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HUMAN DISEASES
A disease is a condition of the body or apart of it in which functions are disturbed or arranged.
Diseases may also be defined as morphological , physiological , psychological disturbance in
the body or body parts caused by some external agencies which may be non-parasitic e.g.
deficiency of nutrients or may be parasitic caused by causes, bacteria , fungi etc. The term
disease means DIS-EASE or discomfort. In short it can be defined as „diseases is disorder of
body‟.


                             SOURCES OF DISEASES
The reservoir of human diseases are:

   a)Air: It is reservoir of pathogens of many diseases like, measles, mumps, tuberculosis,
         diphtheria etc.

   b)Food and Water: These are reservoir of pathogens of many diseases like, cholera, polio,
         typhoid, roundworm, tapeworm etc.

   c)Soil: It is a reservoir of pathogen of tetanus diseases.

   d)Animals: These are those living organisms which spread the pathogens from an infected
         person of healthy person. These do not suffer from the diseases so are also called
         reservoir host.


                                TYPES OF DISEASES
Diseases are broadly classified into two categories:

         A.CONGENITAL DISEASES

             Diseases present since birth and are caused due to defective development of
             inheritance e.g. congenital heart diseases, hemophilia, colour blindness etc.

         B.Acquired diseases

             Diseases developed after birth. They are further classified as-
a)Communicable diseases

               b)Non-Communicable diseases




Differences  between                         Communicable                    and          Non-
Communicable Diseases
S.No. Communicable diseases                               S.No. Non-communicable diseases

1.       The diseases which spread from one person to 1.           The diseases which are not transmitted f
         another.                                                  person to another.
2.       They are caused by pathogens, e.g. malaria, 2.            They are caused by deficiency of nutrients,
         smallpox etc.                                             abnormal proliferation of cells etc. e.g. kwa
                                                                   cancer etc.

     MODES OF TRANSMISSION OF COMMUNICABLE
                    DISEASES
The diseases are transmitted from the reservoirs of infection to the healthy persons the following
ways:

1) Direct transmission: The pathogens are transmitted from an infected person or healthy
person directly without an intermediate agent. It occurs in following ways-

       a)Contact with infected person e.g., small pox and chicken pox.

       b)Contact with soil e.g., tetanus.

2. Indirect transmission: The pathogens of some diseases are carried through some intermediate
agents. It occurs in following ways:

       a) Air borne diseases.

       b) By unclean hands and fingers.

                                  VIRAL DISEASES
INFLUENZA
It is commonly known as “Flu” and is highly infectious. It is commonly caused by influenza
virus (Myxo virus influenzae).

Mode of transmission: through direct contact, sneezing, coughing etc. (air–borne diseases).

Symptoms: It affects upper respiratory tract.

It starts with fever, headache, sore throat, coughing and pain all over the body with restlessness.

Control:

       Antibiotics should be given to prevent secondary complications like pneumonia and ear
         infections.

       No vaccine is available which can give protection against all types of influenza viruses.

Prevention:

       The patient should avoid joining parties or gatherings of people.

       Handkerchief should be used while sneezing and coughing.

JAUNDICE

Jaundice is yellowness of sclera of eyes (White part of eyes) and skin. Yellowness is due to
excessive deposition of bile pigments in these structures.

Jaundice is caused by hepatitis virus. Liver is the most important organ in the body caused its
inflammation due to jaundice affects digestion adversely. The types of hepatitis are hepatitis-A,
B, C, D, E or G.

Modes of transmission:

   Hepatitis Ais spread mostly by contaminated food and water.

   Hepatitis B is transmitted by contact with infected body secretions and blood.

   Symptoms:

   Fever and loss of appetite.

   Nausea and vomiting.

   Yellowness of skin.

   Dark yellow coloured urine and light-coloured stool after 3 to 10 days.
Control:

   Adequate bed rest.

   Carbohydrate rich diet should be given to the patient.

   Consumption of protein and fat should be limited.

   Interferon injection should be administered on the advice of the doctor.

   Prevention:

   Eating hygienic food and drinking disinfected water.

   Hepatitis B and Hepatitis A vaccine should be taken to prevent the diseases.

   Use of disposable syringes and blood should be tested before transfusion.

   Properly clean hands after handling bed and utensils of the patient.

RABIES

Rabies a fatal viral disease that is transmitted to human beings by bite of rabid dog or cat.

A number of wild animals also carry the virus, e.g. Jaundice wolves, foxes, bat, monkeys, rabbit
etc. Disease is not expressed after infection up to 1-3 months.

Symptoms: Rabies is 100% fatal disease. It is characterized by high fever and pain contraction of
muscles of throat and chest. The patient feels restless, has choking feet and finds difficulty in
taking even liquid food. He is afraid of water, so called hydrophobia. The virus destroys the
brain and spinal cord. So, it causes paralysis and painful death.

Prevention:

   Compulsory immunization of dogs and cats should be done. Pet dogs should be vaccinated
     with anti-rabies vaccine.

   Rabid animal should be killed, if it shows excessive salivation and tries seeking isolation.

Control: There is no treatment until now.

AIDS

Aids stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is caused by HIV (Human immune-
deficiency virus). It was firstly detected in June 1981 in USA. This virus weakness the human
body‟s immunity or self defense mechanism. Hence the aids virus reduces the natural immunity
of the human body; therefore, the body saving AIDS becomes prone to many other infections.

Modes of transmission:

   It spreads though sexual contact with an infected person carrying AIDS virus.

