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1. Cosmology and string theory inform each other, with cosmology providing precision data to test models of inflation and the early universe while string theory motivates novel effective field theories relevant for cosmology. 2. There is ongoing debate around tensions in measurements of the Hubble constant from the cosmic microwave background and supernovae, with disagreement potentially signaling new physics or systematic errors. 3. Recent progress has improved the understanding of cosmological correlations and their relation to scattering amplitudes, but unique challenges in cosmology like its non-perturbative and non-unitary nature remain.

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Bootstrapping Cosmological Correlations

The document summarizes recent progress in developing a "cosmological bootstrap" approach to predicting cosmological correlations directly from fundamental physical principles like locality, causality and unitarity, without relying on explicit models of inflation or particle physics. Key points include:
- Cosmological correlators can be understood through their singularities as energies are conserved, similar to how scattering amplitudes are understood through their singularities.
- Symmetries of de Sitter space constrain how these singularities are connected in the physical regime.
- Unitarity constraints like the optical theorem provide additional restrictions on the form of correlators.
- Oscillatory features in certain correlators can encode information about particle production during inflation,

The Past, Present and Future of Cosmology

The document summarizes the past, present, and future of cosmology. It describes how observations of the cosmic microwave background have established a standard cosmological model involving dark matter, dark energy, and nearly scale-invariant primordial fluctuations from inflation. However, key questions remain about the nature of dark matter and dark energy, as well as the origin and dynamics of inflation. Ongoing and future CMB polarization experiments aim to detect primordial gravitational waves from inflation, which would provide strong evidence for inflation and insights into high-energy physics.

Caltech Physics Colloquium

Daniel Baumann presented work on developing a "cosmological bootstrap" approach to understand cosmological correlations. This approach focuses on directly constraining correlations on the boundary of de Sitter space using principles like locality, causality and symmetries. Correlators have singularities when energies are conserved that are analogous to scattering amplitudes. Symmetries relate these singularities to the physical regime, and if massive particles are present there will be oscillatory features reflecting their production and evolution. These oscillations could potentially be observed as signatures in future galaxy surveys, providing a way to study physics during inflation like a "cosmological collider".

The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure

The document discusses the Big Bang theory of the origin and evolution of the universe. It describes how observations show that the universe began in a hot, dense state around 13.8 billion years ago and has been expanding and cooling ever since. The earliest moments after the Big Bang are explained by a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation that seeded the initial fluctuations which later grew via gravity to form all observed structures. Future experiments aim to detect gravitational waves from inflation, which would provide strong evidence supporting this theory of cosmic origins.

Energy in form of space may solve the dark energy problem

A review of recent observations suggests a universe that is light weight (matter density is 1/3rd of the critical value), accelerating and flat. This implies the existence of a cosmic Dark Energy that overcomes the gravitational self-attraction force of matter and causes the accelerating expansion. Finding out the cause of expansion and acceleration of the universe is a challenging job in present day cosmology. Cosmological models with different types of dark energy are becoming viable standard models to analyze and simulate experimental data from a number of high red shift supernovae. In this article, physical significance and analytical expression for dark energy related to total energy (or energy density) and matter (or matter density) in the universe is presented. It is assumed that 'space' or 'vacuum' is another form of energy (other form is mass which is related as E = mc2). With this assumption new cosmological equation of state is constructed which is in very good agreement with present observations. Thus energy evolves from matter to radiation to space. It is also predicted that the existence of a fundamental particle with mass less than the mass of a quark is possible.

Neven Bilic, "Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unification Models"

Lecture at the SEENET-MTP Pilot Seminar for PhD Students on Cosmology, SEENET-COSMO 2014 Seminar (12 – 15 February 2014, Nis, Serbia)

Out into space 1

1) Gravity is caused by the gravitational attraction between all masses due to their mass, as described by Newton's law of universal gravitation. The strength of this gravitational attraction depends on the inverse square of the distance between the masses.
2) On the Moon, you would weigh less than on Earth because the Moon has less mass than Earth, so its gravitational pull is weaker according to Newton's law.
3) By Newton's third law, the Earth is also pulled towards the object with an equal and opposite force to the gravitational attraction felt by the object.

The black hole catastrophe paradox

The document discusses a proposed paradox related to gravitational fields and black holes. It suggests that if the gravitational field increases locally in a small model universe, it could potentially cause the entire universe to collapse into a black hole singularity, ending space-time and information. However, the document proposes that anti-gravity must also increase throughout the universe as gravitational fields increase locally to prevent this "black hole catastrophe." It argues that Einstein's field equations and the cosmological constant must be correlated such that increases or decreases in one result in equal and opposite changes in the other, maintaining a balance and stability in the universe.

Bootstrapping Cosmological Correlations

The document summarizes recent progress in developing a "cosmological bootstrap" approach to predicting cosmological correlations directly from fundamental physical principles like locality, causality and unitarity, without relying on explicit models of inflation or particle physics. Key points include:
- Cosmological correlators can be understood through their singularities as energies are conserved, similar to how scattering amplitudes are understood through their singularities.
- Symmetries of de Sitter space constrain how these singularities are connected in the physical regime.
- Unitarity constraints like the optical theorem provide additional restrictions on the form of correlators.
- Oscillatory features in certain correlators can encode information about particle production during inflation,

The Past, Present and Future of Cosmology

The document summarizes the past, present, and future of cosmology. It describes how observations of the cosmic microwave background have established a standard cosmological model involving dark matter, dark energy, and nearly scale-invariant primordial fluctuations from inflation. However, key questions remain about the nature of dark matter and dark energy, as well as the origin and dynamics of inflation. Ongoing and future CMB polarization experiments aim to detect primordial gravitational waves from inflation, which would provide strong evidence for inflation and insights into high-energy physics.

Caltech Physics Colloquium

Daniel Baumann presented work on developing a "cosmological bootstrap" approach to understand cosmological correlations. This approach focuses on directly constraining correlations on the boundary of de Sitter space using principles like locality, causality and symmetries. Correlators have singularities when energies are conserved that are analogous to scattering amplitudes. Symmetries relate these singularities to the physical regime, and if massive particles are present there will be oscillatory features reflecting their production and evolution. These oscillations could potentially be observed as signatures in future galaxy surveys, providing a way to study physics during inflation like a "cosmological collider".

The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure

The document discusses the Big Bang theory of the origin and evolution of the universe. It describes how observations show that the universe began in a hot, dense state around 13.8 billion years ago and has been expanding and cooling ever since. The earliest moments after the Big Bang are explained by a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation that seeded the initial fluctuations which later grew via gravity to form all observed structures. Future experiments aim to detect gravitational waves from inflation, which would provide strong evidence supporting this theory of cosmic origins.

Energy in form of space may solve the dark energy problem

A review of recent observations suggests a universe that is light weight (matter density is 1/3rd of the critical value), accelerating and flat. This implies the existence of a cosmic Dark Energy that overcomes the gravitational self-attraction force of matter and causes the accelerating expansion. Finding out the cause of expansion and acceleration of the universe is a challenging job in present day cosmology. Cosmological models with different types of dark energy are becoming viable standard models to analyze and simulate experimental data from a number of high red shift supernovae. In this article, physical significance and analytical expression for dark energy related to total energy (or energy density) and matter (or matter density) in the universe is presented. It is assumed that 'space' or 'vacuum' is another form of energy (other form is mass which is related as E = mc2). With this assumption new cosmological equation of state is constructed which is in very good agreement with present observations. Thus energy evolves from matter to radiation to space. It is also predicted that the existence of a fundamental particle with mass less than the mass of a quark is possible.

