.6#+141+$37F#+2$                                                  5"-.$:#6:#.#02-2130=                A?@A>,
                                                             59-.$<.#E$43:=

                                                                                                             >LM$'1A#0.130
                                             >CN$'#.1B0$3:$G:3+#E<:#

                                                          GH$1.$1E#02141#E$78$               GNH$"-.$<012      GNJ$"-.$;-,<# GC$"-.$286#$                         >?@$&A-B#
                                                                                              51.$<012$34=                   51.$286#$34=
                                                              51E#02141#.=

                                   >MH$/66#,,-2130                      >L@$*#-.<:#A#02$O012                  >KJ$P<A7#:              >LL$!86#
                                  L'87(N24821#55)8)6                                   *                             +,-.               /)0*1'




                                                                   !!"#$#%&
                                                                       !"#$$         !"#$%&'(%$%)*$+,-..
                                                                      %&$'#&()       /0$10.2-0+#$34$2"#$+,-..$563..17,8$912"$+30+:#2#$;-,<#=

Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
CIDOC CRM Mapping
       • Mappings expressed as mapping chains:
                           !"#$%                                                                                                                      4"0/7%#$%
                                !$&'()*%+,,-./0123*4,-5,/!6$&'()*%                                                                                   !89:!%!;4
                                !789&':;<=&% !"#$ !6789&':;<=&%                                                                WNNF;<=&
                                !789&':;<=&1&>:?@A:<%1&>:?@A!6789&':;<=&1&>:?@A:<%                                                .(/0

                                !789&':*&B'>@=:@CA%                                                 "XFU?BF:<=&FM@BF:<=&FCKO
                                     DCE?AFGCHIF?J>&JBFCKFL&>CFM#*FN. 40OFPQQQR
                                !6789&':*&B'>@=:@CA%                                                      WXXFT?A T?I&F789&':
                                !789&':*?:&-1&>:?@A:<%1&>:?@A!6789&':*?:&-1&>:?@A:<%                                                             "-,0FU?BF=>CIJ'&IF
                                                                                                             "-4FJB&IFB=&'@K@'FC89&':F           M?BF=>CIJ'&IF8<O
                                !*?:&S>CE%4.!6*?:&S>CE%                                                          M?BFJB&IFKC>O
                                !"&>@CIS>CE%D7T#L!6"&>@CIS>CE%                                                                           W-XF">CIJ':@CA
                                                                                          WX3F*&B@GAFC>F">C'&IJ>&
                                !T&:UCI7KT?AJK?':J>&%
                          %%%%%%%%%%&'()*+%"(%,-../(/0                                          "-F@BF@I&A:@K@&IF8<F           W.-F#==&HH?:@CA
                                                                                                    M@I&A:@K@&BO               !"#$%&'(#')*++,#,-
                                !6T&:UCI7KT?AJK?':J>&%
                                     V
                           !6"#$%                              12&%345%&")(*/%6#7/



                                                                                              12&%'"%!89:!%4-<<#$=
                                                     F"#$Y789&':;<=&          Z%FWXX "X WNN
                                                     F"#$YT&:UCI7KT?AJK?':J>& Z%FWXX @A["-,0 "-4 WX3 "- W.-




Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Problems encountered



Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Problem 1: Lifting and
       Normalisation
           • How to technically represent metadata in terms
                  of the CRM?
           • RDFS / OWL model exists
            • lack essential features (e.g. properties for
                        literals)
                 • require application-specific extensions
Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Problem 2: Mapping Ambiguity
        • Different valid representations for the same
                  attributes:                             !;;$I834
                                                             0"12
                                                                           %#$012$+834$
                                                                           5,2$+834$'<9
                                                                                                                !"#$"%"&'(')*&+,

                                                                                                           !;= >1+4&,1?
                                                                       !##$>1-@>1(4$A7B4*+                      !"#$                              !"#$"%"&'".+/*&/"#'0+
                                                                                                                                                        !*#"./*0
                                                                                                       %"#G$4H3?'84(
                                                            %"./$012$3&'()*4($
                                                                                                      5612$4H3?'84($,-9
                                                            5612$3&'()*4($789
                                                                                    !"#$%&'()*+,'-

                                                                !:"$F334??1+,'-                      %"G$)24($234*,<,*$'7B4*+$
                                                                                                         5612$)24($<'&9                                  !"#$"%"&'(')*&+-
                                                               %&'()*+"'+,-../'/$
                                                                        %"$,2$,(4-+,<,4($78$   !#C$D42,E-$'&$%&'*4()&4                                 !;= >1+4&,1?
                                                                            5,(4-+,<,429                                                                    !"#$
                                                                                                                                                   %:;$*'-2,2+2$'<$
                                                                                                                                                5,2$,-*'&3'&1+4($,-9
                                                                                                                             !##$>1-@>1(4$A7B4*+
                                                                                                                                      0"12