   It spread though the transfusion of blood infected with AIDS virus.

   It spread though the use of infected needles for injections, blade or razors and other
      equipment of barbers.

   The children of AIDS infected mother get this disease from mother‟s blood.

   Symptoms: The important symptoms are-

   Severe brain damage which may lead to loss of memory, ability to speak and think.

   Swollen lymph nodes.

   Decreased count of blood platelets causing hemorrhage.

   Sweating at night and weight loss.

   AIDS patient also become more susceptible to infections of any body.

A full blown AIDS patient dies within three years and mortality is 100%.

Prevention: No absolutely satisfactory vaccine is yet available. So, we can prevent AIDS only
preventive measures like-

   Use of disposable syringes.

   Using condoms and adopt clean sex habits.

   People should be educated about AIDS.

   Blood test must be done in pregnant woman, blood donor‟s organ donors.

   Dentists should use sterilized instrument.

   The common razor at the barber shop should be used.

Control: Till today there is no specific therapy against HIV infection. Some medical have been
discovered which can suppress AIDS virus.
National AIDS control program was started in 1987.

World AIDS day: December 1.

                           BACTERIAL DISEASES
CHOLERA

   CHOLERA: It is highly communicable diseases caused by vibrio-cholera it is common
   during fairs and after floods. Some times it may occur in epidemic form.

   Modes of transmission: It is transmitted through contaminated food and water flies it is
   spread rapidly when sanitation is poor.

Symptoms: It is characterized by-

       Rice watery stool, which is generally painless.

       Rapid loss of large amount of water from the body, which causes dehydrates muscular
         cramps and weight loss.

       Repeated effortless vomiting without nausea.

       Due to excessive loss of water, eye becomes sunken, cheeks hollow subnet temperature
         etc.

Prevention:

       Use of boiled water and proper cooking of food. The drinking water must disinfect
         with strong chlorine solution.

       Underground disposal of human faces.

       Cholera vaccine should be given during epidemics and fairs. Vaccine immunity for
         about 6 months.

Control:

       Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)- in which fluid and electrolytes (NaCL- 3.5g ,
         Sodium bicarbonate -2.5g, KCL-1.5g, Glucose- 20.0g, Sucrose-40g in one liter of
         water) are given to patient orally (through mouth).This solution helps in preventing
         dehydration.

       Saline drip may be given intravenously.

       Use ant cholera drugs.
Doctor should be consulted immediately.

DIARRHEA

DIARRHOE:Diarrheas is a group of infection of the intestinal tract, including food poisoning.
The main pathogens are bacteria such as Escherichia coil, Salmonella, Shigella, etc. A protozoan
Giardia and certain viruses also can cause similar conditions.

Modes of transmission:

     Contaminated food and water.

     Contamination through fingers, cloths bed sheets and utensils.

Symptoms:

    Frequent passage of stools with blood and mucus.

    Abdominalcamps, vomiting leading to dehydration.

    Due to rapid loss of water (dehydration), eyes appear sunken, cheeks hollow; the inner
      sides of cheeks appear dry, sudden loss of weight, fever, deep breathing etc.

Prevention:

    Proper personal hygiene and community hygiene.

    Proper coverage of eatables to prevent contamination.

    Underground disposal of human faces.

    Use of boiled water and proper cooking of food. The drinking water must be disinfected
      with strong chlorine solution.

Control:

    Complete bed rest.

    Oral rehydration therapy or Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS).

    Saline drip may be given.

    Isabgol should be given with curd or water, to provide relief.

    Pulp of unripe banana along with amount of turmeric powder, salt and lime, also helps in
      controlling diarrhea.
Antibiotics can treat the diseases.

               Differences between Cholera and Diarrhea
S.No. Cholera                                             S.No. Diarrhea
1)        It is caused by bacteria Vibrio cholera.        1)    It is caused by either bacteria or protozoa or
                                                                viruses. Some common pathogens are Guardia
                                                                Escherichia coli.
2)        Passage of rice watery stool.                   2)    Frequent passage of stool with blood and
                                                                mucus.
3)        Vaccine is available        which can      give 3)    Vaccine is not available.
          immunity of 6 months.

TYPHOID

TYPHOID: Typhoid is caused by Salmonella typhoid bacteria, commonly found in interterm of
man. It is most common communicable diseases. This is common is age group of 1-15 years.
Every year about 2.5 million people suffer from typhoid.

Modes of transmission: Contaminated food and water and house flies.

Symptoms: It is characterized by-

     Headache and rise in body temperature.

     Lesions of intestinal mucosa.

     Diarrhea which becomes hemorrhagic.

     Rose coloured rash on the upper abdomen.

Control: Antibiotics can treat the diseases.

Prevention:

     Underground disposal of human faces.

     Disinfection of water and proper cooking of food.

     Typhoral oral vaccines also prevent typhoid.

     TAB- Vaccine provides immunity for 3 years.

     Typhoid is diagnosed by widal test.
TUBERCULOSIS

TUBERCULOSIS: TB was first discovered by Robert Koch (1882).It is caused bacteria My
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It most commonly affects the lungs it may also
people live in dingy, congested part of large cities. The bacterium releases a toxin called tablet.

Modes of transmission: It can be transmitted directly as well as indirectly.

