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Clinics of Oncology
ISSN: 2640-1037
Case Presentation
Cavernous Sinus Metastasis of Leiomyosarcoma with Orbital
Extension along the Third Nerve, Mimicking Cavernous Sinus
Meningioma
Muhammad S*
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Helsinki, Topeliuksenkatu 5, Helsinki, P.O. Box 266 FI-00029 HUS, Finland
2. Keywords
Leiomyosarcoma; Metastasis;
Cavernous sinus; Orbital
1. Abstract
Background: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) metastasis in the central nervous system is extremely
rare. Metastatic LMSs have been described in the orbit, meninges, and skull base, however there
are no reports of LMS metastasis into the cavernous sinuswith primary origin from lower extrem-
ity and long silent disease period of 7 years.
Case presentation: We present a case of a 75-year-old woman with complaints of diplopia
for three months. An MRI scan revealed a contrast-enhancing lesion in the cavernous sinus,
extending along the third nerve through the left superior orbital fissure. In 2011, the patient was
diagnosed with and treated for a leiomyosarcoma of the left lower limb. The lesion mimicked a
meningioma in the MRI scan; intraoperatively, it appeared as a schwannoma of the third nerve.
The tumor was biopsied and partially resected, and the third nerve was decompressed. Radio
surgical treatment was recommended for the remaining tumor. We use an instructional intraop-
erative video to demonstrate the radiological and intraoperative aspects of LMS metastasis.
Conclusion:LMS can metastasize to the cavernous sinus, leading to varying degrees of oph-
thalmoplegia. Radio logically, metastatic LMS mimics a meningioma; intraoperatively, it mimics
a schwannoma.
3. Introduction
The metastasis of primary lung, breast and skin cancers is most
commonly detected in the brain. Other peripheral tumors, in-
cluding those from the gastrointestinal and urogenital tract,
rarely metastasize in the brain. Similarly, leiomyosarcoma (LMS)
metastasis in the central nervous system is extremely rare[1-8].
Although metastatic LMSs have been described in the orbit, me-
ninges and skull base[1-14], they have not been reported from the
lower extremity in the cavernous sinus. There are several reports
of LMSs in the cavernous sinus, however they were not distant
metastases – the LMS originated from vascular smooth muscles
in the cavernous sinus[8,10,13,15,16]. Here, we report the first
case of cavernous sinus LMS metastasis extending through the
superior orbital fissure along the third nerve, appearing radio
logically as a cavernous sinus meningioma and intraoperatively
as a schwannoma of the third nerve.
4. Case Report
A 75-year-old woman presented with third nerve palsy, expe-
riencing diplopia for three months. Upon examination, the pa-
tient was alert and oriented. Visual field was intact, and pupil
size was normal and reactive to light. The patient’s hearing and
facial nerve function were normal. In 2011, the patient received
surgical treatment of the leiomyosarcoma on her left lower leg.
An MRI scan revealed a contrast-enhancing space-occupying le-
sion in the left wall of the cavernous sinus, extending through
the superior orbital fissure along the third nerve (Figure 1 A-E).
No other pathology in the supra or infra-tentorial regions was
observed.
*Corresponding Author (s): Sajjad Muhammad, Department of Neurosurgery, Univer-
sity Hospital Helsinki, Topeliuksenkatu 5, Helsinki, P.O. Box 266, FI-00029 HUS, Fin-
land, Tel: 35503757488; Fax +358 9 471 87560; E-mail:ext-sajjad.muhammad@hus.fi
clinicsofoncology.com
Citation: ZMuhammad S, Cavernous Sinus Metastasis of Leiomyosarcoma with Orbital Extension along the
Third Nerve, Mimicking Cavernous Sinus Meningioma. Clinics of Oncology. 2019; 1(7):1-3.
Volume 2 Issue 1- 2019
Received Date: 18 Apr 2019
Accepted Date: 18 May2019
Published Date: 25 May 2019
Volume2 Issue 1 -2019 Case Presentation
5. Results
Surgical tumor removal and operative findings
Surgery was performed while the patient was in prone position.
A lateral supraorbital approach was used, with an OPMI PENTE-
RO 900 microscope (Carl-Zeiz, Germany). The optic cistern was
opened to release CSF. The tumor was tightly attached to the third
nerve and extended through the superior orbital fissure, mimick-
ing a schwannoma of the third nerve (Figure 2 A, B, C and video
1). A biopsy was taken and the tumor was partially removed us-
ing standard microsurgical techniques. The third nerve was de-
compressed (Figure 2D and video 1). The tumor extending to the
cavernous sinus was not removed, but treated with stereotactic
radiosurgery.