Neven Bilic, "Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unification Models"

Lecture at the SEENET-MTP Pilot Seminar for PhD Students on Cosmology, SEENET-COSMO 2014 Seminar (12 – 15 February 2014, Nis, Serbia)

Out into space 1

1) Gravity is caused by the gravitational attraction between all masses due to their mass, as described by Newton's law of universal gravitation. The strength of this gravitational attraction depends on the inverse square of the distance between the masses.
2) On the Moon, you would weigh less than on Earth because the Moon has less mass than Earth, so its gravitational pull is weaker according to Newton's law.
3) By Newton's third law, the Earth is also pulled towards the object with an equal and opposite force to the gravitational attraction felt by the object.

The black hole catastrophe paradox

The document discusses a proposed paradox related to gravitational fields and black holes. It suggests that if the gravitational field increases locally in a small model universe, it could potentially cause the entire universe to collapse into a black hole singularity, ending space-time and information. However, the document proposes that anti-gravity must also increase throughout the universe as gravitational fields increase locally to prevent this "black hole catastrophe." It argues that Einstein's field equations and the cosmological constant must be correlated such that increases or decreases in one result in equal and opposite changes in the other, maintaining a balance and stability in the universe.

Gravity origin & evolution

This document discusses the history and development of our understanding of gravity through the work of key scientists like Galileo, Kepler, Newton and Einstein. It summarizes Galileo and Kepler's early discoveries about motion and orbits that helped establish gravity. It then outlines Newton's laws of motion and universal law of gravitation that explained gravity on Earth and in the solar system. Finally, it discusses Einstein's theory of relativity that revolutionized our understanding by showing that gravity is related to the curvature of spacetime.

The colision between_the_milky_way_and_andromeda

The document summarizes a simulation of the future collision between the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. It finds that given current observational constraints on their distance, velocity, and masses:
1) The Milky Way and Andromeda are likely to collide in a few billion years, within the lifetime of the Sun.
2) During the interaction, there is a chance the Sun could be pulled into an extended tidal tail between the galaxies.
3) Eventually, after the merger is complete, the Sun would most likely be scattered to the outer halo of the merged galaxy at a distance over 30 kpc.

robcflux

This document discusses the recycling of magnetic flux in the quiet Sun's corona. It presents a study that uses magnetogram observations to track photospheric magnetic flux fragments over time and models their evolution using a potential field approximation. The main findings are:
1) The quiet Sun's coronal flux is generally recycled on much shorter timescales, around 3 hours, than the corresponding recycling timescale of photospheric flux, which is around 8-19 hours.
2) When also considering emergence and cancellation of photospheric flux, the net replacement time of coronal flux is estimated to be only 1.4 hours.
3) The amount of magnetic reconnection driven by the motions and interactions of photospheric

investigation-metallicity-dependent

- The document investigates the implications of a proposed metallicity-dependent initial mass function (IMF), which suggests the IMF varies based on the metallicity of a star formation environment.
- Using observations of globular cluster Palomar 14 and open cluster M42, the author constrains an upper bound for metallicity dependence, resulting in a two-part power law IMF function that depends on metallicity.
- However, the document concludes that current evidence is inadequate to prove a metallicity-dependent IMF, as measurements of cluster IMFs are complicated by issues like dynamics, binaries, and evolution over time.

A recipe for multi-metric gravity

This document provides an overview of research on multi-metric gravity theories. It begins by introducing linear massive gravity and how it generates an extra ghost degree of freedom. Developments in nonlinear massive gravity and bi-metric gravity resolved this by introducing interaction terms between the metrics. The document then discusses proposals for tri-metric and multi-metric gravity, but notes the ghost problem remains unresolved in tri-metric gravity. It proceeds to analyze the Hamiltonian of an example tri-metric gravity theory to investigate the presence of ghosts. Finally, it contrasts metric and vielbein formulations of multiple interacting spin-2 fields.

Overview of GTR and Introduction to Cosmology

This document provides an overview of general relativity and an introduction to cosmology. It discusses key concepts such as:
- General relativity builds on Einstein's theory that gravity curves spacetime.
- The principle of equivalence states that inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent.
- Einstein's field equations relate the curvature of spacetime to the energy and momentum within it.
- Tests of general relativity include observations of orbiting bodies like Mercury, gravitational lensing, and the detection of gravitational waves.
- The cosmological principle states that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic on large scales.

Dark energy by david spergel

The document discusses the evidence for dark energy from observations of Type Ia supernovae, the cosmic microwave background radiation, and large-scale structure like galaxy clusters. It finds that about 73% of the universe consists of dark energy, which is causing the accelerating expansion of the universe. Future experiments aim to better characterize dark energy and test whether it is due to a cosmological constant, modified gravity, or other explanations like quintessence. Precise measurements of the expansion history and growth of structure can help distinguish between theories of dark energy.

Edtec 440 instruc mm

Students will use online resources and a solar system simulation to understand the relationships between gravitational constant, mass, and different planets in the solar system. They will identify the mass of each planet and interpret the concept of gravitational constant. Finally, students will create a mind map model showing the mass and gravitational constant of each planet in the solar system to demonstrate their understanding of the relationships.

Mass as a Geometric Property of Spacetime

A relationship between mass as a geometric concept and motion associated with a closed curve in spacetime (a notion taken from differential geometry) is investigated. We show that the 4-dimensional exterior Schwarzschild solution of the General Theory of Relativity can be mapped to a 4-dimensional Euclidean spacetime manifold. As a consequence of this mapping, the quantity M in the exterior Schwarzschild solution which is usually attributed to a massive central object is shown to correspond to a geometric property of spacetime. An additional outcome of this analysis is the discovery that, because M is a property of spacetime geometry, an anisotropy with respect to its spacetime components measured in a Minkowski tangent space defined with respect to a spacetime event P by an observer O who is stationary with respect to the spacetime event P, may be a sensitive measure of an anisotropic cosmic accelerated expansion. The presence of anisotropy in the cosmic accelerated expansion may contribute to the reason that there are currently two prevailing measured estimates of this quantity

Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA M...

The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury’s ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results conﬁrm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a signiﬁcantly reﬁned uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η=(−6.6±7.2)×10−5. By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β=1+(−1.6±1.8)×10−5 and the Sun’s gravitational oblateness, J2 =(2.246±0.022)×10−7. Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, _ GM=GM =(−6.13±1.47)×10−14, which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain _

LOW FREQUENCY GW SOURCES: Chapter II: Massive black hole binary cosmic evolut...

