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THE BIG BANG
and the Origin of Structure
Big History Lecture
February 2022
Daniel Baumann
University of Amsterdam &
National Taiwan University
10 000 galaxies
Hubble Ultra Deep Field
10 000 galaxies
Hubble Ultra Deep Field
100 000 light years
100 billion stars
100 000 light years
100 billion stars
8 light minutes
Hubble Ultra Deep Field
Sloan Digital Sky Survey
1 trillion galaxies
The Observable Universe
Where did it all
come from?
The answer involves a fascinating connection between the physics
of the very small and the very large:
The Big Bang
Quantum Origin
Structure Formation
Future Tests
Please ask
questions!
The Big Bang
Hubble (1929)

Hubble and Hummerson (1932)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
×103
Distance [Mpc]
Velocity
[km/sec]
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
0
5
10
15
20
×103
Distance [Mpc]
In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe:
The universe therefore started in a hot and dense state:
As the universe expands, it cools.
temperature
earlier later
time
hotter colder
t=0.0000000000000000001seconds
The universe is filled with almost equal
amounts of matter and antimatter
t=0.0000000000000000001seconds
The universe is filled with almost equal
amounts of matter and antimatter
As the universe cools, matter
and antimatter annihilate.
+ =
light
t=0.0000000000000000001seconds
The universe is filled with almost equal
amounts of matter and antimatter
For some mysterious reason, there was initially a fraction more matter
than antimatter. This matter survived the annihilation.
10 000 000 001 10 000 000 000
matter
Without this asymmetry we wouldn’t exist.
As the universe cools, matter
and antimatter annihilate.
+ =
light
t=0.00001s: Quarks and gluons condense into nuclei:
temperature
time
u
d
u
u
d
d
proton
neutron
10 μs
t=1s: Neutrinos decouple and neutrons freeze out:
temperature
time
1 s
Free-streaming neutrinos
• 40% of the energy density
• Significant effect on the expansion
t=3min: Light elements (H, He, and Li) form:
temperature
time
H He
3 min
• Heavier nuclei were fused inside stars.
• Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) predicts the 

correct abundances of the light elements.
25%
75%
380 000 yrs
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
H He
e
temperature
time
t=380 000yrs: Atoms form and the first light is released:
Free-streaming
photons
• 410 photons per cubic centimeter
• cooled by the expansion: 2.7 K
• faint microwave radiation: CMB
This afterglow of the Big Bang is still seen today:
0
100
200
300
400
Intensity
[MJy/sr]
100 200 300 400 500 600
−0.1
0
0.1
Frequency [GHz]
Cosmic Microwave Background
temperature
time
t>1billionyrs: Matter collapses into stars and galaxies:
1 billion yrs
This history of the universe is an observational fact:
10 μs 380 000 yrs
1 s 3 min
QCD phase
transition
Neutrino

decoupling
BBN
e
-
Photon

decoupling
Structure
formation
1 billion yrs
• The basic picture has been confirmed by many independent observations.

• Many precise details are probed by measurements of the CMB.
Where did it all
come from?
Structure
Formation
Penzias and Wilson discovered the CMB in 1965.
The signal was the same in all directions.
If that had been the end of the story it would have been a disaster.
How would inhomogeneous structures have formed?
WMAP
COBE Planck
Looking more closely, the temperature of the CMB was found to vary with
direction.
1992
2001-2010
2013-2017
Hot spots correspond to dense regions.
These small density fluctuations grew over time and became the structures we
see around us: galaxies, stars, planets, …
380 000 years 13.8 billion years
gravity
?
380 000 years 13.8 billion years
10-32 sec
We have reasons to believe that the initial fluctuations were created just
fractions of a second after the Big Bang.
To learn about this time in the history of the universe, we must decode the
pattern of fluctuations in the afterglow of the Big Bang.
The fluctuations aren’t random, but are correlated over large distances:
The fluctuations aren’t random, but are correlated over large distances:
These correlations contains an enormous amount of information about the
physics of the early universe.
2 10 30
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Power
[µK
2
]
500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Multipole
90◦
18◦ 1◦
0.2◦
0.1◦
0.07◦
Angular separation
Figure courtesy of Mathew Madhavacheril
10 100 1000
Multipole
10 100 1000
Multipole Figure courtesy of Mathew Madhavacheril
10 100 1000
Multipole Figure courtesy of Mathew Madhavacheril
10 100 1000
Multipole Figure courtesy of Mathew Madhavacheril
10 100 1000
Multipole Figure courtesy of Mathew Madhavacheril
10 100 1000
Multipole Figure courtesy of Mathew Madhavacheril
10 100 1000
Multipole Figure courtesy of Mathew Madhavacheril
10 100 1000
Multipole Figure courtesy of Mathew Madhavacheril
10 100 1000
Multipole Figure courtesy of Mathew Madhavacheril
10 100 1000
Multipole Figure courtesy of Mathew Madhavacheril
The pattern of the fluctuations is a consequence of sound waves in the early
universe:
Superposition of many waves CMB correlations
The pattern of the fluctuations is a consequence of sound waves in the early
universe:
Superposition of many waves CMB correlations
Consider a single wave:
Consider a single wave:
Dark matter
Photons + baryons
rs
Sound 

