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The document summarizes recent progress in developing a "cosmological bootstrap" approach to predicting cosmological correlations directly from fundamental physical principles like locality, causality and unitarity, without relying on explicit models of inflation or particle physics. Key points include: - Cosmological correlators can be understood through their singularities as energies are conserved, similar to how scattering amplitudes are understood through their singularities. - Symmetries of de Sitter space constrain how these singularities are connected in the physical regime. - Unitarity constraints like the optical theorem provide additional restrictions on the form of correlators. - Oscillatory features in certain correlators can encode information about particle production during inflation,

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The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure

The document discusses the Big Bang theory of the origin and evolution of the universe. It describes how observations show that the universe began in a hot, dense state around 13.8 billion years ago and has been expanding and cooling ever since. The earliest moments after the Big Bang are explained by a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation that seeded the initial fluctuations which later grew via gravity to form all observed structures. Future experiments aim to detect gravitational waves from inflation, which would provide strong evidence supporting this theory of cosmic origins.

Cosmology

This document discusses the relationship between amplitudes and cosmology. Amplitude methods have led to advances in computing cosmological correlations through recursion relations and generalized unitarity. Observations of the CMB and large-scale structure have revealed properties of the primordial fluctuations, including near scale-invariance, adiabaticity, and Gaussianity. Models of inflation aim to explain these properties, and the effective field theory of inflation provides a framework to study fluctuations beyond slow-roll. Future experiments will further probe the initial conditions and search for signatures of the ultraviolet completion of inflation such as non-Gaussianity and tensor modes.

The Past, Present and Future of Cosmology

The document summarizes the past, present, and future of cosmology. It describes how observations of the cosmic microwave background have established a standard cosmological model involving dark matter, dark energy, and nearly scale-invariant primordial fluctuations from inflation. However, key questions remain about the nature of dark matter and dark energy, as well as the origin and dynamics of inflation. Ongoing and future CMB polarization experiments aim to detect primordial gravitational waves from inflation, which would provide strong evidence for inflation and insights into high-energy physics.

Kitp 2022

The document discusses the connections between cosmology and fundamental physics, noting that cosmology is interconnected with theories of inflation, dark matter, quantum gravity, and more. It outlines strategies for improving models of inflation, large scale structure, and the late universe through both top-down and bottom-up approaches, emphasizing the use of principles like symmetries, effective field theory, and causality. Key observational probes discussed include the CMB, large scale structure, and gravitational waves.

Future cosmology with CMB lensing and galaxy clustering

Next-generation Cosmic Microwave Background experiments such as the Simons Observatory, CMB-S4 and PICO aim to measure gravitational lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background an order of magnitude better than current experiments. The lensing signal will be highly correlated with measurements of galaxy clustering from next-generation galaxy surveys such as LSST. This will help us understand whether cosmic inflation was driven by a single field or by multiple fields. It will also allow us to accurately measure the growth of structure as a function of time, which is a powerful probe of dark energy and the sum of neutrino masses. I will discuss the prospects for this, as well as recent progress on the theoretical modeling of galaxy clustering, which is key to realize the full potential of these anticipated datasets.

Lecture m.sc. (experiments)-hall effect

This document discusses experiments on the Hall effect conducted in an M.Sc. laboratory. It begins with an overview of the Hall effect, describing how a voltage is generated perpendicular to the current in a conductor placed in a magnetic field. It then provides details of a standard Hall effect experiment using a semiconductor slice. The rest of the document discusses applications of measuring the Hall effect in semiconductors, such as determining carrier type and density. It also reviews related effects like the quantum Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect. In conclusion, it discusses practical applications of Hall sensors in devices like flow meters, motors, and portable electronics.

Thermoelectric effect

The document summarizes three thermoelectric effects:
1) Seebeck effect - A temperature difference between two conductors produces a voltage difference. The Seebeck coefficient (S) relates this.
2) Peltier effect - Heat is generated or removed at the junction of two different conductors when current passes through. The Peltier coefficients (ΠA and ΠB) relate this.
3) Thomson effect - Heat is produced or absorbed when current passes through a conductor with a temperature gradient. The Thomson coefficient (κ) relates this. These effects allow direct conversion between temperature differences and electrical power.

Harmonic waves

1) The document defines harmonic waves as waves that travel in simple harmonic motion. It describes properties such as amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period, and wave speed.
2) Equations are provided that describe the displacement of a medium over time for waves traveling in increasing or decreasing x directions.
3) The velocity and acceleration of segments of a medium are defined in terms of the displacement equation and its derivatives.

The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure

The document discusses the Big Bang theory of the origin and evolution of the universe. It describes how observations show that the universe began in a hot, dense state around 13.8 billion years ago and has been expanding and cooling ever since. The earliest moments after the Big Bang are explained by a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation that seeded the initial fluctuations which later grew via gravity to form all observed structures. Future experiments aim to detect gravitational waves from inflation, which would provide strong evidence supporting this theory of cosmic origins.

Cosmology

This document discusses the relationship between amplitudes and cosmology. Amplitude methods have led to advances in computing cosmological correlations through recursion relations and generalized unitarity. Observations of the CMB and large-scale structure have revealed properties of the primordial fluctuations, including near scale-invariance, adiabaticity, and Gaussianity. Models of inflation aim to explain these properties, and the effective field theory of inflation provides a framework to study fluctuations beyond slow-roll. Future experiments will further probe the initial conditions and search for signatures of the ultraviolet completion of inflation such as non-Gaussianity and tensor modes.

The Past, Present and Future of Cosmology

The document summarizes the past, present, and future of cosmology. It describes how observations of the cosmic microwave background have established a standard cosmological model involving dark matter, dark energy, and nearly scale-invariant primordial fluctuations from inflation. However, key questions remain about the nature of dark matter and dark energy, as well as the origin and dynamics of inflation. Ongoing and future CMB polarization experiments aim to detect primordial gravitational waves from inflation, which would provide strong evidence for inflation and insights into high-energy physics.

Kitp 2022

The document discusses the connections between cosmology and fundamental physics, noting that cosmology is interconnected with theories of inflation, dark matter, quantum gravity, and more. It outlines strategies for improving models of inflation, large scale structure, and the late universe through both top-down and bottom-up approaches, emphasizing the use of principles like symmetries, effective field theory, and causality. Key observational probes discussed include the CMB, large scale structure, and gravitational waves.

Future cosmology with CMB lensing and galaxy clustering

Next-generation Cosmic Microwave Background experiments such as the Simons Observatory, CMB-S4 and PICO aim to measure gravitational lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background an order of magnitude better than current experiments. The lensing signal will be highly correlated with measurements of galaxy clustering from next-generation galaxy surveys such as LSST. This will help us understand whether cosmic inflation was driven by a single field or by multiple fields. It will also allow us to accurately measure the growth of structure as a function of time, which is a powerful probe of dark energy and the sum of neutrino masses. I will discuss the prospects for this, as well as recent progress on the theoretical modeling of galaxy clustering, which is key to realize the full potential of these anticipated datasets.

Lecture m.sc. (experiments)-hall effect

This document discusses experiments on the Hall effect conducted in an M.Sc. laboratory. It begins with an overview of the Hall effect, describing how a voltage is generated perpendicular to the current in a conductor placed in a magnetic field. It then provides details of a standard Hall effect experiment using a semiconductor slice. The rest of the document discusses applications of measuring the Hall effect in semiconductors, such as determining carrier type and density. It also reviews related effects like the quantum Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect. In conclusion, it discusses practical applications of Hall sensors in devices like flow meters, motors, and portable electronics.

