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Racial Differences in Accepting Pegfilgrastim Onpro Kit (On-
Body Injector) Use Among Cancer Patients
Saif MW1*
, Hackenyos DW2
, Smith MH2
, Healey P2
, Relias V2
and Wasif K3
1
Northwell Health Cancer Institute, Lake Success, NY, USA
2
Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
3
Simmons University, Boston, MA, USA
Volume 1 Issue 6- 2019
Received Date: 12 Feb 2019
Accepted Date: 22 Feb 2019
Published Date: 25 Feb 2019
1. Abstract
1.1. Background: Neulasta Onpro kit eliminates need for additional clinic visit after chemother-
apy. Given the racially diverse population in our institution, we investigated acceptance of Onpro
kit among patients on chemotherapy.
1.2. Research Design and Methods: Single-institution, retrospective review conducted in patients
with GI tumors who received Onpro kit within 1 hour of completion of systemic chemotherapy
from Jan 2014 through Jan 2018. Clinic/nursing notes and pharmacy records were reviewed to
identify patients who refused Onpro kit and to discern reasons for refusal, including racial reason.
1.3. Results: Total 238 orders for kit were voided amongst 68 patients (Caucasian 41; African
American 7; Spanish 3; Asian 17). Overall, 15/68 patients refused kit (22%) of these 87% were
Asian. The reasons for refusal included dislike of bulky attachment to skin, request to place kit on
stomach instead of arm, trepidation over unwitnessed administration of drug, fear of reaction, dis-
posal at home, fear of pain, lack of confirmation of proper dose administration, and need for MRI.
1.4. Conclusions: While Onpro kit is an attractive alternative, 22% of patients with voided orders,
mainly of Asian race, declined its application. We believe the current study represents the first look
at important racial differences in accepting Onpro kit. Consideration of patients’ cultural heritage,
race, ethnicity and education may facilitate communication between physicians and patients to
achieve optimal cancer care.
Clinics of Oncology
Citation:Saif MW, Hackenyos DW, Smith MH, Healey P, Relias V and Wasif K, Racial Differences in
Accepting Pegfilgrastim Onpro Kit (On-Body Injector) Use Among Cancer Patients. Clinics of Oncology.
2019; 1(6): 1-4.
United Prime Publications: http://unitedprimepub.com
*Corresponding Author (s): M. Wasif Saif, MD, MBBS, Deputy Physician-in-Chief and
Director of Medical Oncology, Northwell Health Cancer Institute, 1111 Marcus Avenue,
Lake Success, NY 11042, USA, Fax: 516-321-2271, Tel: 516-321-2238, E-mail: wsaif@
northwell.edu
Research Article
2. Keywords
Chemotherapy; Pegfilgras-
tim; Neutropenia; Leukope-
nia,; Fever; Side effects
3. Introduction
Neutropenia is a serious adverse complication of myelosuppres-
sive chemotherapy that predisposes patients to life-threatening
infection, hospitalization and delays in treatment. This is associ-
ated with significant mortality as well as increased health-care as-
sociated costs [1]. Chemotherapy induced neutropenia has been
mitigated by advent of granulocyte stimulating factors. The first
of this class of drug to be widely used was filgrastim, a recom-
binant version of endogenous growth factor that stimulates the
proliferation and differentiation of neutrophils. Due to its small
size, filgrastim is rapidly cleared by the kidneys and requires dai-
ly dosing. Pegfilgrastim, a filgrastim molecule linked to a large
polyethylene glycol molecule, is a popular alternative as the large
PEGylated moiety slows renal clearance and requires dosing only
once during a chemotherapy cycle [2]. Per the dosing adminis-
tration instructions, pegfilgrastim should not be given 14 days
before or 24 hours after administration of cytotoxic chemothera-
py. This is largely based on a theoretical risk of paradoxically in-
creasing hematologic toxicity as GCSF is thought to increase the
population of chemotherapy-susceptible granulocyte precursors
[3]. This dosing regimen is cumbersome; often requiring patients
to make additional office visits. In light of this, the dosing of peg-
filgrastim has been made moot through the introduction of the
OnPro® Delivery Kit [4]. This is a device that can be adhered to
the skin on the day of chemotherapy administration and auto-
injects the recipient on the following day, thus eliminating the
need for a return office visit. While this is an attractive alterna-
tive, some patients may hesitate or decline its use either due to
Copyright ©2018 Saif MW et al This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially. 2
a bulky attachment to their skin or having fear of reaction dur-
ing an un-witnessed administration of pegfilgrastim without the
physical supervision of trained medical personnel.