LOW FREQUENCY GW SOURCES: Chapter II: Massive black hole binary cosmic evolut...Lake Como School of Advanced Studies

1) Massive black hole binaries form during galaxy mergers and evolve through dynamical friction and 3-body interactions with stars until reaching separations of ~0.01 pc where gravitational wave emission takes over.
2) Gas dynamics may also drive black hole binaries to smaller separations for coalescence.
3) Black hole binary coalescence timescales are typically long, on the order of billions of years, which has implications for gravitational wave detection and triple black hole interactions.An Overview of Cosmology

This document provides a summary of big-bang cosmology and the evidence supporting it. It discusses how observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation, light element abundances from big-bang nucleosynthesis, galaxy rotation curves, and type 1a supernovae provide evidence that the universe began in a hot, dense state and is undergoing expansion. It also summarizes the evidence for dark matter from various astronomical observations and outlines how weakly interacting massive particles are a leading candidate. The document concludes by discussing baryogenesis and possible mechanisms for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe.

Cmb part1

This document provides an overview of cosmic microwave background radiation and its theoretical framework. It discusses how CMB was discovered and its importance as evidence for the Big Bang model. The document outlines the theoretical concepts behind CMB, including the standard cosmological model, Friedman equations, perturbations in spacetime metric, and using the Boltzmann equation to model changes in particle densities as the universe expands. It also provides background on key observational findings about CMB from missions like COBE, WMAP and Planck.

multi-field-inflation

This document summarizes a physics research project on models of cosmological inflation. The project analytically and numerically evaluates single field models, multifield hybrid models, and f(R) models arising from modified gravity. It calculates the dynamics of these models and makes theoretical predictions for observables like the scalar spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio. These predictions are compared to experimental data to determine which models produce viable inflationary theories. The project reproduces known single field results and explores higher-order f(R) terms, showing they can only be a small correction to Starobinsky inflation. It also evaluates a multifield hybrid potential and how two fields can combine to produce inflation.

Background Physics Information

Physics is the study of matter and energy. The goal is to describe the physical world using basic concepts, equations, and assumptions. These principles can then be used to make predictions and have unexpected practical applications. The main branches are mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, vibrations and waves, and modern physics. The scientific method involves making observations and developing hypotheses that can be tested. The International System of Units (SI) provides standard units for measurements like length, mass, and time that are used in physics. Common prefixes are used to modify the scale of these units.

Gravitation motion

- Gravitation is one of the four fundamental forces and is the weakest. It keeps the constituents of the universe like stars, galaxies, and planets bound together.
- Newton's law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
- The gravitational constant G is equal to the force between two unit masses separated by a unit distance and has a value of 6.67x10-11 Nm2/kg2. G is universal and does not depend on the nature, size, or distance between masses.

Gct sfp cp-25112015

1) The document proposes an alternative cosmological model where dark matter and dark energy are described as forms of ether, analogous to Mach's principle of inertia.
2) In this model, dark matter arises from the QCD vacuum or "sea" of quark-antiquark pairs and gluons at the confinement scale, while dark energy corresponds to the zero-point energy of the QCD vacuum.
3) The model aims to replace the standard LambdaCDM model, treating the expanding universe as a dynamically stable "biking" Einstein universe where the running cosmological constant compensates for the effect of gravity at all epochs.

Limit radius in a binary system: Cosmological and Post-Newtonian effects

Frequently, in dynamical astronomy, the quantitative effect of the large-scale cosmological expansion on local systems is studied in the light of Newtonian approach. We, however, analyze the influence of cosmological expansion on binary systems (galaxies or black holes) in the light of Post-Newtonian approximation. Furthermore, we obtain the new radius at which the acceleration due to the cosmological expansion has the same magnitude as the two-body attraction, and the classical limit radius is obtained when the Schwarzschild radius approaches zero (for example, the Solar System).

Michelson-Morley Experiment: A Misconceived & Misinterpreted Experiment

In this published paper it has been shown that Michelson-Morley experiment is actually the proof of existence of aether.

Torsion and gravity seminar

Gravity in general relativity and Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory is summarized. In general relativity, gravity is described using a symmetric connection and Riemannian geometry. The Einstein field equations relate the Ricci tensor and scalar to the stress-energy tensor. In ECSK theory, the connection is non-symmetric due to the inclusion of torsion. This leads to modifications in the covariant derivative, curvature, and Einstein field equations compared to general relativity. ECSK theory aims to extend general relativity to combine macroscopic and microscopic scales.

H. Stefancic: The Accelerated Expansion of the Universe and the Cosmological ...

Lecture form Spring School on Strings, Cosmology and Particles (SSSCP2009), March 31-4 2009, Belgrade/Nis, Serbia

The State of the Universe

This document summarizes a lecture on observational cosmology and the current state of the standard cosmological model. It discusses key aspects of the standard model like the Robertson-Walker metric, ingredients like dark matter and dark energy, and questionable aspects. It also covers alternatives to cold dark matter models, the possibility that dark matter is quantum mechanical, and anomalies in the cosmic microwave background data. The document emphasizes that cosmology involves massive data compression and cautions against overinterpreting potential anomalies in the data.

Gravity origin & evolution

This document discusses the history and development of our understanding of gravity through the work of key scientists like Galileo, Kepler, Newton and Einstein. It summarizes Galileo and Kepler's early discoveries about motion and orbits that helped establish gravity. It then outlines Newton's laws of motion and universal law of gravitation that explained gravity on Earth and in the solar system. Finally, it discusses Einstein's theory of relativity that revolutionized our understanding by showing that gravity is related to the curvature of spacetime.

The colision between_the_milky_way_and_andromeda

The document summarizes a simulation of the future collision between the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. It finds that given current observational constraints on their distance, velocity, and masses:
1) The Milky Way and Andromeda are likely to collide in a few billion years, within the lifetime of the Sun.
2) During the interaction, there is a chance the Sun could be pulled into an extended tidal tail between the galaxies.
3) Eventually, after the merger is complete, the Sun would most likely be scattered to the outer halo of the merged galaxy at a distance over 30 kpc.

robcflux

This document discusses the recycling of magnetic flux in the quiet Sun's corona. It presents a study that uses magnetogram observations to track photospheric magnetic flux fragments over time and models their evolution using a potential field approximation. The main findings are:
1) The quiet Sun's coronal flux is generally recycled on much shorter timescales, around 3 hours, than the corresponding recycling timescale of photospheric flux, which is around 8-19 hours.
2) When also considering emergence and cancellation of photospheric flux, the net replacement time of coronal flux is estimated to be only 1.4 hours.
3) The amount of magnetic reconnection driven by the motions and interactions of photospheric

investigation-metallicity-dependent

- The document investigates the implications of a proposed metallicity-dependent initial mass function (IMF), which suggests the IMF varies based on the metallicity of a star formation environment.
- Using observations of globular cluster Palomar 14 and open cluster M42, the author constrains an upper bound for metallicity dependence, resulting in a two-part power law IMF function that depends on metallicity.
- However, the document concludes that current evidence is inadequate to prove a metallicity-dependent IMF, as measurements of cluster IMFs are complicated by issues like dynamics, binaries, and evolution over time.

A recipe for multi-metric gravity

This document provides an overview of research on multi-metric gravity theories. It begins by introducing linear massive gravity and how it generates an extra ghost degree of freedom. Developments in nonlinear massive gravity and bi-metric gravity resolved this by introducing interaction terms between the metrics. The document then discusses proposals for tri-metric and multi-metric gravity, but notes the ghost problem remains unresolved in tri-metric gravity. It proceeds to analyze the Hamiltonian of an example tri-metric gravity theory to investigate the presence of ghosts. Finally, it contrasts metric and vielbein formulations of multiple interacting spin-2 fields.