Thermoelectric effect

The document summarizes three thermoelectric effects:
1) Seebeck effect - A temperature difference between two conductors produces a voltage difference. The Seebeck coefficient (S) relates this.
2) Peltier effect - Heat is generated or removed at the junction of two different conductors when current passes through. The Peltier coefficients (ΠA and ΠB) relate this.
3) Thomson effect - Heat is produced or absorbed when current passes through a conductor with a temperature gradient. The Thomson coefficient (κ) relates this. These effects allow direct conversion between temperature differences and electrical power.

Harmonic waves

1) The document defines harmonic waves as waves that travel in simple harmonic motion. It describes properties such as amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period, and wave speed.
2) Equations are provided that describe the displacement of a medium over time for waves traveling in increasing or decreasing x directions.
3) The velocity and acceleration of segments of a medium are defined in terms of the displacement equation and its derivatives.

History of Quantum Mechanics

Lecture slides from a class introducing quantum mechanics to non-majors, giving an overview of black-body radiation, the photoelectric effect, and the Bohr model. Used as part of a course titled "A Brief history of Timekeeping," as a lead-in to talking about atomic clocks

Magnetic materials

This document discusses various magnetic properties of materials. It defines magnetic induction, magnetic field intensity, and magnetic permeability. It describes diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic materials. Diamagnetic materials have no unpaired electrons and are repelled by magnetic fields. Paramagnetic materials have some unpaired electrons and are weakly attracted to magnetic fields in a temperature-dependent manner. Ferromagnetic materials have strongly interacting unpaired electrons that align to produce spontaneous magnetization and strong attraction to magnetic fields.

Multiverse

This document discusses the multiverse theory in physics. It begins by defining the observable universe and the idea of a multiverse as multiple observable universes. It then covers evidence that led physicists to consider the multiverse, including the accelerating expansion of the universe and problems with the cosmological constant. It describes two versions of the multiverse theory - the inflationary multiverse from eternal inflation and the string theory landscape. It concludes by questioning whether the multiverse is a scientific theory and if it is testable or predictive.

Hall Effect

This document discusses various techniques for measuring the Hall effect in organic semiconductors. It begins with background on the Hall effect and how charge traps can disrupt measurements. It then reviews methods that attempt to account for or avoid traps, such as adding inert polymer layers or using microwave frequencies. Finally, it discusses quantized Hall effects seen in graphene and other materials, as well as the anomalous Hall effect. It concludes by proposing ways to improve Hall effect measurements in organics, such as investigating quantization and better addressing structural flaws.

Limitations OF Classical Physics and Birth Of Quantum Mechanics

Classical mechanics fails to explain several experimental observations such as:
1) Black-body radiation spectrum
2) Photoelectric effect
3) Compton scattering
4) Spectrum of hydrogen emissions
Quantum mechanics was developed to account for these phenomena by treating electrons as both particles and waves. Max Planck proposed quanta to explain black-body radiation, while Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr used quanta to explain the photoelectric effect and hydrogen spectrum respectively. Arthur Compton also explained Compton scattering using photons colliding with electrons.

Classical Statistics and Quantum Statistics

This document discusses classical and quantum statistics. It explains that classical statistics, developed by Maxwell, Boltzmann, and Gibbs, were able to explain many macroscopic phenomena but failed to explain others observed at low temperatures. This led to the development of quantum statistics by Bose, Einstein, Fermi and Dirac. Bose-Einstein statistics applies to indistinguishable particles with integer spin like photons that can occupy the same state. Fermi-Dirac statistics applies to particles with half-integer spin like electrons that cannot occupy the same state due to the Pauli exclusion principle. Quantum statistics accounts for the discrete, probabilistic nature of energy at the quantum scale.

Pelletron accelarator

This is one of the interesting topic in physics. These pelletron accelerator is a modern thing of van de graff accelerator.

The tale of neutrino oscillations

An introduction to neutrino physics suitable for graduate students. Neutrino oscillations is a phenomena that demonstrated that neutrinos have non-zero masses and they can transform from o flavor to another.

The wkb approximation..

The document discusses the WKB approximation method for solving the Schrodinger equation. It can be used to obtain approximate solutions for bound state energies and transmission probabilities through potential barriers in quantum mechanics. The WKB approximation assumes that the potential V(x) varies slowly compared to the wavelength and that the wavefunction can be expressed as a slowly varying amplitude multiplied by an oscillating phase factor. It provides expressions for the wavefunction in classically allowed and forbidden regions, and connection formulae to match solutions at turning points. An example of applying WKB to a potential square well with a bumpy bottom is also presented.

Caltech Physics Colloquium

Daniel Baumann presented work on developing a "cosmological bootstrap" approach to understand cosmological correlations. This approach focuses on directly constraining correlations on the boundary of de Sitter space using principles like locality, causality and symmetries. Correlators have singularities when energies are conserved that are analogous to scattering amplitudes. Symmetries relate these singularities to the physical regime, and if massive particles are present there will be oscillatory features reflecting their production and evolution. These oscillations could potentially be observed as signatures in future galaxy surveys, providing a way to study physics during inflation like a "cosmological collider".

Large hadron collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a large particle accelerator located at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland. Built between 1998 and 2008 at a cost of $9 billion, it collides opposing beams of protons or lead ions to study particle physics, including attempts to detect the Higgs boson. The LHC is housed in a 27 km circular tunnel 175 m underground and can accelerate protons up to 7 TeV per nucleon. Six international experiments analyze particles produced in the collisions. While initial operation was delayed by a magnet quench in 2008, the LHC discovered the Higgs boson in 2012 and continues operating to explore new physics.

Introduction to quantum mechanics and schrodinger equation

Classical mechanics describes macroscopic objects while quantum mechanics describes microscopic objects due to limitations of classical theory. Quantum mechanics was introduced after classical mechanics failed to explain experimental observations involving microscopic particles. Some key aspects of quantum mechanics are the photoelectric effect, blackbody radiation, Compton effect, wave-particle duality, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and Schrodinger's wave equation. Schrodinger's equation describes the wave function and probability of finding a particle.

Gravitational Collider Physics

Gravitational collider physics uses binary black hole mergers to probe ultralight bosons through their effect on gravitational waves. Bound boson fields form "gravitational atoms" around black holes that can undergo transitions when perturbed by an orbiting companion. This leads to distinctive signatures in the gravitational waves like floating or sinking orbits and sharp features in the frequency evolution. Ionization of the cloud can also significantly shorten the merger time. Precise waveform modeling is still needed to apply these effects in gravitational wave searches.

Cauchy's Equation & Cauchy's Constant Explained

Cauchy's equation is an empirical relationship between the refractive index and wavelength of light for a particular transparent material. It is named for the mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy, who defined it in 1836.

On the Origin of Structure in the Universe

1) The talk discusses the origin of structure in the universe, from the small density fluctuations after the Big Bang to the galaxies, stars and planets we see today.
2) It explains how quantum fluctuations during an early period of exponential expansion called inflation were stretched to cosmological scales by inflation, seeding these initial density fluctuations.
3) The talk outlines how measurements of the cosmic microwave background have revealed correlations in the fluctuations that can only be explained by a period of inflation in the early universe that was faster than the speed of light.

II_Quantum Hall Effects&Quantum Transport

II. Charge transport and nanoelectronics.
Quantum Hall Effect: 2D electron gas (2DEG) in magnetic field, Landau levels, de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas Effects, integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, Spin Hall Effect.
Quantum transport: Transport regimes and mesoscopic quantum transport, Scattering theory of conductance and Landauer-Buttiker formalism, Quantum point contacts, Quantum electronics and selected examples of mesoscopic devices (quantum interference devices).
Tunneling: Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (and wavefunction mapping in nanostructures and molecules), Nanoelectronic devices based on tunneling, Coulomb blockade, Single electron transistors, Kondo effect.
Molecular electronics: Donor-Acceptor systems, Nanoscale charge transfer, Electronic properties and transport in molecules and biomolecules; single molecule transistors.