It is a fact that racial and ethnic differences exist in the incidence,
disease course and outcomes of many cancer and non-cancer
conditions. These differences are not only limited to insurance
status, income, age, quality of health services but also ethnic or
religious beliefs or religious limitations, such as Jehovah’s witness
refusing human products [5]. In this era of shared doctor–patient
decision-making, it is crucial to identify and improve patient-
level factors, especially preferences for treatment in order to im-
prove quality of health care [6]. Differences in treatment choices
between African-Americans and whites in medical conditions
such as coronary artery disease, cervical cancer and end-stage
osteoarthritishave been demonstrated in the recent medical lit-
erature [7-9]. Moreover, the reluctance or refusal to accept proven
therapies by minority patients can lead to health disparities [5].
Once these important factors pertinent to racial differences are
identified, we can undertake interventions to address and resolve
such differences in patient decision-making. However, no study
has examined racial/ethnic differences in acceptance of the On-
pro kit among cancer patients.
The primary objective of this study is to determine whether there
are differences between different ethnic cancer patient popula-
tions with respect to their willingness to receive the Onpro kit and
to identify what demographic or psychosocial factors, specifically
race and lack of familiarity with treatment associated with treat-
ment preferences [10].
4. Patients and Methods
A single center, retrospective study was performed of patients
with gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies who received pegfilgras-
tim Onpro kit as an adjunct to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Patients
were treated at the Tufts MedicalCenter Cancer Center from Jan-
uary 2014 through January 2018 and received pegfilgrastim with-
in 1 hour of completion of chemotherapy. The decision to admin-
ister pegfilgrastim was based on standard guidelines (ASCO or
NCCN guidelines). Patients had an average of 4 risk factors for fe-
brile neutropenia: advanced disease, age > 65, gender and chemo-
therapy regimen [11,12]. Moreover, many patients had previously
received other chemotherapywith a limited bone marrow reserve.
Clinic and nursing notes and pharmacy records were obtained
through review of individual electronic medical records. Data
wasreviewed to identify patients who refused Onpro kit and to
discern reasons for refusal. As per our instuitional guidelines
that govern handling of chemotherapy agents and growth factors,
the reasons of refusal were always required to be confirmed by
a staff physician whenever patient declined a growth factor or
a chemotherapy agent in addition to counseling. Such data was
collected and entered into the EMR for any future audit or in-
surance purposes. Discussions surrounding refusal of Onpro kit
administration were also mandated to be reported in the EMR;
e.g. injectionalready prepared but later refused by the patient.
5. Results
5.1. Demographic Features
A total of 238 orders for the Onpro kit were voided amongst 68
patients during this tenure. The median age of patients was 60
years [range 32-87] with 46% of patients ≥ 65 years old. Races in-
cluded Caucasian 41; African American 7; Spanish 3 and Asian
17. The most common malignancies included colorectal (40%),
pancreatic (20%), gastric (20%) and others (10%). Patients re-
ceived a variety of different chemotherapies. The most common
regimens included mFOLFOX6, FOLFIRINOX, FOLFIRI, and
gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel or cisplatin (12%).
5.2. Refusal of Onpro Kit
Overall, 15/68 patients refused the Onpro kit (22%). Among
them, 13/15 were Asian (87%) and 2 were Caucasian (13%). The
reasons for refusal included dislike of bulky attachment to their
skin (n = 5), request to place kit on their stomach and not on
their arm (n = 2), having trepidation over unwitnessed adminis-
tration of drug (n = 1), fear of reaction (n = 2), disposal at home
(n = 2), fear of pain (n = 1), lack of confirmation of proper dose
administration (n = 1), and need to refuse as the patient was
scheduled for a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on that day
(1) as summarized in (Table 1).