                                                                                                                                                        %"./$012$3&'()*4($
                                                                                                                                                        5612$3&'()*4($789
                                                         !"#$"%"&'".+/*&/"#'0+                              !;;$I834
                                                         !"#$%&'%(')*+,(*-#,."                                                                     !"#$%&'()*+,'-
                                                                                                        %&'()*+"'+,-../'/$       %#$012$+834$
                                                                                                                                 5,2$+834$'<9




                                                                          ++1"2"&.
                                                                               0#-33      I04$JKDAJ$JL>$*?122
                                                                             423&-2)/     F-$,-2+1-*4$'<$+04$*?122$53'22,7?8$6,+0$*'-*&4+4$M1?)49
Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Problem 3: Processing and
       Visualisation
           • The human / machine must “remember” the
                  meaning of mapping chains in order to retrieve
                  information
                 • E22-P2-E55 = the object type
                 • E22-invP108-P16-E29-P1-E41 = manufacture
                        method
Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Possible solutions



Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
A Simple Approach to (partially) solve Problem II + III

                   !"#$%&'(               )$'*                                  +",,-.%/!0"-.

                                                                               3.4#05#0'(&-010('#*6#
                                                                                   70'(&-010(58
                                        !"#$%&'&#(       !""#$%& $%'(#)*+(,-                             !."#)*+(,-#/'(&-010(2

                   )*+(,-5
                                                                                  3G#>%5#&:-(
                                       )#*+(&,%&-$       !""#$%& $%'(#)*+(,-                                  !A"#E-20&F



                                                         !""#$%& $%'(#)*+(,-                                !9"#32:';,-0:&
                                                                                39<=#>%5#?2:';,('                       39"A#(B?C:6('#
                                        ./%#(&/0                                                                       7@%5#(B?C:6('#0&8
                                                                                7@%5#?2:';,('#*68
                                                                                                             !D4#$%-(20%C


                   E(B%&-0,                                                    3.G#>%5#'0B(&50:&
                    E-%-(5                                                      705#'0B(&50:&#:18
                                                         !""#$%& $%'(#)*+(,-                                !D.#H0B(&50:&
                                                                               3L9#>%5#;&0-                                 3"#>%5#-6?(#
                                     )&1#$*&-$*2
                                                                                705#;&0-#:18                                705#-6?(#:18
                                 3)&/1#%#(425#&67%289                                                  3L<#>%5#M%C;(

                                                                 !D=#$(%5;2(B(&-#I&0-           !A<#J;B*(2             !DD#K6?(




Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Generic Approach to solve Problems I+II+III
           • Methodology to create consistent mappings to
                  the CRM
                 • Step 1: Lifting the data source-specific data
                        model (e.g., relational model, XML) to the level
                        of CIDOC CRM
                 • Step 2: Map the lifted model to the CRM using
                        specific mapping guidelines (mapping
                        “algorithm”)

Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
(1) Lifting & Normalisation
           • Lift a relational model to the CRM via an
                  intermediate semantic model




                                                                                                                     "'4C"0"?A
                                            /*$-&/'(")*+,          /*$-&/'0*/1              /*$-&/'$*,-&
                                        !LMM0A.% A.()0CDE)2*&                           !L8M0CDE)2*0'()%*$+$),&
                                                                   G8;0$/0$()%*$+$)(0
                                                 5'&(               DN0!$()%*$+$)/&     566789:";<4=67>69




                                                                                                                     1)B.%*$20A#()@
                                             !"#$%&'(")*+,         !"#$%&'0*/1             !"#$%&'$*,-&
                                                 !"#$%&                                     !'()%*$+$),&
                                                                     -./01)23'4
                                                                                        566789:";<4=67>69

                                                         0%%+&12%")($3")                       0%%+&12%")4$#2")$,)
                                                           $,)-+'-"+%/                          "(%&%/)&(,%$(*"

                                    !"#$%&'()*'++",-'(.,) !"#$




                                                                                                                     ?)@.*$#%.@0A#()@
                                          %')"(%&%/       1)23'4                 566789:";<4=67>69
                                                          CDE)2*4)/2,$F*$#%      ?#B.%0I#@(0.J,)J/
                                                          G),$#(H,#B             ?#B.%
                                                          >,#.(G),$#(            ?#B.%
                                                          ...                    KKK
Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
(2) Reducing Mapping Ambiguity
           • Mapping Methodology (Principles):
            • start from the lifted semantic model
            • find most specific CRM entities for source
                        domain and target range
                 • determine the shortest possible path between
                        these entities


Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Mapping                                                          Start                       p := next property of P




       “Algorithm”                                               E := set of source
                                                                  domain entities
                                                                                                    mapping chain c := ∅