Basic of semiconductors and optical properties

This presentation explains the band structure, intrinsic semiconductor, extrinsic semiconductor, electrical conductivity, mobility, hall effect, p-n junction diode, tunnel diode and optical properties of the semiconductor.

Magnetic materials

This document discusses different types of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. It defines magnetic materials as those attracted by magnetic fields, such as iron, nickel, and cobalt, while non-magnetic materials are not, like wood, rubber, and plastics. Magnetic materials are further divided into soft magnetic materials, which do not retain magnetism without a magnetic field, and hard magnetic materials, which do retain magnetism without a field. The document also discusses magnetic fields, magnetic induction, magnetic moments, and different types of magnetism including diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic.

Lectures on Cosmological Correlations

Slides of lectures presented at the Kavli Asian Winter School on Strings, Particles and Cosmology 2023, in Korea.

Hall effect Experiment

1. Edwin Hall discovered the Hall effect in 1879 while working on his doctoral degree at Johns Hopkins University. Through his measurements of a tiny effect produced using apparatus he designed, he published findings about a new interaction between magnets and electric currents eighteen years before the electron was discovered.
2. The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference across an electrical conductor, perpendicular to both the current in the conductor and an applied magnetic field. This effect can be used to determine various properties of the conductor such as carrier concentration and Hall coefficient.
3. Applications of the Hall effect include speed detection, current sensing, magnetic field sensing as in magnetometers, and position sensing in devices like brushless DC motors.

Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations

The document summarizes a colloquium talk about the origin of structure in the universe. It discusses how cosmological correlations provide clues about early universe physics before the hot Big Bang, including evidence that primordial fluctuations were scale invariant. Recent work has developed a "cosmological bootstrap" approach to derive correlation functions by imposing physical consistency conditions rather than directly computing time integrals. This approach reveals differential equations whose solutions encode particle production during inflation and emerge time evolution, providing a new perspective on cosmology without time.

Statistical Physics of Complex Dynamics

Hang-Hyun Jo leads a Junior Research Group called "Statistical Physics of Complex Dynamics" at the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics and Pohang University of Science and Technology in South Korea. The group includes two members and studies topics like interaction networks in many-body systems and temporal networks using statistical physics approaches. They analyze large digital datasets to characterize properties like bursts in interaction patterns and higher-order correlations between events.

History of Quantum Mechanics

Lecture slides from a class introducing quantum mechanics to non-majors, giving an overview of black-body radiation, the photoelectric effect, and the Bohr model. Used as part of a course titled "A Brief history of Timekeeping," as a lead-in to talking about atomic clocks

Magnetic materials

This document discusses various magnetic properties of materials. It defines magnetic induction, magnetic field intensity, and magnetic permeability. It describes diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic materials. Diamagnetic materials have no unpaired electrons and are repelled by magnetic fields. Paramagnetic materials have some unpaired electrons and are weakly attracted to magnetic fields in a temperature-dependent manner. Ferromagnetic materials have strongly interacting unpaired electrons that align to produce spontaneous magnetization and strong attraction to magnetic fields.

Multiverse

This document discusses the multiverse theory in physics. It begins by defining the observable universe and the idea of a multiverse as multiple observable universes. It then covers evidence that led physicists to consider the multiverse, including the accelerating expansion of the universe and problems with the cosmological constant. It describes two versions of the multiverse theory - the inflationary multiverse from eternal inflation and the string theory landscape. It concludes by questioning whether the multiverse is a scientific theory and if it is testable or predictive.

Hall Effect

This document discusses various techniques for measuring the Hall effect in organic semiconductors. It begins with background on the Hall effect and how charge traps can disrupt measurements. It then reviews methods that attempt to account for or avoid traps, such as adding inert polymer layers or using microwave frequencies. Finally, it discusses quantized Hall effects seen in graphene and other materials, as well as the anomalous Hall effect. It concludes by proposing ways to improve Hall effect measurements in organics, such as investigating quantization and better addressing structural flaws.

Limitations OF Classical Physics and Birth Of Quantum Mechanics

Classical mechanics fails to explain several experimental observations such as:
1) Black-body radiation spectrum
2) Photoelectric effect
3) Compton scattering
4) Spectrum of hydrogen emissions
Quantum mechanics was developed to account for these phenomena by treating electrons as both particles and waves. Max Planck proposed quanta to explain black-body radiation, while Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr used quanta to explain the photoelectric effect and hydrogen spectrum respectively. Arthur Compton also explained Compton scattering using photons colliding with electrons.

Classical Statistics and Quantum Statistics

This document discusses classical and quantum statistics. It explains that classical statistics, developed by Maxwell, Boltzmann, and Gibbs, were able to explain many macroscopic phenomena but failed to explain others observed at low temperatures. This led to the development of quantum statistics by Bose, Einstein, Fermi and Dirac. Bose-Einstein statistics applies to indistinguishable particles with integer spin like photons that can occupy the same state. Fermi-Dirac statistics applies to particles with half-integer spin like electrons that cannot occupy the same state due to the Pauli exclusion principle. Quantum statistics accounts for the discrete, probabilistic nature of energy at the quantum scale.

Pelletron accelarator

This is one of the interesting topic in physics. These pelletron accelerator is a modern thing of van de graff accelerator.

The tale of neutrino oscillations

An introduction to neutrino physics suitable for graduate students. Neutrino oscillations is a phenomena that demonstrated that neutrinos have non-zero masses and they can transform from o flavor to another.

The wkb approximation..

The document discusses the WKB approximation method for solving the Schrodinger equation. It can be used to obtain approximate solutions for bound state energies and transmission probabilities through potential barriers in quantum mechanics. The WKB approximation assumes that the potential V(x) varies slowly compared to the wavelength and that the wavefunction can be expressed as a slowly varying amplitude multiplied by an oscillating phase factor. It provides expressions for the wavefunction in classically allowed and forbidden regions, and connection formulae to match solutions at turning points. An example of applying WKB to a potential square well with a bumpy bottom is also presented.

Caltech Physics Colloquium

Daniel Baumann presented work on developing a "cosmological bootstrap" approach to understand cosmological correlations. This approach focuses on directly constraining correlations on the boundary of de Sitter space using principles like locality, causality and symmetries. Correlators have singularities when energies are conserved that are analogous to scattering amplitudes. Symmetries relate these singularities to the physical regime, and if massive particles are present there will be oscillatory features reflecting their production and evolution. These oscillations could potentially be observed as signatures in future galaxy surveys, providing a way to study physics during inflation like a "cosmological collider".

Large hadron collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a large particle accelerator located at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland. Built between 1998 and 2008 at a cost of $9 billion, it collides opposing beams of protons or lead ions to study particle physics, including attempts to detect the Higgs boson. The LHC is housed in a 27 km circular tunnel 175 m underground and can accelerate protons up to 7 TeV per nucleon. Six international experiments analyze particles produced in the collisions. While initial operation was delayed by a magnet quench in 2008, the LHC discovered the Higgs boson in 2012 and continues operating to explore new physics.

Introduction to quantum mechanics and schrodinger equation

Classical mechanics describes macroscopic objects while quantum mechanics describes microscopic objects due to limitations of classical theory. Quantum mechanics was introduced after classical mechanics failed to explain experimental observations involving microscopic particles. Some key aspects of quantum mechanics are the photoelectric effect, blackbody radiation, Compton effect, wave-particle duality, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and Schrodinger's wave equation. Schrodinger's equation describes the wave function and probability of finding a particle.