Symptoms: The symptoms of tuberculosis vary depending on the site of diseases in the body.
Two specific sites of infection are-

   a)Lymph gland TB: The main symptom is swelling and tender ness of lymph glands often in
       the leg, whish may discharge secretions though the skin.

   b)Pulmonary(Lung) TB: The main symptoms are –

           Fever

           Coughing

           Chest pain and breathlessness

           Sputum containing blood

           Loss of weight and weakness.

           Control:

              Anti-tubercular therapy- Antibiotics can treat the diseases.

              Proper rest, diet, rehabilitation and surgery help in controlling diseases.

Prevention:

               Isolation of TB patients.

               Health education e.g. avoiding indiscriminate spitting, use of handkerchief while
                 coughing and sneezing.

               BCG vaccine provides immunity.

               Vigorous public health measures are the best method of prevention.

                            PROTOZOAN DISEASES
MALARIA

MALARIA: Malaria is more common in tropical and subtropical countries, especially in Africa
and Asia. It is estimated that about 300 million people are infected with malaria every year and
more then 2 million people die annually due to this diseases.

Causes: Malaria is caused by the toxins produced in the human body by the malarial parasite
Plasmodium. Presence of malarial parasite can be checked by blood test.

Modes of transmission: Plasmodium of transmitted by female Anopheles mosquito. When this
mosquito bites man to suck blood, it introduces its saliva containing the malarial parasite into the
blood stream of the man.

Symptoms:Malaria attack is preceded by headache, nausea and muscular pain. Total period of
malarial attack is of 6-10 hour and can be divided into 3 stages:

    Cold stage- Characterized by chilling and shivering.

    Hot stage- Characterized by high fever, faster rate of breathing and heart beat, etc.

    Sweating stage- It is characterized by lowering down of temperature to normal.

After the malaria attack, the patient feels weak, exhausted and anemic. The malaria may
secondarily cause engagement of lever and spleen.

Prevention:

    Use of insect repellants to prevent mosquito bite.

    Wire- gauzing of doors, windows, etc. to check the entry of mosquitoes.

    Killing of adult mosquitoes by spraying insecticides like D.D.T and B.H.C.

    All the mosquito breeding places should be destroyed or covered. Kerosene oil should be
      sprayed on ponds and ditches to kill the larva.

    Sleeping under mosquito nets.

    Destroying breeding places of mosquitoes.

Control: A number of anti-malarial drugs are available. The commonest anti-malarial drug is
quinine. Efforts are being medicine for the development of an anti-malarial vaccine.

SOME IMPORTANT DATES ABOUT DISEASES:

              World TB Day- 24 March.
National TB control program was started in 1962.

The incidence of tetanus in India is about 30-50 persons per one lakh.

Bubonic Plague is commonest type of plague.

Incidence of Diarrhea diseases is highest in Andhra and Orissa states.

Hepatitis is more dangerous then AIDS.

Macculoch (1827) proposed the name malaria.

Laveran (1880) discovered malarial parasites in the blood of a malarial patient.

Ronald Ross (1897) proved that malarial parasite is spread by female Anopheles
  mosquito.

August 20 is called Malaria Day.
Malaria - Project Report | Essay
Project Report | Essay - MalariaMalaria is one of the major diseases which is
caused by Protozoan. Protozoan causes many diseases in human beings. Malaria has
been for thousands of years a very serious disease of the tropical and temperate
regions. Prevalence of malaria continues to be one of the major health problems of
developing countries. It was almost eliminated a few years back with the efforts of
WHO and our National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP), but unfortunately it
has appeared again. Plasmodium is a genus of Protozoa belonging to subphylum
Sporozoa, class Telosporidea, includes causative agent of malaria in man and lower
animals. Members of the genus plasmodium are collectively known as Malaria
parasite, because they cause a horrible diseases called malaria.

                               History of Malaria
History of Malaria - Malaria means - Mala - bad area - air, malaria term was given by
"Macculoch" in 1872. Ronalol Ross established mosquito-malaria relationship on
Aug. 29, 1897. Since this day is celebrated as Mosquito Day.

                         Malaria - Position in World
Malaria Position in World - Malaria more common in developing countries as
compared to developed countries. It is generally present in Kenya, Uganda, South-
Africa, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Srilanka where the temperature are high.

                                     Hypothesis
1. Parasite posses various forms and complete their life cycle through alternative host
and Reservoir.

2. Parasite acquire Resistant to pesticides like D.D.T.

Evidences

There are four species of plasmodium which causes different kinds of human malaria.

a) P.Vivax - It causes benign tertian malaria, which attacks every third day i.e. after
48 hours. The fever is mild and seldom fatal.

b) P.Ovale - It also causes benign tertian malaria, which recurs every 48 years.
c) P.Malaria - It causes quartia malaria which recurs every fourth day i.e. after 72
hours.

d) P. Falciparum - It alone is capable of causing three types of malaria, quotidian
malaria, which attacks almost daily, malignant tertian malaria but which occurs every
48 hours, but is very severe and often fatal ; and irregular malaria.

e) It reserve in some animals in normal condition of animal like, Monkey.

f) Resistant of Mosquito against D.D.T.

                     Life Cycle of Plasmodium Vivax
It is the causative organism of tertian or benign tertian malaria, which is characterized
by 48 hours cycle between the first malarial fever and subsequent recurrence of chill
and fever. Life cycle of "Plasmodium Vivax" is being digenetic,it is completed in
two hosts. The asexual cycle is passed in man by a process termed schizogony. The
sexual cycle is completed in the final hosts or vector, the female Anopheles mosquito,
involving gametogony and sporogony. These process results in the formation of
infective stage the sporozoites.