                                                                                                            eend =
                                                                                                     findTargetRange(p)
                                                                    all entities of
                                              End        yes
                                                                     E iterated?
                                                                                                        add eend to c
                                                                         no


                                                                e := next entity of E
                                                                                                          x := eend



                                                                estart := findTarget
                                                                     Domain(e)
                                                                                               no
                                                                                                        isA(estart, x)?       yes

                                                               e := instanceOf(estart)                                               invert c
                                                                                                              no

                                                                   P : = Set of                       cl = findChainLink
                                                                properties p where       yes               (estart, x)              estart := x
                                                                getDomain(p) = e


                                                                                                          add cl to c

                                                                   all properties
                                                                   of P iterated?
                                                                                                    x := first element of cl


Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Mapping Example
              @"8A&B$96:&;$<1)*C1$1D9?
                                                    %"
       #"       EFF$9"G 9":&$CHI&'B                                  E.F$):&GBJKJ&8    $"
                                           =.2$J#$J:&GBJKJ&:$HL$
                                               <J:&GBJKJ&#?



                                               !"#$%&'()*
                          !"#$                                     +,,-./0123*4,-5,/


              %678'&$96:&;$<=>%?                    !"



            Comments:

                  ad 1.: define the source path (table as source domain, field name
Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
                  as relationship, field value as instance)
Limitations
        • Problem:
         • mapping might fail because there is no
                        “obvious” entity to map to
                 • unclear how to close mapping chain
           • Solution:
            • application context specific functions with
                        hardwired chains for given entities

Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Discussion



Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Discussion
           • Problem 1:
            • could be resolved by providing precise
                        technical specifications
           • Problem 2:
            • users will always map differently against a
                        global ontology; guidelines can only reduce but
                        not completely resolve ambiguities

Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Discussion

           • Problem 3:
            • “remembering” mapping chains = introducing
                        an application-specific model
                 • why not use this model instead of the CRM?

Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
Discussion
       • Why not map directly in a P2P manner?
                                                                                                equivalent            equivalent



                                                      !&,?@;                   A&589-                          !"#$%&'&(                7&589-
                         .!#$%&'()*$+(*,-,*,




                                                                                                                                                    !"#$%&'()*$+(*,-,*,
                                                    )*+&,-./$&                  'B%&1                          )*+&,-./$&              :#$&121

                                                   012"34&1523              ;&<2#5<"-52<                      012"34&1523            ;&<2#5<"-52<

                                                  415#"1/6"-&15"%               65<-                         415#"1/6"-&15"%             65<-