Overview of GTR and Introduction to Cosmology

This document provides an overview of general relativity and an introduction to cosmology. It discusses key concepts such as:
- General relativity builds on Einstein's theory that gravity curves spacetime.
- The principle of equivalence states that inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent.
- Einstein's field equations relate the curvature of spacetime to the energy and momentum within it.
- Tests of general relativity include observations of orbiting bodies like Mercury, gravitational lensing, and the detection of gravitational waves.
- The cosmological principle states that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic on large scales.

Dark energy by david spergel

The document discusses the evidence for dark energy from observations of Type Ia supernovae, the cosmic microwave background radiation, and large-scale structure like galaxy clusters. It finds that about 73% of the universe consists of dark energy, which is causing the accelerating expansion of the universe. Future experiments aim to better characterize dark energy and test whether it is due to a cosmological constant, modified gravity, or other explanations like quintessence. Precise measurements of the expansion history and growth of structure can help distinguish between theories of dark energy.

Edtec 440 instruc mm

Students will use online resources and a solar system simulation to understand the relationships between gravitational constant, mass, and different planets in the solar system. They will identify the mass of each planet and interpret the concept of gravitational constant. Finally, students will create a mind map model showing the mass and gravitational constant of each planet in the solar system to demonstrate their understanding of the relationships.

Mass as a Geometric Property of Spacetime

A relationship between mass as a geometric concept and motion associated with a closed curve in spacetime (a notion taken from differential geometry) is investigated. We show that the 4-dimensional exterior Schwarzschild solution of the General Theory of Relativity can be mapped to a 4-dimensional Euclidean spacetime manifold. As a consequence of this mapping, the quantity M in the exterior Schwarzschild solution which is usually attributed to a massive central object is shown to correspond to a geometric property of spacetime. An additional outcome of this analysis is the discovery that, because M is a property of spacetime geometry, an anisotropy with respect to its spacetime components measured in a Minkowski tangent space defined with respect to a spacetime event P by an observer O who is stationary with respect to the spacetime event P, may be a sensitive measure of an anisotropic cosmic accelerated expansion. The presence of anisotropy in the cosmic accelerated expansion may contribute to the reason that there are currently two prevailing measured estimates of this quantity

Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA M...

The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury’s ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results conﬁrm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a signiﬁcantly reﬁned uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η=(−6.6±7.2)×10−5. By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β=1+(−1.6±1.8)×10−5 and the Sun’s gravitational oblateness, J2 =(2.246±0.022)×10−7. Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, _ GM=GM =(−6.13±1.47)×10−14, which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain _

LOW FREQUENCY GW SOURCES: Chapter II: Massive black hole binary cosmic evolut...

LOW FREQUENCY GW SOURCES: Chapter II: Massive black hole binary cosmic evolut...Lake Como School of Advanced Studies

1) Massive black hole binaries form during galaxy mergers and evolve through dynamical friction and 3-body interactions with stars until reaching separations of ~0.01 pc where gravitational wave emission takes over.
2) Gas dynamics may also drive black hole binaries to smaller separations for coalescence.
3) Black hole binary coalescence timescales are typically long, on the order of billions of years, which has implications for gravitational wave detection and triple black hole interactions.An Overview of Cosmology

This document provides a summary of big-bang cosmology and the evidence supporting it. It discusses how observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation, light element abundances from big-bang nucleosynthesis, galaxy rotation curves, and type 1a supernovae provide evidence that the universe began in a hot, dense state and is undergoing expansion. It also summarizes the evidence for dark matter from various astronomical observations and outlines how weakly interacting massive particles are a leading candidate. The document concludes by discussing baryogenesis and possible mechanisms for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe.

Cmb part1

This document provides an overview of cosmic microwave background radiation and its theoretical framework. It discusses how CMB was discovered and its importance as evidence for the Big Bang model. The document outlines the theoretical concepts behind CMB, including the standard cosmological model, Friedman equations, perturbations in spacetime metric, and using the Boltzmann equation to model changes in particle densities as the universe expands. It also provides background on key observational findings about CMB from missions like COBE, WMAP and Planck.

multi-field-inflation

This document summarizes a physics research project on models of cosmological inflation. The project analytically and numerically evaluates single field models, multifield hybrid models, and f(R) models arising from modified gravity. It calculates the dynamics of these models and makes theoretical predictions for observables like the scalar spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio. These predictions are compared to experimental data to determine which models produce viable inflationary theories. The project reproduces known single field results and explores higher-order f(R) terms, showing they can only be a small correction to Starobinsky inflation. It also evaluates a multifield hybrid potential and how two fields can combine to produce inflation.

Background Physics Information

Physics is the study of matter and energy. The goal is to describe the physical world using basic concepts, equations, and assumptions. These principles can then be used to make predictions and have unexpected practical applications. The main branches are mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, vibrations and waves, and modern physics. The scientific method involves making observations and developing hypotheses that can be tested. The International System of Units (SI) provides standard units for measurements like length, mass, and time that are used in physics. Common prefixes are used to modify the scale of these units.

Gravitation motion

- Gravitation is one of the four fundamental forces and is the weakest. It keeps the constituents of the universe like stars, galaxies, and planets bound together.
- Newton's law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
- The gravitational constant G is equal to the force between two unit masses separated by a unit distance and has a value of 6.67x10-11 Nm2/kg2. G is universal and does not depend on the nature, size, or distance between masses.

Gct sfp cp-25112015

1) The document proposes an alternative cosmological model where dark matter and dark energy are described as forms of ether, analogous to Mach's principle of inertia.
2) In this model, dark matter arises from the QCD vacuum or "sea" of quark-antiquark pairs and gluons at the confinement scale, while dark energy corresponds to the zero-point energy of the QCD vacuum.
3) The model aims to replace the standard LambdaCDM model, treating the expanding universe as a dynamically stable "biking" Einstein universe where the running cosmological constant compensates for the effect of gravity at all epochs.

Limit radius in a binary system: Cosmological and Post-Newtonian effects

Frequently, in dynamical astronomy, the quantitative effect of the large-scale cosmological expansion on local systems is studied in the light of Newtonian approach. We, however, analyze the influence of cosmological expansion on binary systems (galaxies or black holes) in the light of Post-Newtonian approximation. Furthermore, we obtain the new radius at which the acceleration due to the cosmological expansion has the same magnitude as the two-body attraction, and the classical limit radius is obtained when the Schwarzschild radius approaches zero (for example, the Solar System).

Michelson-Morley Experiment: A Misconceived & Misinterpreted Experiment

In this published paper it has been shown that Michelson-Morley experiment is actually the proof of existence of aether.

Torsion and gravity seminar

Gravity in general relativity and Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory is summarized. In general relativity, gravity is described using a symmetric connection and Riemannian geometry. The Einstein field equations relate the Ricci tensor and scalar to the stress-energy tensor. In ECSK theory, the connection is non-symmetric due to the inclusion of torsion. This leads to modifications in the covariant derivative, curvature, and Einstein field equations compared to general relativity. ECSK theory aims to extend general relativity to combine macroscopic and microscopic scales.