                              Vaccine for Malaria
Pre manual pat arroyo produced a vaccine against malaria in 1987 but it proved
effective upto 60 to 70% cases.

                       Incubation Period of Malaria
The incubation period for malaria caused by Plasmodium Vivax is about 10-14 days.

                               Malaria Symptoms
Malaria Symptoms - The attack of malaria is preceded by Yawning tiredness,
headache and muscular pain. During the fever, the patient feels chilly and shivers and
high temperature. After a few hours the body freely and the temperature becomes
normal. The cycle is repeated if no medicine is taken. This is also accompanied by
enlargement of spleen and liver.

                               Control of Malaria
We control the malaria from :
1. Drain off or fill up all ditches, ponds etc.

2. Cover the drains.

3. Clear the sluggish.

4. The adult mosquitoes can also be avoided by removing unnecessary thing around
the house.
BIOLOGY SYLABUS




BIOLOGY
Theory            Paper               Time            :            3        Hours             Max.       Marks:         70
Practical          Paper               Time               :         3        Hours            Max.       Marks          30
Total                                         Marks                                     :                              100

THEORY
STRUCTURE                                      OF                              QUESTION                             PAPER


1. There will be one theory paper comprising of 30 questions. All questions will be compulsory.


2.            Marks        for             each               question       are            indicated     against        it.


3. Q Nos. 1-10 are very short answer type questions carrying 1 mark each. Answer to each question will be in one
line                          or                                few                         words                     only.


4. Q.Nos. 11-18 are short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question will be in 20 to 30
words.


5. Q. No. 19-26 are short answer type questions carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question will be in 40 to 50
words.


6. Q. No. 27to 30 are long answer type questions carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each qustion will be in 80 to 100
words.


7.       In      Q.     No.           27       to         30,      there    will     be         100%    internal    choice.


8. Distribution of marks to cover different dimensions of question paper will be as under:


Learning outcomes                Marks                            Percentage of Marks
Knowledge                        20                               29%
Understanding                    30                               42%
Application                      20                               29%



9. There will be no objective type questions such as 'yes/no', tick/cross', fill in the blanks multiple choice, true/false
etc.




10. The question paper should be strictly from the prescribed syllabus based inabove mentioned guidelines.
The unit wise distribution of marks will be as follows:




Unit - I Sexual Reproduction 12 Marks




Unit - II Genetics and Evolution 20 Marks




Unit - III Biology and Human Welfare 12 Marks




Unit -IV Biotechnology and Its Applications 12 Marks




Unit - V Ecology and Environment 14 Marks




Unit I : Sexual Reproduction


Pollination and fertilization in flowering plants.




Development of seeds and fruits.




Human reproduction : reproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle, production of gametes,
fertilization,implantation, embryo development, pregnancy and parturition.




Reproductive health:birth control, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.




Unit II : Genetics and Evolution


Mendelian inheritance.
Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interactionincomplete dominance, co-
dominance, complementary genes, multiple alleles).




Sex determination in human beings : XX, XY.




Linkage and crossing over.




Inheritance pattern of haemophilia and blood groups in human beings.




DNA: replication, transcription, translation.




Gene expression and regulation.




Genome and Human Genome Project.




DNA fingerprinting.




Evolution : Theories and evidences.




Unit III Biology and Human Welfare


Animal husbandry.




Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines.
Pathogens and parasites.




Plant breeding, tissue culture, food production.




Microbes in houshold food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment and energy generation.




Cancer and AIDS.




Adolescence, drugs and alcohol abuse.




Unit IV Biotechnology and Its Applications


Recombinant DNA technology.




Applications in Health, Agriculture and Industry.




Genetically modified (GM) organizms; biosafety issues.




Insulin and Bt cotton.




Unit V Ecology and Environment


Ecosystems components, types and energy flow.
Species, population and community.




Ecological adaptations.




Centers of diversity and conservation of biodiversity, National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries.




Environmental issues.




PRACTICAL


One Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks 30




STRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER


Distribution of marks.




1. Two experiments four marks each 4 + 4 Marks 8 Marks




2. Two slide indentification with reasons 2 + 2 Marks 4 Marks




3. Spotting of two animals and two plants. Comment upon their adaptations 8 Marks




4. Investigatory project and Viva based on the project 5 Marks
5. Record and Viva based on the experiments 5 Marks




Note :


1. The maximum number of students to be examined by the practical examiner should not be more than 20 students
per group.




2. The project report duly signed by the teacher should be kept in record and sent to the board on demand.




SYLLABUS
List of Experiments :


1. Study of pollen grain on a slide.




2. Collect and study soil from different sites and study them for texture and moisture content.




3. Study the pH and Water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.




4. Collect water from different water bodies around you and study them for pH clarity and presence of any living
organisms.




5. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites.




6. Study of plant population density by quadrat method.




7. Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method.
8. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect).




9. Study of pollen germination on a slide.




10. Study and identify stages of gamete development i.e. T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slide.




11. Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slide.




12. Study of T.S. of blastula through permanent slide.




13. Study mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.




14. Study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue,blood groups, widow's peak, colour
blindness.




15. Exercise on controlled pollination-Emasculation, tagging and bagging.




16. To identify common diseases causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, ringworm. Comment on
symptoms of diseases that they cause through permanent slides or specimens.




