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Clinics of Oncology
ISSN: 2640-1037
Short Communication
Higher Rates of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Gastric Intestinal
Metaplasia in the Asian Population in the United States
Yize R. Wang*, and Christie L. Mannino
Cooper Digestive Health Institute, Cooper Medical School of Rowan Univeristy, 501 Fellowship Road, Suite 101 Mt Laurel, NJ 08054,
USA
Volume 1 Issue 9- 2019
Received Date: 01 Dec 2019
Accepted Date: 15 Dec 2019
Published Date: 22 Dec 2019
1. Short communication
The rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is higher in minority patients in the United
States [1]. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is associated with H. pylori infection and carries an
increased risk for gastric cancer over time, in particular for patients from regions of high gastric
cancer incidence [2]. We aimed to compare the rates of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric
intestinal metaplasia in Asian vs. non-Hispanic White (hereafter White) patients at our institution.
*Corresponding Author (s): Yize R Wang, Cooper Digestive Health Institute, Cooper Medical
School of Rowan Univeristy, 501 Fellowship Road, Suite 101 Mt Laurel, NJ 08054, USA,
E-mail: wang-yize@cooperhealth.edu
clinicsofoncology.com Citation: Wang YR, Higher Rates of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Gastric Intestinal
Metaplasia in the Asian Population in the United States. Clinics of Oncology. 2019; 1(9): 1-2.
2. Data and Methods
After Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospecitive chart
review was performed on Asian and White patients who underwent
diagnostic EGD with random stomach biopsies (antrum, body,
and incisura) performed by the same endoscopist (Yize R. Wang)
during the 6-month study period of July 1, 2013 to December 31,
2013. Patients of the other races were excluded from the study.
Endoscopy and pathology reports were used to identify the
presence of peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori infection, and gastric
IM. Other variables of interest included patient age and sex. The
Student’s t-test, chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression
were used in statistical analysis.
3. Results
Our study sample included 60 Asian patients (35 Korean, 11
Vietnamese, 10 Chinese, and 4 other Asian) and 67 White patients
(Table 1). Compared with White patients, Asian patients were
older (mean age [standard deviation]: Asian 56.5 [15.4], White
49.6 [17.1], p<0.05) and similar in percentage of female (Asian
65.0%, White 68.7%). The presence of peptic ulcer disease was
similar between Asian and White patients (Asian 13.3%, White
10.4%). The rates of H. pylori infection and gastric IM were higher
in Asian patients compared to White patients (H. pylori infection:
Asian 20.0%, White 6.0%, p<0.05; gastric IM: Asian 40.0%, White
13.4%, p<0.001) (Figures 1 and 2).
Multivariate logistic regression controlling for patient age and sex
confirmed Asian patients’ higher risks of H. pylori infection (odds
ratio 3.96, 95% confidence interval 1.17-13.4) and gastric IM (odds
ratio 3.93, 95% confidence interval 1.62-9.52).
  Asain White
N 60 67
Age (SD) 56.5 (15.4) 49.6 (17.7)*
Female, % 65.o 68.7
Peptic Ulcer, % 13.3 10.4
Table 1. Asian and White patient characteristics.
Figure 1. Differences in H pylori infection rate (p<0.05).
4. Conclusions
The rates of H. pylori infection and gastric IM in Asian patients
were similarly four times as high as those in White patients,
suggestive of the role of (prior or active) H. pylori infection in
gastric IM. Interestingly, both the rate of H pylori infection and the
rate of gastric intestinal metaplasia were similarly four times higher
in Asian patients compared to White patients, indicative of the role
of H pylori infection in gastric intestinal metaplasia pathogenesis.
Our study is limited by the retrospective study design, with
unknown immigrant status and history of H pylori infection.
Although most of the Asian patients in out study are likely
immigrants to the United States, we could not ascertain what
proportion of White patients are immigrants. Secondly, we do
not have long-term follow up on gastric dysplasia and cancer risks
associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia in these patients, due
to the cross-sectional study nature. Future study to follow these
patients over time will shed light on the long-term risks of gastric
dysplasia associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia and help
assess the utility of surveillance upper endoscopy over time [3].
References
1. Grad YH, Lipsitch M, Aiello AE. Secular trends in Helicobacter pylori
seroprevalence in adults in the United States: evidence for sustained race/
ethnic disparities. Am J Epidemiol. 2012; 175: 54-9.
2. Leung WK, Lin SR, Ching JY. Factors predicting progression of gastric
intestinal metaplasia: results of a randomised trial on Helicobacter pylori
eradication. Gut. 2004; 53: 1244-9.
Figure 2. Differences in gastric intestinal metaplasia (p<0.001).
Volume 1 Issue 9 -2019 Short Communication
Copyright ©2019 Wang YR et al This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
3. O’Connor A, McNamara D, O’Moráin CA. Surveillance of gastric
intestinal metaplasia for the prevention of gastric cancer. Cochrane
Systematic Review 23 September. 2013.