Gravitational Collider Physics

Gravitational collider physics uses binary black hole mergers to probe ultralight bosons through their effect on gravitational waves. Bound boson fields form "gravitational atoms" around black holes that can undergo transitions when perturbed by an orbiting companion. This leads to distinctive signatures in the gravitational waves like floating or sinking orbits and sharp features in the frequency evolution. Ionization of the cloud can also significantly shorten the merger time. Precise waveform modeling is still needed to apply these effects in gravitational wave searches.

Cauchy's Equation & Cauchy's Constant Explained

Cauchy's equation is an empirical relationship between the refractive index and wavelength of light for a particular transparent material. It is named for the mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy, who defined it in 1836.

On the Origin of Structure in the Universe

1) The talk discusses the origin of structure in the universe, from the small density fluctuations after the Big Bang to the galaxies, stars and planets we see today.
2) It explains how quantum fluctuations during an early period of exponential expansion called inflation were stretched to cosmological scales by inflation, seeding these initial density fluctuations.
3) The talk outlines how measurements of the cosmic microwave background have revealed correlations in the fluctuations that can only be explained by a period of inflation in the early universe that was faster than the speed of light.

II_Quantum Hall Effects&Quantum Transport

II. Charge transport and nanoelectronics.
Quantum Hall Effect: 2D electron gas (2DEG) in magnetic field, Landau levels, de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas Effects, integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, Spin Hall Effect.
Quantum transport: Transport regimes and mesoscopic quantum transport, Scattering theory of conductance and Landauer-Buttiker formalism, Quantum point contacts, Quantum electronics and selected examples of mesoscopic devices (quantum interference devices).
Tunneling: Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (and wavefunction mapping in nanostructures and molecules), Nanoelectronic devices based on tunneling, Coulomb blockade, Single electron transistors, Kondo effect.
Molecular electronics: Donor-Acceptor systems, Nanoscale charge transfer, Electronic properties and transport in molecules and biomolecules; single molecule transistors.

Basic of semiconductors and optical properties

This presentation explains the band structure, intrinsic semiconductor, extrinsic semiconductor, electrical conductivity, mobility, hall effect, p-n junction diode, tunnel diode and optical properties of the semiconductor.

Magnetic materials

This document discusses different types of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. It defines magnetic materials as those attracted by magnetic fields, such as iron, nickel, and cobalt, while non-magnetic materials are not, like wood, rubber, and plastics. Magnetic materials are further divided into soft magnetic materials, which do not retain magnetism without a magnetic field, and hard magnetic materials, which do retain magnetism without a field. The document also discusses magnetic fields, magnetic induction, magnetic moments, and different types of magnetism including diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic.

Lectures on Cosmological Correlations

Slides of lectures presented at the Kavli Asian Winter School on Strings, Particles and Cosmology 2023, in Korea.

Hall effect Experiment

1. Edwin Hall discovered the Hall effect in 1879 while working on his doctoral degree at Johns Hopkins University. Through his measurements of a tiny effect produced using apparatus he designed, he published findings about a new interaction between magnets and electric currents eighteen years before the electron was discovered.
2. The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference across an electrical conductor, perpendicular to both the current in the conductor and an applied magnetic field. This effect can be used to determine various properties of the conductor such as carrier concentration and Hall coefficient.
3. Applications of the Hall effect include speed detection, current sensing, magnetic field sensing as in magnetometers, and position sensing in devices like brushless DC motors.

History of Quantum Mechanics

History of Quantum Mechanics

Magnetic materials

Magnetic materials

Multiverse

Multiverse

Hall Effect

Hall Effect

Limitations OF Classical Physics and Birth Of Quantum Mechanics

Limitations OF Classical Physics and Birth Of Quantum Mechanics

Classical Statistics and Quantum Statistics

Classical Statistics and Quantum Statistics

Pelletron accelarator

Pelletron accelarator

The tale of neutrino oscillations

The tale of neutrino oscillations

The wkb approximation..

The wkb approximation..

Caltech Physics Colloquium

Caltech Physics Colloquium

Large hadron collider

Large hadron collider

Introduction to quantum mechanics and schrodinger equation

Introduction to quantum mechanics and schrodinger equation

Gravitational Collider Physics

Gravitational Collider Physics

Cauchy's Equation & Cauchy's Constant Explained

Cauchy's Equation & Cauchy's Constant Explained

On the Origin of Structure in the Universe

On the Origin of Structure in the Universe

II_Quantum Hall Effects&Quantum Transport

II_Quantum Hall Effects&Quantum Transport

Basic of semiconductors and optical properties

Basic of semiconductors and optical properties

Magnetic materials

Magnetic materials

Lectures on Cosmological Correlations

Lectures on Cosmological Correlations

Hall effect Experiment

Hall effect Experiment

Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations

The document summarizes a colloquium talk about the origin of structure in the universe. It discusses how cosmological correlations provide clues about early universe physics before the hot Big Bang, including evidence that primordial fluctuations were scale invariant. Recent work has developed a "cosmological bootstrap" approach to derive correlation functions by imposing physical consistency conditions rather than directly computing time integrals. This approach reveals differential equations whose solutions encode particle production during inflation and emerge time evolution, providing a new perspective on cosmology without time.

Statistical Physics of Complex Dynamics

Hang-Hyun Jo leads a Junior Research Group called "Statistical Physics of Complex Dynamics" at the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics and Pohang University of Science and Technology in South Korea. The group includes two members and studies topics like interaction networks in many-body systems and temporal networks using statistical physics approaches. They analyze large digital datasets to characterize properties like bursts in interaction patterns and higher-order correlations between events.

A@kash Physics NCERT Maps.pdf physics short notes physics short notes physics...

Physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes physics short notes

Loriano Bonora "HS theories from effective actions"

This talk discusses theories with an infinite number of fields, known as higher spin (HS) theories. The speaker presents evidence that a theory describing quantum gravitational effects requires an infinite number of fields. Effective actions of free field theories can generate information about local field theories of any spin, including HS theories. This suggests HS theories are natural developments of ordinary theories, not exotic. The speaker explores approaches to systematically construct interacting HS theories from effective actions using L-infinity symmetry as a guiding tool. String field theory may provide a way to understand if tensionless string theory is a HS phase connected to tensile string theory at low energies.

Cosmology and String Theory

1. Cosmology and string theory inform each other, with cosmology providing precision data to test models of inflation and the early universe while string theory motivates novel effective field theories relevant for cosmology.
2. There is ongoing debate around tensions in measurements of the Hubble constant from the cosmic microwave background and supernovae, with disagreement potentially signaling new physics or systematic errors.
3. Recent progress has improved the understanding of cosmological correlations and their relation to scattering amplitudes, but unique challenges in cosmology like its non-perturbative and non-unitary nature remain.

Time Evolution of Density Parameters for Matter and Dark Energy and their Int...

In the framework of Brans-Dicke (BD) theory, the first part of the present study determines the time dependence of BD parameter, energy density and Equation of State (EoS) parameter of the cosmic fluid in a universe expanding with acceleration, preceded by a phase of deceleration. For this purpose, a scale factor has been so chosen that the deceleration parameter, obtained from it, shows a signature flip with time. Considering the dark energy to be responsible for the entire pressure, the time evolution of energy parameters for matter and dark energy and the EoS parameter for dark energy have been determined. A model for an effective interaction term, between matter and dark energy, has been proposed and calculated. Its negative value at the present time indicates conversion of matter into dark energy. Using this term, the time dependence of the rates of change of matter and dark energy has been determined. It is found that the nature of dependence of the scalar field upon the scale factor plays a very important role in governing the time evolution of the cosmological quantities studied here. The present study provides us with a simple way to determine the time evolution of dark energy for a homogeneous and isotropic universe of zero spatial curvature, without involving any self-interaction potential or cosmological constant in the formulation.