Gravity origin & evolution

Gravity origin & evolution

The colision between_the_milky_way_and_andromeda

The colision between_the_milky_way_and_andromeda

robcflux

robcflux

investigation-metallicity-dependent

investigation-metallicity-dependent

A recipe for multi-metric gravity

A recipe for multi-metric gravity

Overview of GTR and Introduction to Cosmology

Overview of GTR and Introduction to Cosmology

Dark energy by david spergel

Dark energy by david spergel

Edtec 440 instruc mm

Edtec 440 instruc mm

Mass as a Geometric Property of Spacetime

Mass as a Geometric Property of Spacetime

Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA M...

Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA M...

LOW FREQUENCY GW SOURCES: Chapter II: Massive black hole binary cosmic evolut...

LOW FREQUENCY GW SOURCES: Chapter II: Massive black hole binary cosmic evolut...

An Overview of Cosmology

An Overview of Cosmology

Cmb part1

Cmb part1

multi-field-inflation

multi-field-inflation

Background Physics Information

Background Physics Information

Gravitation motion

Gravitation motion

Gct sfp cp-25112015

Gct sfp cp-25112015

Limit radius in a binary system: Cosmological and Post-Newtonian effects

Limit radius in a binary system: Cosmological and Post-Newtonian effects

Michelson-Morley Experiment: A Misconceived & Misinterpreted Experiment

Michelson-Morley Experiment: A Misconceived & Misinterpreted Experiment

Torsion and gravity seminar

Torsion and gravity seminar

H. Stefancic: The Accelerated Expansion of the Universe and the Cosmological ...

Lecture form Spring School on Strings, Cosmology and Particles (SSSCP2009), March 31-4 2009, Belgrade/Nis, Serbia

The State of the Universe

This document summarizes a lecture on observational cosmology and the current state of the standard cosmological model. It discusses key aspects of the standard model like the Robertson-Walker metric, ingredients like dark matter and dark energy, and questionable aspects. It also covers alternatives to cold dark matter models, the possibility that dark matter is quantum mechanical, and anomalies in the cosmic microwave background data. The document emphasizes that cosmology involves massive data compression and cautions against overinterpreting potential anomalies in the data.

Oxford slides on Duality and Emergence

Talk given at Oxford Philosophy of Physics, LSE's Sigma Club, the Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy, Carlo Rovelli's 60th birthday conference.
I construe dualities in physics as particular cases of theoretical equivalence. The question then naturally arises whether duality is compatible with emergence. For the the focus of emergence is on novelty rather than on equivalence.
In the first part of the talk, I review recent work dealing with this question. I exhibit two ways in which duality and equivalence can be made compatible, and I give an example of emergence in gauge/gravity dualities: dualities between a theory of gravity in (d+1) dimensions and a quantum field theory (QFT) in d dimensions.
In the second part of the talk, I present new results on the question whether diffeomorphisms in gravity theories emerge from QFTs. I critically assess the following idea, taken from the physics literature: given that (a) the QFT is not a diffeomorphism invariant theory, and that (b) there is a duality between the QFT and the gravity theory, are we entitled to (c) conclude that the diffeomorphisms of the gravity theory emerge from the QFT?
I argue that one must distinguish different kinds of diffeomorphisms: some diffeomorphisms are ‘invisible’ to the QFT: all of the QFT’s quantities are invariant under them, therefore the QFT does not ‘see’ them. But other diffeomorphisms are ‘visible’ to the QFT. The invisible diffeomorphisms prompt a ‘Bulk Argument’, in analogy with the Hole Argument. The analysis of emergence is different for these different kinds of diffeomorphisms, and I discuss the way in which we can speak of emergence of diffeomorphisms in gauge/gravity dualities.

The universe & mathematical cosmology

The document discusses mathematical cosmology and modeling of the universe. It begins by outlining fundamental questions about the universe's origins and evolution. The two main aspects of cosmology are theoretical, based on mathematics, and observational, based on physics. The Big Bang theory is the most widely accepted scientific theory describing the expanding universe. Mathematical models of the universe are constructed using general relativity and by specifying the geometry and matter content. The Lambda-CDM model provides the current standard framework, though other models also aim to explain the observed late-time acceleration of the universe's expansion.

Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations

The document summarizes a colloquium talk about the origin of structure in the universe. It discusses how cosmological correlations provide clues about early universe physics before the hot Big Bang, including evidence that primordial fluctuations were scale invariant. Recent work has developed a "cosmological bootstrap" approach to derive correlation functions by imposing physical consistency conditions rather than directly computing time integrals. This approach reveals differential equations whose solutions encode particle production during inflation and emerge time evolution, providing a new perspective on cosmology without time.

Mangano esa

The document discusses the motivation and opportunities for a future circular collider (FCC) facility for particle physics. Key points:
- The FCC would allow physicists to answer important open questions that the LHC cannot, such as the origin of neutrino masses, dark matter, and the Higgs boson.
- It outlines the technological challenges of building higher energy colliders and achieving precision measurements. Examples like superconducting magnets and beam control are discussed.
- The FCC could include an electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), proton-proton collider (FCC-hh), and possible electron-proton collider (FCC-eh) in a single 100km tunnel.

The search for quantum gravity phenomenology - Marcus Reitz

One of the challenging open questions of theoretical physics is how to unify general relativity and quantum theory to find a microscopic description of gravity. There are many approaches to find a solution to this fundamental question. It is however difficult to constrain all these possibilities because the relevant scales are far smaller than those accessible by current experiments. With the recent technological breakthroughs of the detection of gravitational waves and the direct imaging of a black hole, we are at the dawn of an era of strong gravity astronomy. It is therefore more important than ever to concentrate on finding observable features of quantum gravity that could in principle leave an imprint in future experiments. After a brief introduction of the fundamental aspects of quantum gravity, I will give an example of such a feature which seems to be a universal property of theories of quantum gravity. In many theories of quantum gravity, space-time has fractal properties near the Planck scale. A consequence which in principle could be observed, is that the effective dimension of space-time is a function of the scale that one is probing.

Colloquium2013

This document discusses the nature of gravity and its relationship to other forces and fields. It provides evidence that gravity is an emergent phenomenon that arises from an underlying non-gravitational theory. Specifically:
1) Gravity behaves differently than other forces in that it curves spacetime itself rather than being mediated by particle exchanges. However, quantum gravity theories propose gravitons as force-carrying particles.
2) Holographic duality theories from the 1990s demonstrated that gravitational theories in higher dimensions are equivalent to non-gravitational theories in lower dimensions.
3) Modern developments like string theory and the AdS/CFT correspondence provide concrete examples of holography and establish gravity as an emer

Berlin - Conceptual Aspects of Gauge-Gravity Duality

The document discusses the benefits of exercise for mental health. Regular physical activity can help reduce anxiety and depression and improve mood and cognitive function. Exercise causes chemical changes in the brain that may help protect against mental illness and improve symptoms for those who already suffer from conditions like depression and anxiety.

Reduction and Emergence in Holographic Scenarios

Talk given at the Munich Center for Advanced Studies, conference Reduction and Emergence in the Sciences, Nov. 15, 2013.

OBC | String theory and quests for unification of fundamental forces of nature

OBC | String theory and quests for unification of fundamental forces of natureOut of The Box Seminar

Mirjam Cvetič, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
String theory and quests for unification of fundamental forces of nature
http://obc2012.outofthebox.si/Ceplerley lecture

Lecture 1 provided an introduction to simulation techniques, including a brief history and overview of statistical mechanics and ergodicity. It discussed challenges such as limited system sizes and timescales in simulations. Estimating errors from simulations is difficult due to correlated data over time; methods to estimate means, variances, and errors were introduced.