17. Study plants and animals found in xerophyte conditions. Comment upon their adaptation ecosystem.




18. Study plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their adaptation ecosystem.




19. Study analogous and homologous organs in various plants and animals.
PHYSICS



PHYSICS                                                              SYLLABUS                                                        (10+2)
Theory             Paper             Time             :                3          Hours             Max.                 Marks:          70
Practical           Paper             Time                :             3          Hours            Max.                 Marks           30
Total                                        Marks                                            :                                         100

THEORY
STRUCTURE                                     OF                                    QUESTION                                        PAPER
1. There will be one Theory Paper comprising of 30 questions. All questions will be compulsory.
2. Q Nos. 1-10 will be of 1 mark, Q.Nos. 11-18 will be of 2 marks each Q. No. 19-26 will be of 3-marks each, Q-Nos.
27             to             30               will                  be            of             5                 marks            each.
3.      In   questions      No.  27-30        there           will   be     internal  choice       in   all        the   four     questions
4.       Distribution      of      marks      over            different     of    the       paper       will        be      as      follows:



Learning
                   Marks Percentage of Marks
Outcomes
i) Knowledge       20       29%
ii)
              30            42%
Understanding
iii) Application 20         29%




5. There will be no question of the type 'Write short note on' or objective type such as yes/no, tick, (x) cross', fill in the
blanks,                     multiple                      choice,                      true/false                         etc.
6.       Weightage   to   units             in    the               question     paper        can      vary  by     one              mark.
7.      Use   of unprogrammable            calculator            is   allowed.    The      log    tables can    also be              used.
8. Numerical problems can be et many type of questions but the total weightage willbe in the range of 25% to 30%.




CLASS                                                                 XII                                                         (THEORY)
One                        Paper                          Time                       :                         3                     Hours
70 marks


Unit No.           Title                                                                                              Weightage
Unit I             Electrostatics                                                                                     08
Unit II            Current Electricity                                                                                07
Unit III           Magnetic effect of currem& Magnetism                                                               08
Unit IV            Electromagnetic induction and Alternating current                                                  08
Unit V           Electromagnetic Waves                                                                                                         03
Unit VI          Optics                                                                                                                        14
Unit VII         Deal Nature of Matter                                                                                                         04
Unit VIII        Atoms and Nuclei                                                                                                              06
Unit IX          Electronic Devices                                                                                                            07
Unit X           Communication Systems                                                                                                         05
                      Total : ............................................................................................................70




Unit                                                                    I:                                                                               Electrostatics
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple
charges;         superposition         principle       and         continuous        charge          distribution.


Electrical field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole;
torque               on           a            dipolein              uniform               electric             field.
Electric flux, statement of Gausss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire,
uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (Field inside and outside).


Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges;
equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an
electrostatic                                                                                                                                                     field.


Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation,
capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in paralle, capacitance of a parallel plate
capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor Van de
Graaffgenerataor.




Unit                                        II:                                               Current                                                       Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metillic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric
current; Onm's law, electrical resistance. V-I characteristics (linear and non lineart), electrical energy and power,
electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel
combinations             of                reastors;                  temperature                      dependence                       of                  resistance.


Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel.


Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Poentiometer - principle and its
applications         to           measure           potential          difference         and           for
comparing       emf        of         two         cells;          measurement                 of        internal           reistance                of       a     cell.
Unit           III         :            Magnetic           Effects          of        Current             and           Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field. Oersted's experiment; Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.


Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in
a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors, definition of ampere. Torque
experienced by a currentloop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil gal galvanometaits current sensitivity and
conversion                              to                    ammeter                         and                         voltmeter.


Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic depole moment of a revolving electron.
Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on
a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field
lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.
Electromagnets         and               factors      affecting         their      strengths.          Permanent          magnets.



Unit           IV       :               Electromagnetic            induction         and             Alternating          Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual
inductance.
Need                             for                              displacement                           current.
Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedances; LC oscillations
(qualitative   treatment       only),    LCR series    circuit,    resonance;    power   in     AC    circuits,   wattless current.
AC                                       generator                                and                                   transformer.




Unit                           V                       :                         Electromagnetics                            waves
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) including
elementary                    facts                   about                        their                  uses.




Unit                                                              VI:                                                        Optics
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications,
optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses,thin lens formula, lens-maker's formula. Magnification, power of
a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.


Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia,
hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and
refracting)                 and                    their                  magnifying                     powers.


Waves optics: wave front and Huygens' Principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using
wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflectionand refraction using Huygens' principle. Interference, Young's double slit
experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a
single slit, width of central maximum. Desolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation,
plane       polarised       light;           Brewster's       law,       uses     of         plane      polarised      light        and      pointed.



Unit              VII:                Dual                  nature               of              Matter                and                 Radiation
Dual nature ratiation Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations'; Einstein's photoelectic equation-particle
nature                                                    of                                                     light.


Matter       waves-wave          nature          of       particles,     de     Broglic       relation.        Davission-Germer           experiment.




Unit                                 VIII;                               Atoms                                  &                             Nuclei
Alpha-particle seating experiment; Rutherford's model of atom;Bohr model, energy levels. hydrogen spectrum.


Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma
particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per
nucleon         and        its         variation           with        mass       number;             nuclear       fission         and       fusion.




Unit                                           IX:                                      Electronic                                           Devices
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode-I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, I-V
characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode, Zener diode as a voltage regulator, Junction
transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor: transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration)
and      oscillator,     Logic       gates      (OR,       AND,        NOT,     NAND      and        NOR).      Transistor     as    a     switch   .