Volume 1 Issue 6 -2019 Research Article
Patient Race Explanation for refusal
1 Asian Dislike of bulky attachment to their skin
2 Asian Dislike of bulky attachment to their skin
3 Asian Dislike of bulky attachment to their skin
4 Asian Dislike of bulky attachment to their skin
5 Asian Dislike of bulky attachment to their skin
6 Asian
Request to place kit on their stomach and not on their
arm
7 Asian
Request to place kit on their stomach and not on their
arm
8 Asian
Having trepidation over un-witnessed administration of
drug
9 Asian Fear of reaction
10 Asian Not comfortable with disposal at home
11 Asian Not comfortable with disposal at home
12 Asian Lack of confirmation of proper dose administration
13 Asian Fear of Pain
14 Caucasian
Having trepidation over un-witnessed administration of
drug
15 Caucasian
Need to refuse as the patient was scheduled for a mag-
netic resonance imaging (MRI) on that day
Table 1: Causes of Refusal to Onpro kit in Patients with Different Races
United Prime Publications: http://unitedprimepub.com 3
5.3. Toxicities
There were no episodes of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia or febrile neu-
tropenia among all these patients and related adverse events were
mainly bone pain as expected.
6. Discussion
In 2017, we presented the first study in GI malignancies to report
the current study represents the first study to look at important
ethnic differences in accepting the Onpro kit. This study detected
ethnic differences and supports the importance of cultural factors
in determining therapies chosen, underlying the need to facilitate
communication between physicians and patients and to provide
educational material to the patients to achieve optimal cancer
care.
There has been a constant effort to overcome the challenge of de-
laying administrating pegfilgrastim on the same day of chemo-
therapy but many studies show conflicting results [13-16]. Per the
dosing administration instructions, pegfilgrastim should not be
given 14 days before or 24 hours after administration of cytotoxic
chemotherapy. This is largely based on a theoretical risk of para-
doxically increasing hematologic toxicity as GCSF is thought to
increase the population of chemotherapy-susceptible granulocyte
precursors [3]. This dosing regimen is cumbersome; often requir-
ing patients to make additional office visits. This was a main im-
petus to develop anew formulation, such as the OnPro® Delivery
Kit [4].This is a device that can be adhered to the skin on the day
of chemotherapy administration and auto-injects the recipient on
the following day, thus eliminating the need for a return office
visit. While this is an attractive alternative, our study showed that
over 20% of the patient who would qualify for this device decline
its application for many reasons including the fear of unknown,
not liking a bulky attachment to their skin or having trepidation
over an un-witnessed administration of pegfilgrastim both for
fear of reaction and/or lack of confirmation of proper dose ad-
ministration.
In the current era of medicine, shared doctor–patient decision-
making plays a crucial role in improving the patient-level factors,
such as preferences for treatment, and subsequently can improve
health care quality. As described earlier in the paper, ethnic as
well as racial disparities towards acceptance of therapy is an
under-explored field in both malignant and non-malignant dis-
eases. Our study again supports the fact that in addition to other
factors, reluctance to accept proven treatments by minorities can
contribute to health disparities. Once identified, we must under-
take interventions to address racial/ethnic differences in patient
decision-making.
Our study has limitations.Most notably, the small sample size
and being a single institution retrospective analysis, it may limit
the extrapolation of results to a more diverse patient population.
However, it addresses an important clinical issue that warrants
urgent attention to dissolve the racial disparity in acceptance of
a FDA-approved treatment. Consideration of patients’ cultural
heritage may facilitate communication between physicians and
patients to achieve optimal cancer care. It would be interesting
to look at experience or market share of manufacturer in Asian
countries. Moreover, translated patient brochures and videos
could be very helpful.
7. Conclusions
We believe the current study represents the first study to look
at important racial differences in accepting Neulasta Onpro® kit.
This study detected racial differences and supports importance
of cultural factors in determining therapies chosen, underlying
the need to facilitate communication between physicians and
patients and to provide educational material to the patients to
achieve optimal cancer care.
Reference
1. Kuderer NM, Dale DC and Crawford J. Mortality, morbidity, and cost
associated with febrile neutropenia in adult cancer patients. Cancer.
2006; 106: 2258 – 66.
2. Bhana N. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in the management
of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia: evidence based review. Current
Opinion in Oncology. 2007; 19 : 328 – 35.
3. Meropol NJ, Miller LL and Korn EL. Severed Myelosuppression Re-
sulting From Concurrent Administration of Granulocyte Colony-Stim-
ulating Factor and Cytotoxic Chemotherapy. JNatl Cancer Inst. 1992;
84: 1201 – 3.
4. Yang BB, Morrow PK and Wu X. Comparison of pharmacokinet-
ics and safety of pegfilgrastim administered by two delivery methods:
on-body injector and manual injection with a prefilled syringe. Cancer
ChemotherPharmacol. 2015; 75: 1199 - 1206.