Figure 1: MRI scans showing tumor location and radiological anatomy.
Figure 2: Intraoperative images showing intraoperative surgical anatomy and
the steps of surgery, including tumor removal.
Video 1: Demonstration of partial tumor resection, biopsy and third nerve de-
compression.
Post-operative outcome
The post-operative examination results did not indicate any
changes in the patient. No new neurological deficits were ob-
served. A four-week follow-up examination revealed that the pa-
tient still experienced ophthalmoplegia of the left eye.
6. Discussion
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of LMS originat-
ing from the left lower limb that has metastasized to the cavern-
ous sinus after such a long silent period of seven years of initial
diagnosis. The LMS extended through the superior orbital fissure
along the third nerve, causing unilateral ophthalmoplegia. The
metastasis mimicked meningioma on the radiological images, as
it showed a homogeneous contrast enhancement and dural en-
hancement (Figure 1). It is difficult to differentiate an intracranial
LMS – either primary or secondary metastasis – from a menin-
gioma with radiological tools[6,10]. Thus, LMS diagnosis is con-
firmed with histological tools such as immunostaining[11]. We
performed surgery with the goal of obtaining a biopsy sample and
decompressing the third nerve. Intraoperatively, we found that
the lesion was tightly attached to the third nerve, which is where it
appeared to originate from. The tumor mimicked a schwannoma
of the oculomotor nerve (video 1). The biopsy results confirmed
this was metastatic LMS, opposed to meningioma or schwanno-
ma. There is no standard evidence-based treatment of metastatic
LMS. Complete resection is the recommended/preferred treat-
ment in brain metastases, but extensive resection of tumors in the
cavernous sinus and orbital apex is highly risky as it can increase
morbidity. Hence, considering the age and other comorbidities
of the patient, we opted to biopsy the tumor and decompress
the third nerve along the superior orbital fissure. Radiosurgery
was planned for the remaining tumor, as this treatment has been
shown to be the best option for partially resected tumors. The
prognosis of both primary and secondary LMS is poor. The me-
dian survival of patients with metastases in the cavernous sinus
is reportedly 2-12 months[4]. However, data on the prognosis of
LMS metastasis in the cavernous sinus is lacking due to the rarity
of this condition.
7. Conclusion
LMS can metastasize to the cavernous sinus, leading to ophthal-
moplegia of varying degrees. Metastatic LMS appears radio logi-
cally as a meningioma and intraoperatively as a schwannoma.
8. Funding
We are thankful to the Ehrnrooth Foundation for providing fund-
ing to SM for a clinical vascular and skull base fellowship at the
Department of Neurosurgery at the University Helsinki.
Copyright ©2019 Muhammad S al This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon yourwork non-commercially. 2
Volume2 Issue 1 -2019 Case Presentation
Reference
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Cavernous Sinus Metastasis of Leiomyosarcoma with Orbital Extension along the Third Nerve, Mimicking Cavernous Sinus Meningioma

  • 1. Clinics of Oncology ISSN: 2640-1037 Case Presentation Cavernous Sinus Metastasis of Leiomyosarcoma with Orbital Extension along the Third Nerve, Mimicking Cavernous Sinus Meningioma Muhammad S* Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Helsinki, Topeliuksenkatu 5, Helsinki, P.O. Box 266 FI-00029 HUS, Finland 2. Keywords Leiomyosarcoma; Metastasis; Cavernous sinus; Orbital 1. Abstract Background: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) metastasis in the central nervous system is extremely rare. Metastatic LMSs have been described in the orbit, meninges, and skull base, however there are no reports of LMS metastasis into the cavernous sinuswith primary origin from lower extrem- ity and long silent disease period of 7 years. Case presentation: We present a case of a 75-year-old woman with complaints of diplopia for three months. An MRI scan revealed a contrast-enhancing lesion in the cavernous sinus, extending along the third nerve through the left superior orbital fissure. In 2011, the patient was diagnosed with and treated for a leiomyosarcoma of the left lower limb. The lesion mimicked a meningioma in the MRI scan; intraoperatively, it appeared as a schwannoma of the third nerve. The tumor was biopsied and partially resected, and the third nerve was decompressed. Radio surgical treatment was recommended for the remaining tumor. We use an instructional intraop- erative video to demonstrate the radiological and intraoperative aspects of LMS metastasis. Conclusion:LMS can metastasize to the cavernous sinus, leading to varying degrees of oph- thalmoplegia. Radio logically, metastatic LMS mimics a meningioma; intraoperatively, it mimics a schwannoma. 