Unit                             X                                :                          Communication                                  Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data);
bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave
propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.




(PRACTICALS)
ONE                                                                   PRACTICAL                                                              PAPER
Time                                                  :                                          3                                             Hours
30                                                                                                                                             marks




Notes : All experiments are compulsory. The question paper will contain 8 experiments in all, 4 from each section.
The examinee will have to mark three experiments from each section and the examiner will allot one experiment from
each                                                                                                       section.
2.             Records                   of                experiments                 are                to           be                 maintained.
3.               Records                   of                activities                   are            to              be              maintained.




PRACTICALS


Note: Every student will perform 10 experiments 15 from each section and 6 activities (3 from each section) during
the                                                academic                                                  year.

SECTION                                                                                                                                                A


Experiments                                                                                                                                             :
1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current.
2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specifie resistance of its material.
3.   To verify the laws of                        combination       (series/parallel)           of resistances using a                metre bridge.
4.     To    compare  the                         emf    of         two      given              primary    cells  using                potentiometer.
5.   To   determine    the   internal resistance of     given   primary  cell   using    potentiometer.
6. To determine reistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
7. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of meno into an ammeter and voltmeter of
desired              range             and             to             verify           the             same.
8.        To       find           the            frequency         of          the          a.c.       mains          with        a       sonometer.

Activities
1.   To        measure     the      resistance         and      impedance            of    an      inductor    with     or    without    iron      core.
2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, as fuse and a power source.
4.      To              assemble                 the      components     of     a                           given           electrical           circuit.
5.   To study           the variation             in potential drop with length of                        a wire        for a steady            current.
6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor theostar, key ammeter and
voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit
diagram.




SECTION                                                                                                                                                B
Experiments
1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and ........the local length.
2. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between I/a and I/v.
3.    To         find      the          focal       length       of       a      convex   mirror,              using         a    convex         lends.
4.    To         find       the          focal       length       of       a      concave   lens,               using         a    convex          lens.
5. To determine angle of minimum deviationfor a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and
angle                                               of                                                deviation.
6. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junctionin forward bias and reverse bias.
7. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse breakdown voltage.
8. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and
voltage                                                                                                               gains.




Activities
1.   To   study   effect   of   intensity   of   light   (by   varying   distance   of   the   source)   on    and    L.D.R.
2. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
3. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor. (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. (iii) see the
unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED. (iv) Check whether a given electronic component (e.g.
diode,             transistor           or          IC)            is         in           working          order.
4. To observe refraction and laterial deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
5.      To        observe        polarization      of     light        using        two      Polaroids.
6.       To        observe        diffraction     of        light      due        to        a        thin      slit.
7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a
candle     and     a   screen     (for    different   distances     of    the    candle    from     the     lens/mirror).
8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.
MATHS

MATHEMATICS                                                           SYLLABUS                                                             (10+2)
GENERAL                         INSTRUCTION                       FOR                     +1                             AND               +2
STRUCTURE                                 OF                                          QUESTION                                          PAPER


i.                        All                             questions                                  are                            compulsory.


ii.      Questions              number          1           to         12          one               of            3        marks           each.
Questions              number            13          to          22             one             of             4           marks            each.
Questions              number            23          to          26             one             of             6           marks            each.


iii. There will be no over all choice. There will be internal choices in any two questions of 3 marks each, any two
questions     of   4    marks    and    any   two    questions        of    6   marks        each     (Total       of   six internal   choices).


iv. Use of calculator is not permitted. However each your may ask for logarithmic and statistical tables, if required.




QUESTIONWISE DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS (XII CLASS) FOR 2008


                                                                                         3     4                   6     Total         Unit
 Unit Topic                            Sub-Topic
                                                                                         Marks Marks               Marks Marks         Total
                                                                                                                   -
                                                                                                                            6
                                       Relations and Functions Inverse                   2            -
 I Relations and Functions                                                                                                             10
                                       Trigonometric Functions                           -            1
                                                                                                                            4
                                                                                                                   -
                                                                                                                   -        7
                                                                                         1            1
 II Algebra                            Matrices Determinants                                                                           13
                                                                                         -            -
                                                                                                                   1        6
                                       Continuity and differentiability                  2            1            -        10
                                       Applications of derivatives                       1            1            -        7
 III Calculus                          Integrals                                         2            2            -        14         44
                                       Applications ofintegrals                          -            -            1        6
                                       Differential equations                            1            1            -        7

                                                                                                                            7
 IV Vectors and three                  Vector...                                         1            1            -
                                                                                                                                       17
 dimensional geometry                  Three dimensional geometry                        -            1
                                                                                                                            10
                                                                                                                   1
 V Linear Programming                  Linear Programming                                -            -            1        6          6
 VI Probability                        Probability                                       2            2            -        10         10
 Total no. of ques.                                                                      12           10           4        100        100
 Total Marks.                                                                            36           40           24       100        100
CLASS                                                                                                            XII
One                   Paper                    Time                    :                  3                   Hours
100 marks




Unit                    I:                      Relations                       and                       Functions
1. Relations and Functions :


Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and on to functions,
composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary




operations.



2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions:


Defination, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties
of inverse trigonometric functions.




Unit                                                   II:                                                  Algebra
1. Matrices:
Concept notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew
symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition,
multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the/zero matrix (restrict to square
matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the
uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).