5. Smedley B, Stith A and Nelson A. Unequal treatment: confronting
racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC, USA: Na-
tional Academies Press; 2003.
6. Bowling A and Ebrahim S. Measuring patients’ preferences for treat-
ment and perceptions of risk. Qual Health Care. 2001; 10: i2–8.
7. Sedlis SP, Fisher VJ and Tice D. Racial differences in performance of
invasive cardiac procedures in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medi-
cal Center. J ClinEpidemiol. 1997; 50: 899 – 901.
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8. Mitchell JB and McCormack LA. Time trends in late-stage diagnosis
of cervical cancer. Differences by race/ethnicity and income. Med Care.
1997; 35: 1220 – 4.
9. Suarez-Almazor ME, Souchek J, and Kelly PA. Ethnic variation in
knee replacement: patient preferences or uninformed disparity? Arch
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10. Relias V, Hackenyos DW and Wasif K. Ethnic differences in pegfli-
grastimonpro kit (on-body injector) use among cancer patients. J Cli-
nOncol. 2018; 36: abstr e18668.
11. Smith TJ, Bohlke K and Lyman GH. Recommendations for the Use
of WBC Growth Factors: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clini-
cal Practice Guideline Update. J ClinOncol. 2015; 33: 3199 - 3212.
12. https://www.tri-kobe.org/nccn/guideline/hematologic/english/my-
eloid_growth.pdf. (last assessed March 23, 2018).
13. Matera RM, Relias V and Saif MW. Safety and efficacy of same-day
administration of pegfilgrastim in patients (pts) receiving chemother-
apy for gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. J ClinOncol. 2017; 35: abstr
10112.
14. Hoffmann PS. Administration of pegfilgrastim on the same day or
next day of chemotherapy. J ClinOncol. 2005; 23: abstr 8137.
15. Whitworth JM, Matthews KS and Shipman KA. The safety and ef-
ficacy of day 1 versus day 2 administration of pegfilgrastim in patients
receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy for gynecologic malignan-
cies. GynecolOncol. 2009; 112: 601 – 4.
16. Li Y, Klippel Z, Shih X and Wang H. Trajectory of absolute neutro-
phil counts in patients treated with pegfilgrastim on the day of chemo-
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Volume 1 Issue 6 -2019 Research Article

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Racial Differences in Accepting Pegfilgrastim Onpro Kit (On-Body Injector) Use Among Cancer Patients

  • 1. Racial Differences in Accepting Pegfilgrastim Onpro Kit (On- Body Injector) Use Among Cancer Patients Saif MW1* , Hackenyos DW2 , Smith MH2 , Healey P2 , Relias V2 and Wasif K3 1 Northwell Health Cancer Institute, Lake Success, NY, USA 2 Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA 3 Simmons University, Boston, MA, USA Volume 1 Issue 6- 2019 Received Date: 12 Feb 2019 Accepted Date: 22 Feb 2019 Published Date: 25 Feb 2019 1. Abstract 1.1. Background: Neulasta Onpro kit eliminates need for additional clinic visit after chemother- apy. Given the racially diverse population in our institution, we investigated acceptance of Onpro kit among patients on chemotherapy. 1.2. Research Design and Methods: Single-institution, retrospective review conducted in patients with GI tumors who received Onpro kit within 1 hour of completion of systemic chemotherapy from Jan 2014 through Jan 2018. Clinic/nursing notes and pharmacy records were reviewed to identify patients who refused Onpro kit and to discern reasons for refusal, including racial reason. 1.3. Results: Total 238 orders for kit were voided amongst 68 patients (Caucasian 41; African American 7; Spanish 3; Asian 17). Overall, 15/68 patients refused kit (22%) of these 87% were Asian. The reasons for refusal included dislike of bulky attachment to skin, request to place kit on stomach instead of arm, trepidation over unwitnessed administration of drug, fear of reaction, dis- posal at home, fear of pain, lack of confirmation of proper dose administration, and need for MRI. 1.4. Conclusions: While Onpro kit is an attractive alternative, 22% of patients with voided orders, mainly of Asian race, declined its application. We believe the current study represents the first look at important racial differences in accepting Onpro kit. Consideration of patients’ cultural heritage, race, ethnicity and education may facilitate communication between physicians and patients to achieve optimal cancer care. Clinics of Oncology Citation:Saif MW, Hackenyos DW, Smith MH, Healey P, Relias V and Wasif K, Racial Differences in Accepting Pegfilgrastim Onpro Kit (On-Body Injector) Use Among Cancer Patients. Clinics of Oncology. 