horizon
The wave travelled a distance of 50 000 light years by the time the universe
became transparent:
Temperature Polarization
This sound horizon is imprinted in the pattern of CMB fluctuations:
2 +2
1 +1
0 2 +2
1 +1
0
20
40
60
80
0
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
intensity of 11396 cold spots
✓s ✓s
1
2 ✓s
Planck (2015)
This sound horizon is imprinted in the pattern of CMB fluctuations:
90◦
18◦
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Power
[µK
2
]
2◦
0.2◦
0.1◦
0.07◦
Angular separation
The precise pattern of the CMB fluctuations depends on the composition of the
universe:
Atoms
Dark matter
Dark energy
The nature of the dark matter and dark energy is mysterious, but that would
be the subject of another talk.
Where did the initial
fluctuations come from?
Where did the initial
fluctuations come from?
Quantum
Origin
90◦
18◦
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Power
[µK
2
]
2◦
0.2◦
0.1◦
0.07◦
Angular separation
An important clue is the fact that the CMB fluctuations are correlated over
the whole sky:
Superhorizon
distance light travelled
since the Big Bang
In the standard hot Big Bang theory, this is impossible:
2
Big Bang
Observable
universe
10-32 sec = 0.00000000000000000000000000000001 seconds
This can be explained if the early universe expanded faster than the speed of
light, doubling in size at least 80 times within a fraction of a second:
Inflation
10-32 sec = 0.00000000000000000000000000000001 seconds
This can be explained if the early universe expanded faster than the speed of
light, doubling in size at least 80 times within a fraction of a second:
Inflation
The entire observable universe then originated from a microscopic, causally
connected region of space:
CMB
inflation
In quantum mechanics, empty space is full of violent fluctuations:
In quantum mechanics, empty space is full of violent fluctuations:
These quantum fluctuations are real, but usually have small effects:
Lamb shift
During inflation, quantum fluctuations get amplified and stretched:
The correlations observed in the afterglow of the Big Bang are inherited from
the correlations of the initial quantum fluctuations.
The predicted correlations are in remarkable agreement with the data:
Although the evidence for inflation is growing, the physical origin of the
inflationary expansion remains a mystery.
90◦
18◦
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Power
[µK
2
]
2◦
0.2◦
0.1◦
0.07◦
Angular separation
What substance gave rise to
the inflationary expansion?
?
Future Tests
How can inflation become part of the standard history of
the universe with the same level of confidence as BBN ?
“Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence”
Carl Sagan
10 μs 1 s 3 min
QCD phase
transition
Neutrino

decoupling
BBN
10-32 s
Inflation?
Besides fluctuations in the density, inflation predicts 

ripples in spacetime itself = gravitational waves
The strength of the signal depends on the energy scale of inflation.
LIGO/Virgo detected GWs from binary black hole mergers, with
wavelengths of order thousands of kilometres
LIGO/Virgo detected GWs from binary black hole mergers, with
wavelengths of order thousands of kilometres
The GWs produced by inflation have
wavelengths of order billions of light-years.
How do we detect them?
The presence of gravitational waves during the formation of the first atoms
leads to a swirl pattern in the polarization of the first light:
B-modes
Atacama Desert
South Pole
Detecting gravitational waves from inflation is one of the central goals of
modern observational cosmology:
BICEP
BICEP and Keck Array
South Pole Telescope
Right ascension [deg.]
Declination
[deg.]
−50
0
50
−65
−60
−55
−50
−0.3
0
0.3
B-mode signal
In March 2014, BICEP2 saw this:
Right ascension [deg.]
Declination
[deg.]
−50
0
50
−65
−60
−55
−50
−0.3
0
0.3
B-mode signal
In March 2014, BICEP2 saw this:
We got very excited …
BICEP2 press conference
time.com
In January 2015, the bubble burst:
The Planck satellite announced that the BICEP signal was not primordial, but
came from dust in our own galaxy.
The hunt for B-modes therefore continues …
380 000 yrs 1 billion yrs
10-32 s
A B-mode detection would be a milestone towards a complete
understanding of the origin of all structure in the universe.
It would give us confidence that inflation was
really part of the history of our universe.
Bedankt voor uw aandacht
The Big Bang
Daniel Baumann
and the Origin of Structure

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