2. Determinants :


Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 (X) 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors cofactors and applications
of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency
and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three
variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.




Unit-III:                                                                                                    Calculus
1. Continuity and Differentiability:


(Periods 18)




Continutiy and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric
functions, derivative of implicit function. Concept




of exponential and logarithmic functions, and their derivative.Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions
expressed in parametric forms, Second order




derivatives. Rolle's and Lagrange Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations.




2. Applications of Derivatives:
(Periods 10)




Applications of derivatives: rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents&normals, approximation,
maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated




geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles
and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).




3. Integrals :


(Periods 20)




Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Intergration of a variaty of functions by subsitution, by partial fractions
and by parts, only simple integrals of the type




to be evaluated.




Definite intergrals as a limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite
intergrals and evaluation of definte integrals.
4. Applications of the Integrals:


Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard
form only), area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).




5. Differential Equations :


Defination, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential
equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables,
homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:




dy = p(x) y = q(x), where p(x) and q(x) are functions of x. dx




Unit            -IV            :           Vectors               and           Three-Dimensional                 Geometry
1. Vectors:


Vectors and scalars, maguitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors. Types of vectors
(equal,unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a
vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a
given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors




.



2. Three - dimensional Geometry :


Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines,
shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines (ii) two
planes. (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.




Unit-V:                                               Linear                                                Programming
1. Linear Programming:


Introduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization,different types of
linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for
problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optional feasible solutions
(up to three non-trivial constrain:)




Unit                                                             VI                                                          Probability
1. Probability :


Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Baye's theorem,
Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of haphazard variable. Repeated independent
(Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.




                                                               CHEMISTRY




CHEMISTRY                                                          SYLLABUS                                                      (10+2)
Theory                Paper         Time              :               3            Hours                  Max.      Marks:           70
Practical              Paper           Time               :            3           Hours                  Max.      Marks            30
Total                                         Marks                                               :                                 100

THEORY
STRUCTURE                                      OF                                       QUESTION                                PAPER



1. There will be one Theory Paper comprising of 30 questions. All questions will be compulsory.


2. Q Nos. 1-10 will be of 1 marks, Q.Nos. 11-18 will be of 2 marks each Q. No. 19-26 will be of 3-marks each, Q-Nos.
27               to            30              will               be               of                 5          marks            each.


3.          In          questions        No.              27-30            there           will            be     100%           choice.


4. Distribution of approximate percentage over different dimension in the question paper will be as follows:


i)                                                             Knowledge                                                           30%
ii)                                                           Understanding                                                        40%
iii)                                                           Application                                                         30%
5. Numerical problem will be set in any type of question, however the total weightage to numerical problem will be
around                                                                                                                         20%.


6. There will be no question of the type. "Write short note on", and objective type questions such as "Yes/No", tick (
P)       cross        (x)        fill      in       blanks,        multiple        choice,"      true/false       etc.


7.              Use                 of              log               tables/unprogrammable        calculator        is     allowed.


8. A candidate will be provided with one answer book of 32 pages only. No extra contineous sheet will be provided.




Unit                  wise                   distribution                       of         marks      is        as          follows:
CLASS                                                                                XII                                  (THEORY)
One Paper Time : 3 Hours 70 marks


Unit No. ......................................................Title
................................................................................Marks
Unit I............................................................ Solid
State............................................................................ 4
Unit II............................................................Solutions
...............................................................................5
Unit III ..........................................................Electrochemistry
....................................................................5
Unit IV ..........................................................Chemical kinetics
...................................................................5
Unit V ...........................................................Surface Chemistry
..................................................................4
Unit VI ..........................................................General principles and processes of
Isolation of Elements ........3
Unit VII......................................................... p-Block Elements
..................................................................8
Unit VIII .......................................................d-and f-Block Elements
......................................................... 5
Unit IX.......................................................... Coordination Compounds
.......................................................3
Unit X ...........................................................Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
.................................................. 4
Unit XI .........................................................Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
...................................................4
Unit XII ........................................................Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic
acids ...............................6
Unit XIII .......................................................Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen
................................4
Unit XIV .......................................................Biomolecules
.........................................................................4
Unit XV .........................................................Polymers
...............................................................................3
Unit XVI ........................................................Chemistry in Everyday life
......................................................3
............................................................................Total :
..............................................................................70




Unit I: Solid State


(Periods 12)




Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous
and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of
density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, points defects, electrical
and magnetic properties.



Unit II: Solutions


(Periods 12)




Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid
solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point,
osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.




Unit III: Electrochemistry


(Periods 14)




Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with
concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell electrolytie cells and
Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to
chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetic


(Periods 12)




Rate of a reacation (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature,
catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, intergrated rate equations and half
life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)




Unit V: Surface Chemistry


(Periods 8)




Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis; homogenous
and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions,
colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids;
Tyndall effect, Brounianmovenment, electrophoresia, coagulation; emulsion types of emulsions.




Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements


(Periods 8)




Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence
and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and Iron.




Unit VII: p-Block Elements
(Periods 14)




Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical
and chemical properties; nitrogen - preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and
properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds
of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).




Group 16 elements


: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical
properties; dioxygen; reparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone, Sulphur - allotropic forms; compounds
of sulphur; preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide sulphuric acid: industral process of manofacture,
properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).




Group 17 elements :


General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical
properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen
compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).