Toward a theory of chaos

1. The study of chaos analyzes nonlinear dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions. While a universal definition of chaos is still lacking, mathematicians generally agree that chaos involves sensitive dependence on initial conditions, mixing, and dense periodic points.
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Eienstein field equations

The document discusses Einstein's field equations and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. It begins by providing background on Einstein's field equations, which relate the geometry of spacetime to the distribution of mass and energy within it. It then discusses some key mathematical aspects of the field equations, including their nonlinear partial differential form. Finally, it notes that the field equations can be consolidated with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to provide a unified description of gravity and quantum mechanics.

3D stellar evolution: hydrodynamic simulations of a complete burning phase in...

Our knowledge of stellar evolution is driven by one-dimensional (1D) simulations. 1D models, however, are severely limited by uncertainties on the exact behaviour of many multidimensional phenomena occurring inside stars, affecting their structure and e volution. Recent adv ances in computing resources have allowed small sections of a star to be reproduced with multi-D hydrodynamic models, with an unprecedented degree of detail and realism. In this work, we present a set of 3D simulations of a conv ectiv e neon-burning shell in a 20 M star run for the first time continuously from its early development through to complete fuel exhaustion, using unaltered input conditions from a 321D-guided 1D stellar model. These simulations help answer some open questions in stellar physics. In particular, they show that conv ectiv e re gions do not grow indefinitely due to entrainment of fresh material, but fuel consumption pre v ails o v er entrainment, so when fuel is e xhausted conv ection also starts decaying. Our results show convergence between the multi-D simulations and the new 321D-guided 1D model, concerning the amount of conv ectiv e boundary mixing to include in stellar models. The size of the conv ectiv e zones in a star strongly affects its structure and e volution; thus, re vising their modelling in 1D will have important implications for the life and fate of stars. This will thus affect theoretical predictions related to nucleosynthesis, supernova explosions, and compact remnants.

The universe & mathematical cosmology

The document discusses mathematical cosmology and modeling of the universe. It begins by outlining fundamental questions about the universe's origins and evolution. The two main aspects of cosmology are theoretical, based on mathematics, and observational, based on physics. The Big Bang theory is the most widely accepted scientific theory describing the expanding universe. Mathematical models of the universe are constructed using general relativity and by specifying the geometry and matter content. The Lambda-CDM model provides the current standard framework, though other models also aim to explain the observed late-time acceleration of the universe's expansion.

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry: A Laboratory Didactic Path About the ...

The SEENET-MTP Seminar: Trends in Modern Physics
19–21 August 2011, Niš, Serbia
Talk by Frederico Corni, Faculty of Education, University of Modena аnd Reggio Emilia, Italy

Formation of low mass protostars and their circumstellar disks

Understanding circumstellar disks is of prime importance in astrophysics, however, their birth process remains poorly constrained due to observational and numerical challenges. Recent numerical works have shown that the small-scale physics, often wrapped into a sub-grid model, play a crucial role in disk formation and evolution. This calls for a combined approach in which both the protostar and circumstellar disk are studied in concert. Aims. We aim to elucidate the small scale physics and constrain sub-grid parameters commonly chosen in the literature by resolving the star-disk interaction. Methods. We carry out a set of very high resolution 3D radiative-hydrodynamics simulations that self-consistently describe the collapse of a turbulent dense molecular cloud core to stellar densities. We study the birth of the protostar, the circumstellar disk, and its early evolution (< 6 yr after protostellar formation). Results. Following the second gravitational collapse, the nascent protostar quickly reaches breakup velocity and sheds its surface material, thus forming a hot (∼ 103 K), dense, and highly flared circumstellar disk. The protostar is embedded within the disk, such that material can flow without crossing any shock fronts. The circumstellar disk mass quickly exceeds that of the protostar, and its kinematics are dominated by self-gravity. Accretion onto the disk is highly anisotropic, and accretion onto the protostar mainly occurs through material that slides on the disk surface. The polar mass flux is negligible in comparison. The radiative behavior also displays a strong anisotropy, as the polar accretion shock is shown to be supercritical whereas its equatorial counterpart is subcritical. We also f ind a remarkable convergence of our results with respect to initial conditions. Conclusions. These results reveal the structure and kinematics in the smallest spatial scales relevant to protostellar and circumstellar disk evolution. They can be used to describe accretion onto regions commonly described by sub-grid models in simulations studying larger scale physics.

A measurement of_the_black_hole_mass_in_ngc_1097_using_alma

Artigo descreve a maneira como os astrônomos usaram pela primeira vez o ALMA para medir a massa de um buraco negro supermassivo no interior de uma galáxias espiral barrada.

Long term modulation of cosmic ray intensity in statistical relation with cor...

This document summarizes a study that analyzed the statistical correlation between long-term cosmic ray intensity and solar activity parameters like coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flare index numbers between 1997 and 2010. The study found a negative correlation between cosmic ray intensity and both CMEs (correlation coefficient of -0.83) and solar flare index (-0.70), indicating that cosmic ray intensity is inversely related to solar activity levels. Figures 1 and 2 show scatter plots illustrating these negative correlations between cosmic ray intensity and the respective solar parameters.

Metadynamics

Metadynamics is a computer simulation method in computational physics, chemistry, and biology. It is used to estimate the free energy and other state functions of a system, where ergodicity is hindered by the form of the system's energy landscape.

Math, applied math, and math in physics

A talk presented at the University of New South Wales on the occasion of Ian Sloan's 80th birthday, remembering our work together and thinking about how math is used in science.

solvable-complex-potentials

The document presents a project on solvable complex potentials and supersymmetry. It discusses supersymmetric quantum mechanics and how it relates two partner Hamiltonians. The partner Hamiltonians share the same energy eigenvalues and their eigenfunctions are related through the operators A and A†. Several examples of solvable potentials are explored, including the infinite square well, Hermite polynomials, Gegenbauer polynomials, and hypergeometric functions. Shape invariance, a property relating solvable potentials, is also introduced.

Identification of Superclusters and Their Properties in the Sloan Digital Sky...

Superclusters are the largest massive structures in the cosmic web, on tens to hundreds of megaparsec scales. They
are the largest assembly of galaxy clusters in the Universe. Apart from a few detailed studies of such structures,
their evolutionary mechanism is still an open question. In order to address and answer the relevant questions, a
statistically significant, large catalog of superclusters covering a wide range of redshifts and sky areas is essential.
Here, we present a large catalog of 662 superclusters identified using a modified friends-of-friends algorithm
applied on the WHL (Wen–Han–Liu) cluster catalog within a redshift range of 0.05 z 0.42. We name the most
massive supercluster at z ∼ 0.25 as the Einasto Supercluster. We find that the median mass of superclusters is
∼5.8 × 10 15 Me and the median size ∼65 Mpc. We find that the supercluster environment slightly affects the
growth of clusters. We compare the properties of the observed superclusters with the mock superclusters extracted
from the Horizon Run 4 cosmological simulation. The properties of the superclusters in the mocks and
observations are in broad agreement. We find that the density contrast of a supercluster is correlated with its
maximum extent with a power-law index, α ∼ −2. The phase-space distribution of mock superclusters shows that,
on average, ∼90% of part of a supercluster has a gravitational influence on its constituents. We also show the mock
halos’ average number density and peculiar velocity profiles in and around the superclusters.