Florence Duality Talk: Reduction and Emergence in Holographic Scenarios for G...

Philosophical talk about the status of dualities and the emergence of gravity in two holographic scenarios: 1) AdS/CFT and 2) Verlinde's scenario of emergent gravity.

American Astronomical Society plenary talk

This document discusses 20 years of computational progress in simulating the first generation of galaxies, or protogalaxies, that formed after the Big Bang. It describes how powerful supercomputers and open-source software tools have allowed researchers to simulate the formation and properties of these early galaxies through detailed modeling of the relevant physics. Key findings include that the first galaxies formed around 100 million years after the Big Bang, were massive, and provided enough ionizing photons to help reionize the universe by redshift 7, resolving discrepancies with observational data. The simulations have significantly advanced understanding of galaxy formation from the first stars to the earliest galaxy populations.

Dualitiy in Contemporary Mathematics Wuppertal

Dualities in Physics. Talk given at the conference Duality in Contemporary Mathematics in Wuppertal, September 2015.

Standard model of particle physics

The standard model of particle physics attempts to describe the fundamental interactions of nature. It classifies all known elementary particles and their interactions via gauge bosons that mediate four fundamental forces. While successful, it is limited and does not account for gravity, dark matter, neutrino masses, inflation, or the asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the universe. Many theories beyond the standard model have been proposed to address its limitations, such as supersymmetry, grand unification, string theory, and others.

Princeton conference Equivalent Theories in Physics and Metaphysics

Talk given at the conference Equivalent Theories in Physics and Metaphysics, 20-21 March 2015, Princeton University, NJ, USA.

Beyond bohr de broglie and heisenberg for universe to atom module cfi

This document summarizes the development of quantum mechanics from Bohr's early model of the atom to the fully quantum models developed in the 1920s. It discusses modifications made to Bohr's model, such as elliptical orbits and additional quantum numbers. Key figures who contributed include de Broglie, Heisenberg, Schrodinger, and Pauli. De Broglie hypothesized that particles have wave-like properties, which was confirmed by Davisson and Germer's electron diffraction experiment. Heisenberg formulated matrix mechanics and proposed the uncertainty principle. Schrodinger developed wave mechanics using wave functions, and his equation can be used to calculate energy levels.

OPT Presentation

The document summarizes research on manipulating the dispersion relation of coupled discrete line defects in photonic crystals. It describes how the separation distance between line defects affects the coupling coefficients and dispersion curves based on tight binding theory. Simulation results show that mixing different separation distances produces new dispersion curves with regions of large linear dispersion ideal for applications like slow light propagation. The slopes of the new curves can be controlled by adjusting the arrangement of separation distances to design structures for specific applications.

Cosmology

This document discusses the relationship between amplitudes and cosmology. Amplitude methods have led to advances in computing cosmological correlations through recursion relations and generalized unitarity. Observations of the CMB and large-scale structure have revealed properties of the primordial fluctuations, including near scale-invariance, adiabaticity, and Gaussianity. Models of inflation aim to explain these properties, and the effective field theory of inflation provides a framework to study fluctuations beyond slow-roll. Future experiments will further probe the initial conditions and search for signatures of the ultraviolet completion of inflation such as non-Gaussianity and tensor modes.

H. Stefancic: The Accelerated Expansion of the Universe and the Cosmological ...

H. Stefancic: The Accelerated Expansion of the Universe and the Cosmological ...

The State of the Universe

The State of the Universe

Oxford slides on Duality and Emergence

Oxford slides on Duality and Emergence

The universe & mathematical cosmology

The universe & mathematical cosmology

Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations

Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations

Mangano esa

Mangano esa

The search for quantum gravity phenomenology - Marcus Reitz

The search for quantum gravity phenomenology - Marcus Reitz

Colloquium2013

Colloquium2013

Berlin - Conceptual Aspects of Gauge-Gravity Duality

Berlin - Conceptual Aspects of Gauge-Gravity Duality

Reduction and Emergence in Holographic Scenarios

Reduction and Emergence in Holographic Scenarios

OBC | String theory and quests for unification of fundamental forces of nature

OBC | String theory and quests for unification of fundamental forces of nature

Ceplerley lecture

Ceplerley lecture

Florence Duality Talk: Reduction and Emergence in Holographic Scenarios for G...

Florence Duality Talk: Reduction and Emergence in Holographic Scenarios for G...

American Astronomical Society plenary talk

American Astronomical Society plenary talk

Dualitiy in Contemporary Mathematics Wuppertal

Dualitiy in Contemporary Mathematics Wuppertal

Standard model of particle physics

Standard model of particle physics

Princeton conference Equivalent Theories in Physics and Metaphysics

Princeton conference Equivalent Theories in Physics and Metaphysics

Beyond bohr de broglie and heisenberg for universe to atom module cfi

Beyond bohr de broglie and heisenberg for universe to atom module cfi

OPT Presentation

OPT Presentation

Cosmology

Cosmology

Our Universe: From the Big Bang to the Multiverse

The document discusses the origins and evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day. It proposes that cosmic inflation led to the rapid expansion of the early universe from subatomic size to the observable universe today. Inflation also explains the origin of cosmic structures like galaxies. The document suggests that inflation theory implies a "multiverse" consisting of many separate expanding bubble universes, and that the conditions in our universe happened to allow for the formation of complex structures like galaxies. Some scientists are skeptical of the multiverse theory.

Lectures on Cosmological Correlations

Slides of lectures presented at the Kavli Asian Winter School on Strings, Particles and Cosmology 2023, in Korea.

The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure

1) The document discusses the Big Bang theory of the origin and evolution of the universe from an extremely hot and dense state approximately 13.8 billion years ago.
2) It describes how small fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background from 380,000 years after the Big Bang are thought to have grown over time due to gravity to form the large scale structures we observe today like galaxies.
3) These fluctuations are theorized to have originated from quantum fluctuations during a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation within the first fraction of a second after the Big Bang, which would have stretched microscopic variations to cosmic scales.

On the Origin of Structure in the Universe

1) The talk discusses the origin of structure in the universe, from the small density fluctuations after the Big Bang to the galaxies, stars and planets we see today.
2) It explains how quantum fluctuations during an early period of exponential expansion called inflation were stretched to cosmological scales by inflation, seeding these initial density fluctuations.
3) The talk outlines how measurements of the cosmic microwave background have revealed correlations in the fluctuations that can only be explained by a period of inflation in the early universe that was faster than the speed of light.

The Scientific Legacy of Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking made several major contributions to our understanding of black holes and the Big Bang. He showed that black holes can emit radiation, causing them to evaporate over time. His work also linked black hole entropy to their surface area. For the Big Bang, Hawking proposed that inflation explained the early rapid expansion of the universe and the origin of cosmic structure. He also suggested that time had no boundary at the beginning of the universe and that quantum effects could have caused the universe and possibly others to spontaneously appear.