3. Introduction The metastasis of primary lung, breast and skin cancers is most commonly detected in the brain. Other peripheral tumors, in- cluding those from the gastrointestinal and urogenital tract, rarely metastasize in the brain. Similarly, leiomyosarcoma (LMS) metastasis in the central nervous system is extremely rare[1-8]. Although metastatic LMSs have been described in the orbit, me- ninges and skull base[1-14], they have not been reported from the lower extremity in the cavernous sinus. There are several reports of LMSs in the cavernous sinus, however they were not distant metastases – the LMS originated from vascular smooth muscles in the cavernous sinus[8,10,13,15,16]. Here, we report the first case of cavernous sinus LMS metastasis extending through the superior orbital fissure along the third nerve, appearing radio logically as a cavernous sinus meningioma and intraoperatively as a schwannoma of the third nerve. 4. Case Report A 75-year-old woman presented with third nerve palsy, expe- riencing diplopia for three months. Upon examination, the pa- tient was alert and oriented. Visual field was intact, and pupil size was normal and reactive to light. The patient’s hearing and facial nerve function were normal. In 2011, the patient received surgical treatment of the leiomyosarcoma on her left lower leg. An MRI scan revealed a contrast-enhancing space-occupying le- sion in the left wall of the cavernous sinus, extending through the superior orbital fissure along the third nerve (Figure 1 A-E). No other pathology in the supra or infra-tentorial regions was observed. *Corresponding Author (s): Sajjad Muhammad, Department of Neurosurgery, Univer- sity Hospital Helsinki, Topeliuksenkatu 5, Helsinki, P.O. Box 266, FI-00029 HUS, Fin- land, Tel: 35503757488; Fax +358 9 471 87560; E-mail:ext-sajjad.muhammad@hus.fi clinicsofoncology.com Citation: ZMuhammad S, Cavernous Sinus Metastasis of Leiomyosarcoma with Orbital Extension along the Third Nerve, Mimicking Cavernous Sinus Meningioma. Clinics of Oncology. 2019; 1(7):1-3. Volume 2 Issue 1- 2019 Received Date: 18 Apr 2019 Accepted Date: 18 May2019 Published Date: 25 May 2019
  • 2. Volume2 Issue 1 -2019 Case Presentation 5. Results Surgical tumor removal and operative findings Surgery was performed while the patient was in prone position. A lateral supraorbital approach was used, with an OPMI PENTE- RO 900 microscope (Carl-Zeiz, Germany). The optic cistern was opened to release CSF. The tumor was tightly attached to the third nerve and extended through the superior orbital fissure, mimick- ing a schwannoma of the third nerve (Figure 2 A, B, C and video 1). A biopsy was taken and the tumor was partially removed us- ing standard microsurgical techniques. The third nerve was de- compressed (Figure 2D and video 1). The tumor extending to the cavernous sinus was not removed, but treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. Figure 1: MRI scans showing tumor location and radiological anatomy. Figure 2: Intraoperative images showing intraoperative surgical anatomy and the steps of surgery, including tumor removal. Video 1: Demonstration of partial tumor resection, biopsy and third nerve de- compression. Post-operative outcome The post-operative examination results did not indicate any changes in the patient. No new neurological deficits were ob- served. A four-week follow-up examination revealed that the pa- tient still experienced ophthalmoplegia of the left eye. 6. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of LMS originat- ing from the left lower limb that has metastasized to the cavern- ous sinus after such a long silent period of seven years of initial diagnosis. The LMS extended through the superior orbital fissure along the third nerve, causing unilateral ophthalmoplegia. The metastasis mimicked meningioma on the radiological images, as it showed a homogeneous contrast enhancement and dural en- hancement (Figure 1). It is difficult to differentiate an intracranial LMS – either primary or secondary metastasis – from a menin- gioma with radiological tools[6,10]. Thus, LMS diagnosis is con- firmed with histological tools such as immunostaining[11]. We performed surgery with the goal of obtaining a biopsy sample and decompressing the third nerve. Intraoperatively, we found that