2019; 1(6): 1-4. United Prime Publications: http://unitedprimepub.com *Corresponding Author (s): M. Wasif Saif, MD, MBBS, Deputy Physician-in-Chief and Director of Medical Oncology, Northwell Health Cancer Institute, 1111 Marcus Avenue, Lake Success, NY 11042, USA, Fax: 516-321-2271, Tel: 516-321-2238, E-mail: wsaif@ northwell.edu Research Article 2. Keywords Chemotherapy; Pegfilgras- tim; Neutropenia; Leukope- nia,; Fever; Side effects 3. Introduction Neutropenia is a serious adverse complication of myelosuppres- sive chemotherapy that predisposes patients to life-threatening infection, hospitalization and delays in treatment. This is associ- ated with significant mortality as well as increased health-care as- sociated costs [1]. Chemotherapy induced neutropenia has been mitigated by advent of granulocyte stimulating factors. The first of this class of drug to be widely used was filgrastim, a recom- binant version of endogenous growth factor that stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of neutrophils. Due to its small size, filgrastim is rapidly cleared by the kidneys and requires dai- ly dosing. Pegfilgrastim, a filgrastim molecule linked to a large polyethylene glycol molecule, is a popular alternative as the large PEGylated moiety slows renal clearance and requires dosing only once during a chemotherapy cycle [2]. Per the dosing adminis- tration instructions, pegfilgrastim should not be given 14 days before or 24 hours after administration of cytotoxic chemothera- py. This is largely based on a theoretical risk of paradoxically in- creasing hematologic toxicity as GCSF is thought to increase the population of chemotherapy-susceptible granulocyte precursors [3]. This dosing regimen is cumbersome; often requiring patients to make additional office visits. In light of this, the dosing of peg- filgrastim has been made moot through the introduction of the OnPro® Delivery Kit [4]. This is a device that can be adhered to the skin on the day of chemotherapy administration and auto- injects the recipient on the following day, thus eliminating the need for a return office visit. While this is an attractive alterna- tive, some patients may hesitate or decline its use either due to
  • 2. Copyright ©2018 Saif MW et al This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially. 2 a bulky attachment to their skin or having fear of reaction dur- ing an un-witnessed administration of pegfilgrastim without the physical supervision of trained medical personnel. It is a fact that racial and ethnic differences exist in the incidence, disease course and outcomes of many cancer and non-cancer conditions. These differences are not only limited to insurance status, income, age, quality of health services but also ethnic or religious beliefs or religious limitations, such as Jehovah’s witness refusing human products [5]. In this era of shared doctor–patient decision-making, it is crucial to identify and improve patient- level factors, especially preferences for treatment in order to im- prove quality of health care [6]. Differences in treatment choices between African-Americans and whites in medical conditions such as coronary artery disease, cervical cancer and end-stage osteoarthritishave been demonstrated in the recent medical lit- erature [7-9]. Moreover, the reluctance or refusal to accept proven therapies by minority patients can lead to health disparities [5]. Once these important factors pertinent to racial differences are identified, we can undertake interventions to address and resolve such differences in patient decision-making. However, no study has examined racial/ethnic differences in acceptance of the On- pro kit among cancer patients. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether there are differences between different ethnic cancer patient popula- tions with respect to their willingness to receive the Onpro kit and to identify what demographic or psychosocial factors, specifically race and lack of familiarity with treatment associated with treat- ment preferences [10]. 4. Patients and Methods A single center, retrospective study was performed of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies who received pegfilgras- tim Onpro kit as an adjunct to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Patients were treated at the Tufts MedicalCenter Cancer Center from Jan- uary 2014 through January 2018 and received pegfilgrastim with- in 1 hour of completion of chemotherapy. The decision to admin- ister pegfilgrastim was based on standard guidelines (ASCO or NCCN guidelines). Patients had an average of 4 risk factors for fe- brile neutropenia: advanced disease, age > 65, gender and chemo- therapy regimen [11,12]. Moreover, many patients had previously received other chemotherapywith a limited bone marrow reserve. Clinic and nursing notes and pharmacy records were obtained through review of individual electronic medical records. Data wasreviewed to identify patients who refused Onpro kit and to discern reasons for refusal. As per our instuitional guidelines that govern handling of chemotherapy agents and growth factors, the reasons of refusal were always required to be confirmed by a staff physician whenever patient declined a growth factor or a chemotherapy agent in addition to counseling. Such data was collected and entered into the EMR for any future audit or in- surance purposes. Discussions surrounding refusal of Onpro kit administration were also mandated to be reported in the EMR; e.g. injectionalready prepared but later refused by the patient. 