                                                )*=&1>&C3&>,15$-52<      '&=&1>&C3&>,15$-52<                     )*=&1>&               '&=&1>&

                                               6&-923)(6"<B(",-B1&               DDD                             ;2<21                 ;2<21'&(



                                                               !/<-",-5,"%%/E"<3E>&#"<-5,"%%/E&FB5="%&<-              !&#"<-5,"%%/E&FB5="%&<-

                                                                                               G2E&FB5="%&<,&>


Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009

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CIDOC CRM in Practice

  • 1. CIDOC CRM in Practice - Experiences, Problems, and Possible Solutions - Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 2. Background • BRICKS Project (2003 - 2007) • Goal • build an infrastructure for integrating contents and metadata from heterogeneous sources • build value added services on top Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 3. Background • Build an application that provides access to archaeological findings from two distinct institutions • Provided advanced search (e.g. faceted search) • Use the CIDOC-CRM to deal with metadata heterogeneities Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 4. Background Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 5. CIDOC CRM Mapping • Metadata Schemes: !&,?@; A&589- !"#$%&'&( 7&589- .!#$%&'()*$+(*,-,*, !"#$%&'()*$+(*,-,*, )*+&,-./$& 'B%&1 )*+&,-./$& :#$&121 012"34&1523 ;&<2#5<"-52< 012"34&1523 ;&<2#5<"-52< 415#"1/6"-&15"% 65<- 415#"1/6"-&15"% 65<- )*=&1>&C3&>,15$-52< '&=&1>&C3&>,15$-52< )*=&1>& '&=&1>& 6&-923)(6"<B(",-B1& DDD ;2<21 ;2<21'&( !/<-",-5,"%%/E"<3E>&#"<-5,"%%/E&FB5="%&<- !&#"<-5,"%%/E&FB5="%&<- G2E&FB5="%&<,&> Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 6. CIDOC CRM Mapping • Sample Metadata Instance: !"#$%&'( !"#$%& !""#$%&'()*+"#,"% '()"#*+,-" '-./ '()"#*&".#/0-*012 0-12/34-563789 3"045* (:#%34 6/078/,98*"/08: ;-56 9"*51;'<982=<> <=>?@A3->3789 >>> ::: Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 7. CIDOC CRM Mapping • The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ernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 8. CIDOC CRM Mapping • Source Metadata Expressed in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ernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 9. CIDOC CRM Mapping • Mappings expressed as mapping chains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ernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 10. Problems encountered Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 11. Problem 1: Lifting and Normalisation • How to technically represent metadata in terms of the CRM? • RDFS / OWL model exists • lack essential features (e.g. properties for literals) • require application-specific extensions Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 12. Problem 2: Mapping Ambiguity • Different valid representations for the same attributes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ernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 13. Problem 3: Processing and Visualisation • The human / machine must “remember” the meaning of mapping chains in order to retrieve information • E22-P2-E55 = the object type • E22-invP108-P16-E29-P1-E41 = manufacture method Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 14. Possible solutions Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 15. A Simple Approach to (partially) solve Problem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ernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 16. Generic Approach to solve Problems I+II+III • Methodology to create consistent mappings to the CRM • Step 1: Lifting the data source-specific data model (e.g., relational model, XML) to the level of CIDOC CRM • Step 2: Map the lifted model to the CRM using specific mapping guidelines (mapping “algorithm”) Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 17. (1) Lifting & Normalisation • Lift a relational model to the CRM via an intermediate semantic model "'4C"0"?A /*$-&/'(")*+, /*$-&/'0*/1 /*$-&/'$*,-& !LMM0A.% A.()0CDE)2*& !L8M0CDE)2*0'()%*$+$),& G8;0$/0$()%*$+$)(0 5'&( DN0!$()%*$+$)/& 566789:";<4=67>69 1)B.%*$20A#()@ !"#$%&'(")*+, !"#$%&'0*/1 !"#$%&'$*,-& !"#$%& !'()%*$+$),& -./01)23'4 566789:";<4=67>69 0%%+&12%")($3") 0%%+&12%")4$#2")$,) $,)-+'-"+%/ "(%&%/)&(,%$(*" !"#$%&'()*'++",-'(.,) !"#$ ?)@.*$#%.@0A#()@ %')"(%&%/ 1)23'4 566789:";<4=67>69 CDE)2*4)/2,$F*$#% ?#B.%0I#@(0.J,)J/ G),$#(H,#B ?#B.% >,#.(G),$#( ?#B.% ... KKK Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 18. (2) Reducing Mapping Ambiguity • Mapping Methodology (Principles): • start from the lifted semantic model • find most specific CRM entities for source domain and target range • determine the shortest possible path between these entities Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 19. Mapping Start p := next property of P “Algorithm” E := set of source domain entities mapping chain c := ∅ eend = findTargetRange(p) all entities of End yes E iterated? add eend to c no e := next entity of E x := eend estart := findTarget Domain(e) no isA(estart, x)? yes e := instanceOf(estart) invert c no P : = Set of cl = findChainLink properties p where yes (estart, x) estart := x getDomain(p) = e add cl to c all properties of P iterated? x := first element of cl Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 20. Mapping Example @"8A&B$96:&;$<1)*C1$1D9? %" #" EFF$9"G 9":&$CHI&'B E.F$):&GBJKJ&8 $" =.2$J#$J:&GBJKJ&:$HL$ <J:&GBJKJ&#? !"#$%&'()* !"#$ +,,-./0123*4,-5,/ %678'&$96:&;$<=>%? !" Comments: ad 1.: define the source path (table as source domain, field name Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009 as relationship, field value as instance)
  • 21. Limitations • Problem: • mapping might fail because there is no “obvious” entity to map to • unclear how to close mapping chain • Solution: • application context specific functions with hardwired chains for given entities Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 22. Discussion Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 23. Discussion • Problem 1: • could be resolved by providing precise technical specifications • Problem 2: • users will always map differently against a global ontology; guidelines can only reduce but not completely resolve ambiguities Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 24. Discussion • Problem 3: • “remembering” mapping chains = introducing an application-specific model • why not use this model instead of the CRM? Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009
  • 25. Discussion • Why not map directly in a P2P manner? equivalent equivalent !&,?@; A&589- !"#$%&'&( 7&589- .!#$%&'()*$+(*,-,*, !"#$%&'()*$+(*,-,*, )*+&,-./$& 'B%&1 )*+&,-./$& :#$&121 012"34&1523 ;&<2#5<"-52< 012"34&1523 ;&<2#5<"-52< 415#"1/6"-&15"% 65<- 415#"1/6"-&15"% 65<- )*=&1>&C3&>,15$-52< '&=&1>&C3&>,15$-52< )*=&1>& '&=&1>& 6&-923)(6"<B(",-B1& DDD ;2<21 ;2<21'&( !/<-",-5,"%%/E"<3E>&#"<-5,"%%/E&FB5="%&<- !&#"<-5,"%%/E&FB5="%&<- G2E&FB5="%&<,&> Bernhard Haslhofer & Philipp Nussbaumer, November 2009