Refining the OJ 287 2022 impact flare arrival epoch

The bright blazar OJ 287 routinely parades high brightness bremsstrahlung flares, which are explained as being a result of a
secondary supermassive black hole (SMBH) impacting the accretion disc of a more massive primary SMBH in a binary system.
The accretion disc is not rigid but rather bends in a calculable way due to the tidal influence of the secondary. Next, we refer to
this phenomenon as a variable disc level. We begin by showing that these flares occur at times predicted by a simple analytical
formula, based on general relativity inspired modified Kepler equation, which explainsimpact flaressince 1888. The 2022 impact
flare, namely flare number 26, is rather peculiar as it breaks the typical pattern of two impact flares per 12-yr cycle. This is the
third bremsstrahlung flare of the current cycle that follows the already observed 2015 and 2019 impact flaresfrom OJ 287. It turns
out that the arrival epoch of flare number 26 is sensitive to the level of primary SMBH’s accretion disc relative to its mean level
in our model. We incorporate these tidally induced changes in the level of the accretion disc to infer that the thermal flare should
have occurred during 2022 July–August, when it was not possible to observe it from the Earth. Thereafter, we explore possible
observational evidence for certain pre-flare activity by employing spectral and polarimetric data from our campaigns in 2004/05
and 2021/22. We point out theoretical and observational implications of two observed mini-flares during 2022 January–February

Interior Heating of Rocky Exoplanets from Stellar Flares with Application to ...

Many stars of different spectral types with planets in the habitable zone are known to emit flares. Until now, studies
that address the long-term impact of stellar flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) assumed that the
planet’s interior remains unaffected by interplanetary CMEs, only considering the effect of plasma/UV
interactions on the atmosphere of planets. Here, we show that the magnetic flux carried by flare-associated CMEs
results in planetary interior heating by ohmic dissipation and leads to a variety of interior–exterior interactions. We
construct a physical model to study this effect and apply it to the TRAPPIST-1 star whose flaring activity has been
constrained by Kepler observations. Our model is posed in a stochastic manner to account for uncertainty and
variability in input parameters. Particularly for the innermost planets, our results suggest that the heat dissipated in
the silicate mantle is both of sufficient magnitude and longevity to drive geological processes and hence facilitate
volcanism and outgassing of the TRAPPIST-1 planets. Furthermore, our model predicts that Joule heating can
further be enhanced for planets with an intrinsic magnetic field compared to those without. The associated
volcanism and outgassing may continuously replenish the atmosphere and thereby mitigate the erosion of the
atmosphere caused by the direct impact of flares and CMEs. To maintain consistency of atmospheric and
geophysical models, the impact of stellar flares and CMEs on atmospheres of close-in exoplanetary systems needs
to be studied in conjunction with the effect on planetary interiors.

Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations

Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations

Statistical Physics of Complex Dynamics

Statistical Physics of Complex Dynamics

A@kash Physics NCERT Maps.pdf physics short notes physics short notes physics...

A@kash Physics NCERT Maps.pdf physics short notes physics short notes physics...

Loriano Bonora "HS theories from effective actions"

Loriano Bonora "HS theories from effective actions"

Cosmology and String Theory

Cosmology and String Theory

Time Evolution of Density Parameters for Matter and Dark Energy and their Int...

Time Evolution of Density Parameters for Matter and Dark Energy and their Int...

Toward a theory of chaos

Toward a theory of chaos

Eienstein field equations

Eienstein field equations

3D stellar evolution: hydrodynamic simulations of a complete burning phase in...

3D stellar evolution: hydrodynamic simulations of a complete burning phase in...

The universe & mathematical cosmology

The universe & mathematical cosmology

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry: A Laboratory Didactic Path About the ...

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry: A Laboratory Didactic Path About the ...

Formation of low mass protostars and their circumstellar disks

Formation of low mass protostars and their circumstellar disks

A measurement of_the_black_hole_mass_in_ngc_1097_using_alma

A measurement of_the_black_hole_mass_in_ngc_1097_using_alma

Long term modulation of cosmic ray intensity in statistical relation with cor...

Long term modulation of cosmic ray intensity in statistical relation with cor...

Metadynamics

Metadynamics

Math, applied math, and math in physics

Math, applied math, and math in physics

solvable-complex-potentials

solvable-complex-potentials

Identification of Superclusters and Their Properties in the Sloan Digital Sky...

Identification of Superclusters and Their Properties in the Sloan Digital Sky...

Refining the OJ 287 2022 impact flare arrival epoch

Refining the OJ 287 2022 impact flare arrival epoch

Interior Heating of Rocky Exoplanets from Stellar Flares with Application to ...

Interior Heating of Rocky Exoplanets from Stellar Flares with Application to ...

Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx

ukaryotic Transcription Presentation and RNA Precessing

Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

Slides from talk:
Aleš Zamuda: Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE .
Austrian-Slovenian HPC Meeting 2024 – ASHPC24, Seeblickhotel Grundlsee in Austria, 10–13 June 2024
https://ashpc.eu/

Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf

ESPP presentation to EU Waste Water Network, 4th June 2024 “EU policies driving nutrient removal and recycling
and the revised UWWTD (Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive)”

Applied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdf

When I was asked to give a companion lecture in support of ‘The Philosophy of Science’ (https://shorturl.at/4pUXz) I decided not to walk through the detail of the many methodologies in order of use. Instead, I chose to employ a long standing, and ongoing, scientific development as an exemplar. And so, I chose the ever evolving story of Thermodynamics as a scientific investigation at its best.
Conducted over a period of >200 years, Thermodynamics R&D, and application, benefitted from the highest levels of professionalism, collaboration, and technical thoroughness. New layers of application, methodology, and practice were made possible by the progressive advance of technology. In turn, this has seen measurement and modelling accuracy continually improved at a micro and macro level.
Perhaps most importantly, Thermodynamics rapidly became a primary tool in the advance of applied science/engineering/technology, spanning micro-tech, to aerospace and cosmology. I can think of no better a story to illustrate the breadth of scientific methodologies and applications at their best.

Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...

Travis Hills of Minnesota developed a method to convert waste into high-value dry fertilizer, significantly enriching soil quality. By providing farmers with a valuable resource derived from waste, Travis Hills helps enhance farm profitability while promoting environmental stewardship. Travis Hills' sustainable practices lead to cost savings and increased revenue for farmers by improving resource efficiency and reducing waste.

原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样

原版纸张【微信：741003700 】【(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原海外各大学 Bachelor Diploma degree, Master Degree Diploma
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement

As the population is increasing and will reach about 9 billion upto 2050. Also due to climate change, it is difficult to meet the food requirement of such a large population. Facing the challenges presented by resource shortages, climate
change, and increasing global population, crop yield and quality need to be improved in a sustainable way over the coming decades. Genetic improvement by breeding is the best way to increase crop productivity. With the rapid progression of functional
genomics, an increasing number of crop genomes have been sequenced and dozens of genes influencing key agronomic traits have been identified. However, current genome sequence information has not been adequately exploited for understanding
the complex characteristics of multiple gene, owing to a lack of crop phenotypic data. Efficient, automatic, and accurate technologies and platforms that can capture phenotypic data that can
be linked to genomics information for crop improvement at all growth stages have become as important as genotyping. Thus,
high-throughput phenotyping has become the major bottleneck restricting crop breeding. Plant phenomics has been defined as the high-throughput, accurate acquisition and analysis of multi-dimensional phenotypes
during crop growing stages at the organism level, including the cell, tissue, organ, individual plant, plot, and field levels. With the rapid development of novel sensors, imaging technology,
and analysis methods, numerous infrastructure platforms have been developed for phenotyping.

Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration

Classification
Metal ion ion indicators
Masking and demasking reagents
Estimation of Magnisium sulphate
Calcium gluconate
Complexometric Titration/ chelatometry titration/chelating titration, introduction, Types-
1.Direct Titration
2.Back Titration
3.Replacement Titration
4.Indirect Titration
Masking agent, Demasking agents
formation of complex
comparition between masking and demasking agents,
Indicators/Metal ion indicators/ Metallochromic indicators/pM indicators,
Visual Technique,PM indicators (metallochromic), Indicators of pH, Redox Indicators
Instrumental Techniques-Photometry
Potentiometry
Miscellaneous methods.
Complex titration with EDTA.

ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx

With increasing population, people need to rely on packaged food stuffs. Packaging of food materials requires the preservation of food. There are various methods for the treatment of food to preserve them and irradiation treatment of food is one of them. It is the most common and the most harmless method for the food preservation as it does not alter the necessary micronutrients of food materials. Although irradiated food doesn’t cause any harm to the human health but still the quality assessment of food is required to provide consumers with necessary information about the food. ESR spectroscopy is the most sophisticated way to investigate the quality of the food and the free radicals induced during the processing of the food. ESR spin trapping technique is useful for the detection of highly unstable radicals in the food. The antioxidant capability of liquid food and beverages in mainly performed by spin trapping technique.

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

We will metaverse into the essence of immersive learning, into its three dimensions and conceptual models. This approach encompasses elements from teaching methodologies to social involvement, through organizational concerns and technologies. Challenging the perception of learning as knowledge transfer, we introduce a 'Uses, Practices & Strategies' model operationalized by the 'Immersive Learning Brain' and ‘Immersion Cube’ frameworks. This approach offers a comprehensive guide through the intricacies of immersive educational experiences and spotlighting research frontiers, along the immersion dimensions of system, narrative, and agency. Our discourse extends to stakeholders beyond the academic sphere, addressing the interests of technologists, instructional designers, and policymakers. We span various contexts, from formal education to organizational transformation to the new horizon of an AI-pervasive society. This keynote aims to unite the iLRN community in a collaborative journey towards a future where immersive learning research and practice coalesce, paving the way for innovative educational research and practice landscapes.

Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf

Presented at June 6-7 Texas Alliance of Groundwater Districts Business Meeting

Medical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptx

medical orto

Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water

Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero WaterTexas Alliance of Groundwater Districts

Presented at June 6-7 Texas Alliance of Groundwater Districts Business MeetingEquivariant neural networks and representation theory

Or: Beyond linear.
Abstract: Equivariant neural networks are neural networks that incorporate symmetries. The nonlinear activation functions in these networks result in interesting nonlinear equivariant maps between simple representations, and motivate the key player of this talk: piecewise linear representation theory.
Disclaimer: No one is perfect, so please mind that there might be mistakes and typos.
dtubbenhauer@gmail.com
Corrected slides: dtubbenhauer.com/talks.html

3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)

3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) algorithm,
Plasma expansion in the dipole magnetic field.

如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样

原版纸张【微信：741003700 】【(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原海外各大学 Bachelor Diploma degree, Master Degree Diploma
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...

Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...University of Maribor

Slides from talk:
Aleš Zamuda: Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intelligent Systems.
11th International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering (IcETRAN), Niš, 3-6 June 2024
Inter-Society Networking Panel GRSS/MTT-S/CIS Panel Session: Promoting Connection and Cooperation
https://www.etran.rs/2024/en/home-english/waterlessdyeingtechnolgyusing carbon dioxide chemicalspdf

The technology uses reclaimed CO₂ as the dyeing medium in a closed loop process. When pressurized, CO₂ becomes supercritical (SC-CO₂). In this state CO₂ has a very high solvent power, allowing the dye to dissolve easily.

Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms

Basics of crystallography

Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx

Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx

Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf

Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf

Applied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdf

Applied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdf

Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx

Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx

Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...

Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...

原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样

原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样

Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement

Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement

Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration

Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration

ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx

ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf

Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf

Medical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptx

Medical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptx

Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water

Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water

Equivariant neural networks and representation theory

Equivariant neural networks and representation theory

3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)

3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)

如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样

如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样

Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...

Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...