Introduction to Cosmology

This document provides an introduction to cosmology, outlining key concepts in three main areas: the expanding universe, structure formation, and the quantum origin of fluctuations. It begins by deriving the Friedmann equation governing the expansion of the universe and discussing how different components (matter, radiation, dark energy) evolve over time. It then explains how small primordial density fluctuations grew via gravitational clustering to form the large-scale structure we observe. Finally, it connects this structure formation to quantum fluctuations during an early period of cosmological inflation, which provided the seeds for all later structure.

Gravitational Collider Physics

Gravitational collider physics uses binary black hole mergers to probe ultralight bosons through their effect on gravitational waves. Bound boson fields form "gravitational atoms" around black holes that can undergo transitions when perturbed by an orbiting companion. This leads to distinctive signatures in the gravitational waves like floating or sinking orbits and sharp features in the frequency evolution. Ionization of the cloud can also significantly shorten the merger time. Precise waveform modeling is still needed to apply these effects in gravitational wave searches.

Lessons from the Past

The document apologizes to experimentalists for theorists' lack of certainty about the mass and couplings of the Higgs boson at that time. It advises against large experimental searches for the Higgs boson due to this theoretical uncertainty. The authors are Ellis, Gaillard and Nanopoulos.

Multiverse

This document discusses the multiverse theory in physics. It begins by defining the observable universe and the idea of a multiverse as multiple observable universes. It then covers evidence that led physicists to consider the multiverse, including the accelerating expansion of the universe and problems with the cosmological constant. It describes two versions of the multiverse theory - the inflationary multiverse from eternal inflation and the string theory landscape. It concludes by questioning whether the multiverse is a scientific theory and if it is testable or predictive.

Our Universe: From the Big Bang to the Multiverse

Our Universe: From the Big Bang to the Multiverse

Lectures on Cosmological Correlations

Lectures on Cosmological Correlations

The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure

The Big Bang and the Origin of Structure

On the Origin of Structure in the Universe

On the Origin of Structure in the Universe

The Scientific Legacy of Stephen Hawking

The Scientific Legacy of Stephen Hawking

Introduction to Cosmology

Introduction to Cosmology

Gravitational Collider Physics

Gravitational Collider Physics

Lessons from the Past

Lessons from the Past

Multiverse

Multiverse

Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.

Current Ms word generated power point presentation covers major details about the micronuclei test. It's significance and assays to conduct it. It is used to detect the micronuclei formation inside the cells of nearly every multicellular organism. It's formation takes place during chromosomal sepration at metaphase.

The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young

The Milky Way’s (MW) inner stellar halo contains an [Fe/H]-rich component with highly eccentric orbits, often referred to as the
‘last major merger.’ Hypotheses for the origin of this component include Gaia-Sausage/Enceladus (GSE), where the progenitor
collided with the MW proto-disc 8–11 Gyr ago, and the Virgo Radial Merger (VRM), where the progenitor collided with the
MW disc within the last 3 Gyr. These two scenarios make different predictions about observable structure in local phase space,
because the morphology of debris depends on how long it has had to phase mix. The recently identified phase-space folds in Gaia
DR3 have positive caustic velocities, making them fundamentally different than the phase-mixed chevrons found in simulations
at late times. Roughly 20 per cent of the stars in the prograde local stellar halo are associated with the observed caustics. Based
on a simple phase-mixing model, the observed number of caustics are consistent with a merger that occurred 1–2 Gyr ago.
We also compare the observed phase-space distribution to FIRE-2 Latte simulations of GSE-like mergers, using a quantitative
measurement of phase mixing (2D causticality). The observed local phase-space distribution best matches the simulated data
1–2 Gyr after collision, and certainly not later than 3 Gyr. This is further evidence that the progenitor of the ‘last major merger’
did not collide with the MW proto-disc at early times, as is thought for the GSE, but instead collided with the MW disc within
the last few Gyr, consistent with the body of work surrounding the VRM.

Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration

Classification
Metal ion ion indicators
Masking and demasking reagents
Estimation of Magnisium sulphate
Calcium gluconate
Complexometric Titration/ chelatometry titration/chelating titration, introduction, Types-
1.Direct Titration
2.Back Titration
3.Replacement Titration
4.Indirect Titration
Masking agent, Demasking agents
formation of complex
comparition between masking and demasking agents,
Indicators/Metal ion indicators/ Metallochromic indicators/pM indicators,
Visual Technique,PM indicators (metallochromic), Indicators of pH, Redox Indicators
Instrumental Techniques-Photometry
Potentiometry
Miscellaneous methods.
Complex titration with EDTA.

快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样

学校原件一模一样【微信：741003700 】《(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证》【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

Slides from talk:
Aleš Zamuda: Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE .
Austrian-Slovenian HPC Meeting 2024 – ASHPC24, Seeblickhotel Grundlsee in Austria, 10–13 June 2024
https://ashpc.eu/

Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture

Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart AgricultureInternational Food Policy Research Institute- South Asia Office

PPT on Direct Seeded Rice presented at the three-day 'Training and Validation Workshop on Modules of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Technologies in South Asia' workshop on April 22, 2024.
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...

A proprietary approach developed by bringing together the best of learning theories from Psychology, design principles from the world of visualization, and pedagogical methods from over a decade of training experience, that enables you to: Learn better, faster!

Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...

Thematic analysis in qualitative research is a time-consuming and systematic task, typically done using teams. Team members must ground their activities on common understandings of the major concepts underlying the thematic analysis, and define criteria for its development. However, conceptual misunderstandings, equivocations, and lack of adherence to criteria are challenges to the quality and speed of this process. Given the distributed and uncertain nature of this process, we wondered if the tasks in thematic analysis could be supported by readily available artificial intelligence chatbots. Our early efforts point to potential benefits: not just saving time in the coding process but better adherence to criteria and grounding, by increasing triangulation between humans and artificial intelligence. This tutorial will provide a description and demonstration of the process we followed, as two academic researchers, to develop a custom ChatGPT to assist with qualitative coding in the thematic data analysis process of immersive learning accounts in a survey of the academic literature: QUAL-E Immersive Learning Thematic Analysis Helper. In the hands-on time, participants will try out QUAL-E and develop their ideas for their own qualitative coding ChatGPT. Participants that have the paid ChatGPT Plus subscription can create a draft of their assistants. The organizers will provide course materials and slide deck that participants will be able to utilize to continue development of their custom GPT. The paid subscription to ChatGPT Plus is not required to participate in this workshop, just for trying out personal GPTs during it.

Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf

Insectsplayamajorroleinthedeteriorationoffoodgrainscausingbothquantitativeandqualitativelosses
Wellprovedthatnogranariescanbefilledwithgrainswithoutinsectsastheharvestedproducecontainegg(or)larvae(or)pupae(or)adultinsectinthembecauseoffieldcarryoverinfestationwhichcannotbeavoidedindevelopingcountrieslikeIndia
Simpletechnologiesfortimelydetectionofinsectsinthestoredproduceandtherebyplantimelycontrolmeasures

Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...