5. Results 5.1. Demographic Features A total of 238 orders for the Onpro kit were voided amongst 68 patients during this tenure. The median age of patients was 60 years [range 32-87] with 46% of patients ≥ 65 years old. Races in- cluded Caucasian 41; African American 7; Spanish 3 and Asian 17. The most common malignancies included colorectal (40%), pancreatic (20%), gastric (20%) and others (10%). Patients re- ceived a variety of different chemotherapies. The most common regimens included mFOLFOX6, FOLFIRINOX, FOLFIRI, and gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel or cisplatin (12%). 5.2. Refusal of Onpro Kit Overall, 15/68 patients refused the Onpro kit (22%). Among them, 13/15 were Asian (87%) and 2 were Caucasian (13%). The reasons for refusal included dislike of bulky attachment to their skin (n = 5), request to place kit on their stomach and not on their arm (n = 2), having trepidation over unwitnessed adminis- tration of drug (n = 1), fear of reaction (n = 2), disposal at home (n = 2), fear of pain (n = 1), lack of confirmation of proper dose administration (n = 1), and need to refuse as the patient was scheduled for a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on that day (1) as summarized in (Table 1). Volume 1 Issue 6 -2019 Research Article Patient Race Explanation for refusal 1 Asian Dislike of bulky attachment to their skin 2 Asian Dislike of bulky attachment to their skin 3 Asian Dislike of bulky attachment to their skin 4 Asian Dislike of bulky attachment to their skin 5 Asian Dislike of bulky attachment to their skin 6 Asian Request to place kit on their stomach and not on their arm 7 Asian Request to place kit on their stomach and not on their arm 8 Asian Having trepidation over un-witnessed administration of drug 9 Asian Fear of reaction 10 Asian Not comfortable with disposal at home 11 Asian Not comfortable with disposal at home 12 Asian Lack of confirmation of proper dose administration 13 Asian Fear of Pain 14 Caucasian Having trepidation over un-witnessed administration of drug 15 Caucasian Need to refuse as the patient was scheduled for a mag- netic resonance imaging (MRI) on that day Table 1: Causes of Refusal to Onpro kit in Patients with Different Races
  • 3. United Prime Publications: http://unitedprimepub.com 3 5.3. Toxicities There were no episodes of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia or febrile neu- tropenia among all these patients and related adverse events were mainly bone pain as expected. 6. Discussion In 2017, we presented the first study in GI malignancies to report the current study represents the first study to look at important ethnic differences in accepting the Onpro kit. This study detected ethnic differences and supports the importance of cultural factors in determining therapies chosen, underlying the need to facilitate communication between physicians and patients and to provide educational material to the patients to achieve optimal cancer care. There has been a constant effort to overcome the challenge of de- laying administrating pegfilgrastim on the same day of chemo- therapy but many studies show conflicting results [13-16]. Per the dosing administration instructions, pegfilgrastim should not be given 14 days before or 24 hours after administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. This is largely based on a theoretical risk of para- doxically increasing hematologic toxicity as GCSF is thought to increase the population of chemotherapy-susceptible granulocyte precursors [3]. This dosing regimen is cumbersome; often requir- ing patients to make additional office visits. This was a main im- petus to develop anew formulation, such as the OnPro® Delivery Kit [4].This is a device that can be adhered to the skin on the day of chemotherapy administration and auto-injects the recipient on the following day, thus eliminating the need for a return office visit. While this is an attractive alternative, our study showed that over 20% of the patient who would qualify for this device decline its application for many reasons including the fear of unknown, not liking a bulky attachment to their skin or having trepidation over an un-witnessed administration of pegfilgrastim both for fear of reaction and/or lack of confirmation of proper dose ad- ministration. In the current era of medicine, shared doctor–patient decision- making