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Higher Rates of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia in the Asian Population in the United States

  • 1. Clinics of Oncology ISSN: 2640-1037 Short Communication Higher Rates of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia in the Asian Population in the United States Yize R. Wang*, and Christie L. Mannino Cooper Digestive Health Institute, Cooper Medical School of Rowan Univeristy, 501 Fellowship Road, Suite 101 Mt Laurel, NJ 08054, USA Volume 1 Issue 9- 2019 Received Date: 01 Dec 2019 Accepted Date: 15 Dec 2019 Published Date: 22 Dec 2019 1. Short communication The rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is higher in minority patients in the United States [1]. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is associated with H. pylori infection and carries an increased risk for gastric cancer over time, in particular for patients from regions of high gastric cancer incidence [2]. We aimed to compare the rates of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric intestinal metaplasia in Asian vs. non-Hispanic White (hereafter White) patients at our institution. *Corresponding Author (s): Yize R Wang, Cooper Digestive Health Institute, Cooper Medical School of Rowan Univeristy, 501 Fellowship Road, Suite 101 Mt Laurel, NJ 08054, USA, E-mail: wang-yize@cooperhealth.edu clinicsofoncology.com Citation: Wang YR, Higher Rates of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia in the Asian Population in the United States. Clinics of Oncology. 2019; 1(9): 1-2. 2. Data and Methods After Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospecitive chart review was performed on Asian and White patients who underwent diagnostic EGD with random stomach biopsies (antrum, body, and incisura) performed by the same endoscopist (Yize R. Wang) during the 6-month study period of July 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. Patients of the other races were excluded from the study. Endoscopy and pathology reports were used to identify the presence of peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori infection, and gastric IM. Other variables of interest included patient age and sex. The Student’s t-test, chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. 3. Results Our study sample included 60 Asian patients (35 Korean, 11 Vietnamese, 10 Chinese, and 4 other Asian) and 67 White patients (Table 1). Compared with White patients, Asian patients were older (mean age [standard deviation]: Asian 56.5 [15.4], White 49.6 [17.1], p<0.05) and similar in percentage of female (Asian 65.0%, White 68.7%). The presence of peptic ulcer disease was similar between Asian and White patients (Asian 13.3%, White 10.4%). The rates of H. pylori infection and gastric IM were higher in Asian patients compared to White patients (H. pylori infection: Asian 20.0%, White 6.0%, p<0.05; gastric IM: Asian 40.0%, White 13.4%, p<0.001) (Figures 1 and 2). Multivariate logistic regression controlling for patient age and sex confirmed Asian patients’ higher risks of H. pylori infection (odds ratio 3.96, 95% confidence interval 1.17-13.4) and gastric IM (odds ratio 3.93, 95% confidence interval 1.62-9.52).   Asain White N 60 67 Age (SD) 56.5 (15.4) 49.6 (17.7)* Female, % 65.o 68.7 Peptic Ulcer, % 13.3 10.4 Table 1. Asian and White patient characteristics. Figure 1. Differences in H pylori infection rate (p<0.05).
  • 2. 4. Conclusions The rates of H. pylori infection and gastric IM in Asian patients were similarly four times as high as those in White patients, suggestive of the role of (prior or active) H. pylori infection in gastric IM. Interestingly, both the rate of H pylori infection and the rate of gastric intestinal metaplasia were similarly four times higher in Asian patients compared to White patients, indicative of the role of H pylori infection in gastric intestinal metaplasia pathogenesis. Our study is limited by the retrospective study design, with unknown immigrant status and history of H pylori infection. Although most of the Asian patients in out study are likely immigrants to the United States, we could not ascertain what proportion of White patients are immigrants. Secondly, we do not have long-term follow up on gastric dysplasia and cancer risks associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia in these patients, due to the cross-sectional study nature. Future study to follow these patients over time will shed light on the long-term risks of gastric dysplasia associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia and help assess the utility of surveillance upper endoscopy over time [3]. References 1. Grad YH, Lipsitch M, Aiello AE. Secular trends in Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence in adults in the United States: evidence for sustained race/ ethnic disparities. Am J Epidemiol. 2012; 175: 54-9. 2. Leung WK, Lin SR, Ching JY. Factors predicting progression of gastric intestinal metaplasia: results of a randomised trial on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Gut. 2004; 53: 1244-9. Figure 2. Differences in gastric intestinal metaplasia (p<0.001). Volume 1 Issue 9 -2019 Short Communication Copyright ©2019 Wang YR et al This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially. 3. O’Connor A, McNamara D, O’Moráin CA. Surveillance of gastric intestinal metaplasia for the prevention of gastric cancer. Cochrane Systematic Review 23 September. 2013.