Current descriptions of immersive learning cases are often difficult or impossible to compare. This is due to a myriad of different options on what details to include, which aspects are relevant, and on the descriptive approaches employed. Also, these aspects often combine very specific details with more general guidelines or indicate intents and rationales without clarifying their implementation. In this paper we provide a method to describe immersive learning cases that is structured to enable comparisons, yet flexible enough to allow researchers and practitioners to decide which aspects to include. This method leverages a taxonomy that classifies educational aspects at three levels (uses, practices, and strategies) and then utilizes two frameworks, the Immersive Learning Brain and the Immersion Cube, to enable a structured description and interpretation of immersive learning cases. The method is then demonstrated on a published immersive learning case on training for wind turbine maintenance using virtual reality. Applying the method results in a structured artifact, the Immersive Learning Case Sheet, that tags the case with its proximal uses, practices, and strategies, and refines the free text case description to ensure that matching details are included. This contribution is thus a case description method in support of future comparative research of immersive learning cases. We then discuss how the resulting description and interpretation can be leveraged to change immersion learning cases, by enriching them (considering low-effort changes or additions) or innovating (exploring more challenging avenues of transformation). The method holds significant promise to support better-grounded research in immersive learning.

Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx

Presentation given at the official farewell of Prof Ken Gillet at Wageningen on 13 June 2024

8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf

Isolation of pure culture, its various method.

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

We will metaverse into the essence of immersive learning, into its three dimensions and conceptual models. This approach encompasses elements from teaching methodologies to social involvement, through organizational concerns and technologies. Challenging the perception of learning as knowledge transfer, we introduce a 'Uses, Practices & Strategies' model operationalized by the 'Immersive Learning Brain' and ‘Immersion Cube’ frameworks. This approach offers a comprehensive guide through the intricacies of immersive educational experiences and spotlighting research frontiers, along the immersion dimensions of system, narrative, and agency. Our discourse extends to stakeholders beyond the academic sphere, addressing the interests of technologists, instructional designers, and policymakers. We span various contexts, from formal education to organizational transformation to the new horizon of an AI-pervasive society. This keynote aims to unite the iLRN community in a collaborative journey towards a future where immersive learning research and practice coalesce, paving the way for innovative educational research and practice landscapes.

Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)

Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)

HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1

reproduction part 1
class 10 ncert

在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样

学校原件一模一样【微信：741003700 】《(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证》【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...

(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...Scintica Instrumentation

Targeting Hsp90 and its pathogen Orthologs with Tethered Inhibitors as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategy for cancer and infectious diseases with Dr. Timothy Haystead.waterlessdyeingtechnolgyusing carbon dioxide chemicalspdf

The technology uses reclaimed CO₂ as the dyeing medium in a closed loop process. When pressurized, CO₂ becomes supercritical (SC-CO₂). In this state CO₂ has a very high solvent power, allowing the dye to dissolve easily.

ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx

With increasing population, people need to rely on packaged food stuffs. Packaging of food materials requires the preservation of food. There are various methods for the treatment of food to preserve them and irradiation treatment of food is one of them. It is the most common and the most harmless method for the food preservation as it does not alter the necessary micronutrients of food materials. Although irradiated food doesn’t cause any harm to the human health but still the quality assessment of food is required to provide consumers with necessary information about the food. ESR spectroscopy is the most sophisticated way to investigate the quality of the food and the free radicals induced during the processing of the food. ESR spin trapping technique is useful for the detection of highly unstable radicals in the food. The antioxidant capability of liquid food and beverages in mainly performed by spin trapping technique.

Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf

Ozturkcan, S., Berndt, A., & Angelakis, A. (2024). Mending clothing to support sustainable fashion. Presented at the 31st Annual Conference by the Consortium for International Marketing Research (CIMaR), 10-13 Jun 2024, University of Gävle, Sweden.

Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.

Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.

The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young

The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young

Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration

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快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样

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Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture

Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture

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Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...

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Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf

Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf

Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...

Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...

Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx

Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx

8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf

8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)

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HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1

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在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样

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(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...

(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...

waterlessdyeingtechnolgyusing carbon dioxide chemicalspdf

waterlessdyeingtechnolgyusing carbon dioxide chemicalspdf

ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx

ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx

Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf

Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf

- 1. Discussion Session at STRINGS 2021 Daniel Baumann and Eva Silverstein Cosmology and String Theory
- 2. Cosmology String Theory tests informs • Inflationary models are UV sensitive • String theory motivates novel EFTs • Signatures: B-modes, non-Gaussianity • Requires de Sitter vacua • Time as an emergent dimension • Precision data: CMB, LSS
- 3. The Standard Model A simple 5 parameter model fits all observations: ⌦b ⌦m ⌦⇤ As , ns It is a strange model because none of these parameters are well understood. • Dark energy and inflation are UV sensitive (see de Sitter discussion). • Quantum gravity is the conceptual foundation of cosmology. An opportunity for string theory.
- 4. The Hubble Tension There is a persistent disagreement in measurements of the Hubble constant: New physics or systematic errors? 74.0 ± 1.4 H0 = 67.4 ± 0.5 CMB Supernovae “Any theory that can account for all the facts is wrong, because some of the facts are always wrong.” Francis Crick
- 5. The Hubble Tension Hard to explain with new physics: ✓ = rs D Angular separation of peaks in the CMB spectrum Sound horizon at recombination Distance to last-scattering D = Z z⇤ 0 dz H0 p ⌦m(1 + z)3 + ⌦⇤ rs ✓ D • Needed: 10% reduction of the sound horizon. • Hard to achieve without messing up the CMB.
- 6. High Energies and Weak Couplings Standard Model Neutrinos EM Strong Weak Gravity Energy [eV] Coupling 1020 1010 1 10 10 10 20 Particle colliders High-energy frontier Weak coupling frontier The early universe probes high energies and weak couplings: String theory is relevant in both regimes.
- 7. Cosmological Correlations • What is the space of consistent correlations? • What does string theory predict for these correlations? • What is natural in string theory? (but maybe surprising in EFT?) High-energy physics is encoded in cosmological correlations: ? ?
- 8. Unique Challenges of Cosmology under- standing nonperturbative ? tree-level (some loops) • Time (not space) may be emergent. • Boundary theory is not Lorentz-invariant. • Boundary theory is not unitary. • Interactions are scale, but not conformally invariant. • Lack of rigorous nonperturbative observables.
- 9. Recent Progress Ep = lim E!0 lim EL!0 = Eq L Arkani-Hamed and Maldacena [2015] Arkani-Hamed, Benincasa and Postnikov [2017] Arkani-Hamed, DB, Lee and Pimentel [2018] Sleight and Taronna [2019] Goodhew, Jazayeri and Pajer [2020] DB, Chen, Duaso Pueyo, Joyce, Lee and Pimentel [2021] Improved understanding of the analytic structure of cosmological correlators: • Correlators can be built from scattering amplitudes. • Singularities are connected by differential equations and unitarity constraints.
- 10. Unique Opportunities of Cosmology Atacama Desert South Pole CMB Stage 4 Euclid Many upcoming CMB and LSS observations: SphereX
- 11. Observational Phenomenological • What are the prospects of future observations? • What are the main observational challenges? Amenable to theoretical contributions (EFT, ML, …)? • What are key targets for future observations? • Is the Hubble tension real? • What are important effects of the UV completion? • How do we systematically study non-Gaussianity? • How to make the most of B-mode measurements? • How do we further test inflation? Conceptual • Do insights from the S-matrix / conformal bootstrap have implications for cosmology? • How does string theory behave in generic (time-dependent) backgrounds? • Can insights from cosmological holography impact real observables in cosmology? • Do insights into the BH information paradox have implications for cosmology? • … Questions and Discussion Topics