plays a crucial role in improving the patient-level factors, such as preferences for treatment, and subsequently can improve health care quality. As described earlier in the paper, ethnic as well as racial disparities towards acceptance of therapy is an under-explored field in both malignant and non-malignant dis- eases. Our study again supports the fact that in addition to other factors, reluctance to accept proven treatments by minorities can contribute to health disparities. Once identified, we must under- take interventions to address racial/ethnic differences in patient decision-making. Our study has limitations.Most notably, the small sample size and being a single institution retrospective analysis, it may limit the extrapolation of results to a more diverse patient population. However, it addresses an important clinical issue that warrants urgent attention to dissolve the racial disparity in acceptance of a FDA-approved treatment. Consideration of patients’ cultural heritage may facilitate communication between physicians and patients to achieve optimal cancer care. It would be interesting to look at experience or market share of manufacturer in Asian countries. Moreover, translated patient brochures and videos could be very helpful. 7. Conclusions We believe the current study represents the first study to look at important racial differences in accepting Neulasta Onpro® kit. This study detected racial differences and supports importance of cultural factors in determining therapies chosen, underlying the need to facilitate communication between physicians and patients and to provide educational material to the patients to achieve optimal cancer care. Reference 1. Kuderer NM, Dale DC and Crawford J. Mortality, morbidity, and cost associated with febrile neutropenia in adult cancer patients. Cancer. 2006; 106: 2258 – 66. 2. Bhana N. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in the management of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia: evidence based review. Current Opinion in Oncology. 2007; 19 : 328 – 35. 3. Meropol NJ, Miller LL and Korn EL. Severed Myelosuppression Re- sulting From Concurrent Administration of Granulocyte Colony-Stim- ulating Factor and Cytotoxic Chemotherapy. JNatl Cancer Inst. 1992; 84: 1201 – 3. 4. Yang BB, Morrow PK and Wu X. Comparison of pharmacokinet- ics and safety of pegfilgrastim administered by two delivery methods: on-body injector and manual injection with a prefilled syringe. Cancer ChemotherPharmacol. 2015; 75: 1199 - 1206. 5. Smedley B, Stith A and Nelson A. Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC, USA: Na- tional Academies Press; 2003. 6. Bowling A and Ebrahim S. Measuring patients’ preferences for treat- ment and perceptions of risk. Qual Health Care. 2001; 10: i2–8. 7. Sedlis SP, Fisher VJ and Tice D. Racial differences in performance of invasive cardiac procedures in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medi- cal Center. J ClinEpidemiol. 1997; 50: 899 – 901. Volume 1 Issue 6 -2019 Research Article
  • 4. United Prime Publications: http://unitedprimepub.com 4 8. Mitchell JB and McCormack LA. Time trends in late-stage diagnosis of cervical cancer. Differences by race/ethnicity and income. Med Care. 1997; 35: 1220 – 4. 9. Suarez-Almazor ME, Souchek J, and Kelly PA. Ethnic variation in knee replacement: patient preferences or uninformed disparity? Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165: 1117 – 24. 10. Relias V, Hackenyos DW and Wasif K. Ethnic differences in pegfli- grastimonpro kit (on-body injector) use among cancer patients. J Cli- nOncol. 2018; 36: abstr e18668. 11. Smith TJ, Bohlke K and Lyman GH. Recommendations for the Use of WBC Growth Factors: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clini- cal Practice Guideline Update. J ClinOncol. 2015; 33: 3199 - 3212. 12. https://www.tri-kobe.org/nccn/guideline/hematologic/english/my- eloid_growth.pdf. (last assessed March 23, 2018). 13. Matera RM, Relias V and Saif MW. Safety and efficacy of same-day administration of pegfilgrastim in patients (pts) receiving chemother- apy for gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. J ClinOncol. 2017; 35: abstr 10112. 14. Hoffmann PS. Administration of pegfilgrastim on the same day or next day of chemotherapy. J ClinOncol. 2005; 23: abstr 8137. 15. Whitworth JM, Matthews KS and Shipman KA. The safety and ef- ficacy of day 1 versus day 2 administration of pegfilgrastim in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy for gynecologic malignan- cies. GynecolOncol. 2009; 112: 601 – 4. 16. Li Y, Klippel Z, Shih X and Wang H. Trajectory of absolute neutro- phil counts in patients treated with pegfilgrastim on the day of chemo- therapy versus the day after chemotherapy. Cancer ChemotherPharma- col. 2016; 77: 703 – 12. Volume 1 Issue 6 -2019 Research Article