waterlessdyeingtechnolgyusing carbon dioxide chemicalspdf

waterlessdyeingtechnolgyusing carbon dioxide chemicalspdf

Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms

Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms

- 1. PLANCK 2021 June 2021 Daniel Baumann University of Amsterdam & National Taiwan University The Cosmological Bootstrap
- 2. Nima Arkani-Hamed, Wei Ming Chen, Hayden Lee, Manuel Loparco, Guilherme Pimentel, Carlos Duaso Pueyo and Austin Joyce Interesting related work by Enrico Pajer, Sadra Jazayeri, David Stefanyszyn, Scott Melville, Harry Goodhew, Paolo Benincasa, Charlotte Sleight, Massimo Taronna Soner Albayrak, Adam Bzowski, Sebastian Cespedes, Xingang Chen, Claudio Coriano, Anne-Christine Davis, Lorenz Eberhardt, Joseph Farrow, Garrett Goon, Tanguy Grall, Daniel Green, Aaron Hillman, Kurt Hinterbichler, Hiroshi Isono, Alex Kehagias, Savan Kharel, Shota Komatsu, Soubhik Kumar, Arthur Lipstein, Matteo Maglio, Juan Maldacena, Paul McFadden, David Meltzer, Sebastian Mizera, Toshifumi Noumi, Rafael Porto, Suvrat Raju, Antonio Riotto, Gary Shiu, Allic Sivaramakrishnan, Kostas Skenderis, Raman Sundrum, Jakub Supel, Sandip Trivedi, Mark Trodden, Yi Wang, … Based on work with
- 3. Cosmological structures are not distributed randomly, but display spatial correlations over very large distances: 380 000 years few billion years 13.8 billion years
- 4. These correlations can be traced back to the beginning of the hot Big Bang:
- 5. However, the Big Bang was not the beginning of time, but the end of an earlier high-energy period: ? t = 0 end of inflation hot big bang
- 6. What exactly happened before the hot Big Bang? How did it create the primordial correlations? The challenge is to extract this information from the pattern of correlations in the late universe. ? end of inflation hot big bang
- 7. ? end of inflation hot big bang • What correlations are consistent with basic physical principles? • Can these correlations be bootstrapped directly? locality, causality, unitarity, … What is the space of consistent correlations?
- 8. ? In that case, the rules of quantum mechanics and relativity are very constraining. The bootstrap perspective has been very influential for scattering amplitudes:
- 9. ? Does a similar rigidity exist for cosmological correlators? Goal: Develop an understanding of cosmological correlators that parallels our understanding of flat-space scattering amplitudes.
- 10. The connection to scattering amplitudes is also relevant because the early universe was like a giant cosmological collider: Chen and Wang [2009] DB and Green [2011] Noumi, Yamaguchi and Yokoyama [2013] Arkani-Hamed and Maldacena [2015] Arkani-Hamed, DB, Lee and Pimentel [2018] particle creation particle decay time space During inflation, the rapid expansion can produce very massive particles (～1014 GeV) whose decays lead to nontrivial correlations.
- 11. These particles are tracers of the inflationary dynamics: The pattern of correlations after inflation contains a memory of the physics during inflation (evolution, symmetries, particle content, etc).
- 12. 10 billion yrs << 1 sec Goal: Develop a systematic way to predict these signals. At late times, these correlations leave an imprint in the distribution of galaxies:
- 13. Outline Basics of the Bootstrap II. I. Recent Progress III. Future Directions
- 14. I. Basics of the Bootstrap
- 15. The Conventional Approach How we usually make predictions: Lagrangians equations of motion spacetime evolution Feynman diagrams Physical Principles Observables locality, causality, unitarity, symmetries Models Works well if we have a well-established theory (Standard Model, GR, …) and many observables.
- 16. The Conventional Approach Although conceptually straightforward, this has some drawbacks: • It involves unphysical gauge degrees of freedom. • Relation between Lagrangians and observables is many-to-one. • Even at tree level, the computation of cosmological correlators involves complicated time integrals: FN = X Diagrams Y Vertices dt ! ✓ External propagators ◆ ✓ Internal propagators ◆ ✓ Vertex factors ◆ Hard to compute! • Fundamental principles (e.g. locality and unitarity) are obscured. • To derive nonperturbative correlators and constraints from the UV completion, we need a deeper understanding.
- 17. The Bootstrap Method In the bootstrap approach, we cut out the middle man and go directly from fundamental principles to physical observables: This is particularly relevant when we have many theories (inflation, BSM, …) and few observables. Physical Principles Observables Models
- 18. S-matrix Bootstrap fixed by Lorentz and locality Much of the physics of scattering amplitudes is controlled by SINGULARITIES: constrained by Lorentz • Amplitudes have poles when intermediate particles go on-shell. • On these poles, the amplitudes factorize. The diﬀerent singularities are connected by (Lorentz) SYMMETRY.
- 19. S-matrix Bootstrap Consistent factorization is very constraining for massless particles: µ1...µS S = { 0 , 1 2 , 1 , 3 2 , 2 } Only consistent for spins YM GR SUSY Benincasa and Cachazo [2007] McGady and Rodina [2013]
- 20. A Success Story The modern amplitudes program has been very successful: 1. New Computational Techniques 2. New Mathematical Structures 3. New Relations Between Theories • Recursion relations • Generalized unitarity • Soft theorems • Positive geometries • Amplituhedrons • Associahedrons • Color-kinematics duality • BCJ double copy 4. New Constraints on QFTs • Positivity bounds • EFThedron 5. New Applications • Gravitational wave physics • Cosmology
- 21. Cosmological Bootstrap If inflation is correct, then all cosmological correlations can be traced back to the future boundary of an approximate de Sitter spacetime: We want to bootstrap these boundary correlations directly, without explicit reference to the bulk dynamics.
- 22. Cosmological Bootstrap The logic for bootstrapping these correlators is similar to that for amplitudes: • SINGULARITIES: Correlators have characteristic singularities as a function of the external energies. Analog of resonance singularities for amplitudes. • SYMMETRIES: These singularities are connected by causal time evolution, which is constrained by the symmetries of the bulk spacetime. Analog of Lorentz symmetry for amplitudes. Arkani-Hamed, DB, Lee and Pimentel [2018] DB, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2020] DB, Chen, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2021]
- 23. Singularities • The total energy is not conserved in cosmology: Correlators depend on the same external data as scattering amplitudes: Two important diﬀerences: • All energies must be positive:
- 24. Singularities Something interesting happens in the limit of would-be energy conservation: Raju [2012] Maldacena and Pimentel [2011] Amplitudes live inside correlators. En = AMPLITUDE TOTAL ENERGY POLE
- 25. Singularities Additional singularities arise when the energy of a subgraph is conserved: = Arkani-Hamed, Benincasa and Postnikov [2017] Arkani-Hamed, DB, Lee and Pimentel [2018] DB, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2020] PARTIAL ENERGY POLE
- 26. Singularities = Additional singularities arise when the energy of a subgraph is conserved: Arkani-Hamed, Benincasa and Postnikov [2017] Arkani-Hamed, DB, Lee and Pimentel [2018] DB, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2020] Amplitudes are the building blocks of correlators.
- 27. Singularities At tree level, these are the only singularities of the correlator: To determine the full correlator, we must connect these singular limits. = En = =
- 28. conformal symmetry Symmetries The isometries of the bulk de Sitter spacetime become rescaling symmetries of the correlators on the boundary: scaling symmetry
- 29. Symmetries These symmetries lead to a set of diﬀerential equations that control the amplitude of the correlations as we deform the quadrilateral The boundary conditions of this equation are the energy singularities. Arkani-Hamed, DB, Lee and Pimentel [2018] DB, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2020]
- 30. Symmetries Symmetry relates the singularities in the unphysical region to the form of the correlator in the physical region: En Analytic continuation Physical regime Arkani-Hamed, DB, Lee and Pimentel [2018] DB, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2020]
- 31. If the theory contains massive particles, then the correlator is forced to have an oscillatory feature in the physical regime: Particle Production BRANCH CUT OSCILLATIONS COLLAPSED LIMIT
- 32. Time Without Time These oscillations reflect the evolution of the massive particles during inflation: Time-dependent eﬀects emerge in the solution of the time-independent bootstrap constraints.
- 33. Cosmological Collider Physics Centre-of-mass energy (GeV) Cross section (nb) Four-point function Four-point function Momentum ratio Correlation strength The oscillatory feature is the analog of a resonance in collider physics:
- 34. A = g2 s M2 PS(cos ✓) The angular dependence of the signal depends on the spin of the particles. This is very similar to what we do in collider physics: Particle Spectroscopy ✓ kI / sin[M log kI ] PS(cos ✓) The frequency of the oscillations depends on the mass of the particles:
- 35. Observational Prospects SphereX This signal will be an interesting target for future galaxy surveys:
- 37. Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding the role of unitarity and transmutation in the cosmological bootstrap. Goodhew, Jazayeri and Pajer [2020] Cespedes, Davis and Melville [2020] Meltzer and Sivaramakrishnan [2020] Jazayeri, Pajer and Stefanyszyn [2021] Melville and Pajer [2021] Goodhew, Jazayeri, Lee and Pajer [2021] DB, Chen, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2021]
- 38. Unitarity An important constraint in quantum mechanics is “What goes in, must come out” U† U = 1 For scattering amplitudes, this implies the optical theorem Im( ( = X X ( ( ⇤ and the Cutkosky cutting rules. What are the constraints of unitarity for cosmological correlators?
- 39. Unitarity Goodhew, Jazayeri and Pajer derived the cosmological optical theorem • Unitarity enforces consistent factorization away from the energy poles. • In some cases, this fixes the correlator without using de Sitter symmetry. Goodhew, Jazayeri and Pajer [2020] Jazayeri, Pajer and Stefanyszyn [2021] DB, Chen, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2021] k12 −k34 kI kI and associated cutting rules: F4(kn) + F⇤ 4 ( kn) = F̃L 3 ⌦ F̃R 3 FN (kn) + F⇤ N ( kn) = X cuts FN
- 40. Transmutation Correlators in flat space are much easier to bootstrap than their counterparts in de Sitter space: Only simple poles, with residues fixed by amplitudes. = g2 EELER Correlators in de Sitter space typically have higher-order poles, which makes them harder to bootstrap.
- 41. Transmutation Recently, we showed that complicated dS correlators can be obtained by acting with transmutation operators on simple flat-space seeds: • Transmutation can also change the spin of the fields. • It can also account for symmetry breaking interactions. F (dS) N = D F (flat) N DB, Chen, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2021]
- 42. Charting the Space of dS Correlators This has allowed us to bootstrap a large number of de Sitter correlators (using scattering amplitudes and flat-space correlators as input): Scattering amplitudes Flat-space correlators De Sitter correlators DB, Chen, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2021]
- 44. • Much of this structure is controlled by singularities. • Behavior away from singularities captures local bulk dynamics. Cosmological correlation functions have a rich structure: The bootstrap approach has led to new conceptual insights: • Complex correlators can be derived from simpler seed functions: Flat space correlators Transmutation De Sitter correlators Scalar correlators Spinning correlators It also has practical applications: • Signatures of massive particles during inflation can be classified.
- 45. Only the beginning of a systematic exploration of cosmological correlators: • Are there hidden structures to be discovered? • Can we go beyond Feynman diagrams? • What is the analytic structure beyond tree level? • What is the space of UV-complete correlators? • What are its observational signatures? under- standing nonperturbative tree level (some loops) (tree level) Important open questions are
- 46. Thank you for your attention! NTU, Taiwan