the lesion was tightly attached to the third nerve, which is where it appeared to originate from. The tumor mimicked a schwannoma of the oculomotor nerve (video 1). The biopsy results confirmed this was metastatic LMS, opposed to meningioma or schwanno- ma. There is no standard evidence-based treatment of metastatic LMS. Complete resection is the recommended/preferred treat- ment in brain metastases, but extensive resection of tumors in the cavernous sinus and orbital apex is highly risky as it can increase morbidity. Hence, considering the age and other comorbidities of the patient, we opted to biopsy the tumor and decompress the third nerve along the superior orbital fissure. Radiosurgery was planned for the remaining tumor, as this treatment has been shown to be the best option for partially resected tumors. The prognosis of both primary and secondary LMS is poor. The me- dian survival of patients with metastases in the cavernous sinus is reportedly 2-12 months[4]. However, data on the prognosis of LMS metastasis in the cavernous sinus is lacking due to the rarity of this condition. 7. Conclusion LMS can metastasize to the cavernous sinus, leading to ophthal- moplegia of varying degrees. Metastatic LMS appears radio logi- cally as a meningioma and intraoperatively as a schwannoma. 8. Funding We are thankful to the Ehrnrooth Foundation for providing fund- ing to SM for a clinical vascular and skull base fellowship at the Department of Neurosurgery at the University Helsinki. Copyright ©2019 Muhammad S al This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon yourwork non-commercially. 2
  • 3. Volume2 Issue 1 -2019 Case Presentation Reference 1. Chen J, Wei R, Ma X. Orbital metastasis of retroperitoneal leiomyosar- coma. Med Oncol. 2011;29(1):392-395. 2. Chew YK, Noorizan Y, Khir A, Brito-Mutunayagam S. Leiomyosar- coma of the maxillary sinus. Med J Malaysia. 2009;64(2):174-175. 3. Conlon MR, Rubin PA, Samy CN, Albert DM. Metastatic orbit- al leiomyosarcoma: a clinicopathological study. Can J Ophthalmol. 1994;29(2):85-89. 4. Damiens K, Ayoub JP,Lemieux B, Aubin F,Saliba W,Campeau MP,et al. Clinical features and course of brain metastases in colorectal cancer: an experience froma single institution. CurrOncol. 2012;19(5):254-258. 5. Guerriero S, Sborgia A, Giancipoli G, Fiore MG, Ross R, Piscitelli D. A rare case of primitive epithelioid leiomyosarcoma of the conjunctiva. Orbit. 2011;30(3):169-171. 6. Haykal HA, Wang AM, Zamani A. Leiomyosarcoma metastatic to the brain: CT features and review. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1987;8(5):911- 912. 7. Hou LC, Murphy MA, Tung GA. Primary orbital leiomyosarcoma: a case report with MRI findings. AmJ Ophthalmol. 2003;135(3):408-410. 8. Hussain S, Nanda A, Fowler M, Ampil FL, Burton GV. Primary in- tracranial leiomyosarcoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Sarcoma. 2006;2006:52140. 9. Kim YH, Park IK, Min GE, Jin KH, Shin JH. A Case of Orbital Metas- tasis of Uterine Leiomyosarcoma With Intracranial Extension Presenting With Proptosis. Ophthalmic PlastReconstr Surg. 2014;32(3):e51-52. 10. Lerdlum S, Lalitanantpong S, Numkarunarunrote N, Chaowanapanja P,Suankratay C, Shuangshoti S. MR imaging of CNS leiomyosarcoma in AIDS patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004;87 Suppl 2:S152-160. 11. Logrono R, Inhorn SL, Dortzbach RK, Kurtycz DF. Leiomyosarcoma metastatic to the orbit: diagnosis of fine-needle aspiration. DiagnCyto- pathol. 1997;17(5):369-373. 12. Minkovitz JB, Dickersin GR, Dallow RL, Albert DM. Leiomyosarco- ma metastatic to the orbit. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108(11):1525-1526. 13. Ritter AM, Amaker BH, Graham RS, Broaddus WC, WardJD. Central nervous system leiomyosarcoma in patients with acquired immunodefi- ciencysyndrome. Report oftwo cases.JNeurosurg. 2000;92(4):688-692. 14. Su GW, Hong SH. Leiomyosarcoma of the uterus with sphenoid bone and orbital metastases. Ophthalmic PlastReconstr Surg. 2007;23(5):428- 430. 15. Tahri A, Noel G, Figuerella-Branger D, Goncalves A,Feuvret L, Jauf- fret E, et al. Epstein-Barr virus associated central nervous system leio- myosarcoma occurring after renal transplantation: case report and re- view of the literature. Cancer Radiother. 2003;7(5):308-313. 16. Zevallos-Giampietri EA, Yanes HH, OrregoPuelles J, Barrionuevo C. Primary meningeal Epstein-Barr virus-related leiomyosarcoma in a man infected with human immunodeficiency virus: review of literature, emphasizing the differential diagnosis and pathogenesis. ApplImmuno- histochemMolMorphol. 2004;12(4):387-391. clinicsofoncology.com 3