Group 18 elements:


(General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.




Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements


(Periods 14)
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in
properties of the first row transition metals metalli c character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour
catalytic property, magnetic propertics, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and propertics of
K2Cr2O7 and KMnO


4



.




Lanthanoids


-electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.



Actionoids -


Electronic configuration, oxidation states.




Unit IX: Coordination Compounds


(Periods 12)




Coordination compounds - introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes,
IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination
compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).




Unit X: Haloalkanesa and Haloarenes.


(Periods 12)
Haloalkanes:


Nomenclature, natuer of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.




Haloarenes:


Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstitutedcompunds only)




Uses and environmental effects of - dichloro methane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.




Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers


(Periods 12)



Alcohols:


Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of
primary, secondary and teritary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, some important compounds - methanol
and ethanol.




Phenols:


Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic
substitution reactions, uses of phenols.




Ethers:


Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids


(Periods 12)



Aldehydes and Ketones:


Numenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism
of nuclcophilicaddition,reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.



Carboxylic Acids:


Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.




Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen


(Periods 10)



Amines:


Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification
of primary, secondary and teritary amines.




Cyanides and Isocyanides -


will be mentioned at relevant places in context.



Diazonium salts:


Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules


(Periods 8)



Carbohydrates -


Classification (aldoses and keloses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose,
maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.




Proteins -


Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides proteins, primary structure, secondary structure,
teritary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.




Vitamins -


Classification and functions.



Nucleic Acids:


DNA & RNA.



Unit XV: Polymers


(Periods 8)




Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization.
Some importance polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in everyday life :


(Period 8)



1. Chemicals in medicines


- annalgesica, tranquilizers, antisecptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids,
antihistamines.



2. Chemicals in food-


preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.



3. Cleansing agents -


soaps and detergents, cleansing action.




CLASS                                                     XII                                        (PRACTICALS)
STRUCTURE                                        OF                    QUESTIONS                              PAPER
One                   Practical                   Paper         Time           :                3              Hours

30                                                                                                             marks




Experiments


Volumetric Analysis....................... 10 Marks




Mixture Analysis .............................8 Marks




Content Based Experiment ..............4 Marks
Project ...........................................4 Marks




Class record & Viva....................... 4 Marks




NOTE :-


Brief write up carrying 2 marks (If in the Question paper) question on preparation of crystals (Time for write up 5
minutes).




Stepevise distribution of marks of questions on salt analysis.




(i) Physical nature .......................1/2




(ii) Dry heating test..................... 1/2




(iii) Flame test ............................1/2




(iv) Charcoal cavity test ..............1/2




(v) dil H


2



SO


4



.............................1
(vi) conc. H


2



SO


4



test................ 1/2




(If anion is detected under dil H


2



SO


4



test full credit of 11/2 marks is to be given there and then)




Confirmalory test (any two ) 11/2 marks each 3.




(vii) Preparation of original solution .............1/2




(viii) Correct group detection .......................1




(ix) Systematic detection of ion .....................1
(x) Any two confirmatory tests of cation........ 2




( 1 marks each)




Step wise distribution of marks of questions on volumetric analysis.




Full credit of
2 % variation and deduct 1/2 mark for additional 0.1 ml variation.




PRACTICALS




Practicals Syllabus


(Periods 6)



A. Surface Chemistry


(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol.




Lyophelic sol - starch, egg albumin and gum.




Lyophobic sol - aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenioussulphide.




(b) Study of the role of emulsifying in stabilizing the emulsions of different oils.
B. Chemical Kinetics


(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric
acid.




(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:




(i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions.




(ii) Reaction between potassium iodate, KlO


3



and sodium sulphite :




(Na


2



SO


3



) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).




C. Thermochemistry


(Periods 6)




Any one of the following experiments
i) Enthalphy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.




ii) Enthalphy of neutralization of strong acid (HCl) and strong base (NaOH)




iii) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform.




D. Electrochemistry (Periods 2)


Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn

2+




llCU

2+




/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO


4



orZnSO


4



) at room temperature.




E. Chromatography


(Periods 2)




i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of R
f



values.




ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having wide
difference in R


f



values to be provided).




F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds


(Periods 4)




i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash almum.




ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.




G. Preparation of Organic Compounds


(Periods 4)




Preparation of any two of the following compounds




i) Acetanilide




ii) Di-benzalaccetone
iii) p-Nitroacetanilide.




iv) Aniline yellow or 2-Napthol aniline dye.




v) Iodoform.




H. Test for the functional groups present in organic compounds:


(Periods 6)




Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (primary) groups.




I. Study of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure form and detection of their presence in given food stuffs. (Periods
4)




J. Determination of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of : (Periods 8)




(i) Oxalic acid.




(ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate.




(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
K. Qualitative analysis


(Periods 14)




Determination         of        one        cation      and        one        anion         in     a         given        salt.




(Note:                                 Insoluble                             salts                                  excluded)




Few Suggested Projects
Study of diffusion of a solid into a liquid.
Determination of the minimum quantity of manganese dioxide required as a catalyst for the preparation of oxygen
gas.
Determination of rate of flow of solution and liquids horizontally.
Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of soduim carbonate on
thera.
Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves and reasons for the variation in their tests.
Determination of rate of evaporation of different liquids.
Study of effect of metal coupling on die corrosion of iron.
Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibres.
Analysis of fruit and vegetable prices for the content (acids and mineral a present in them).
Preparation of rayon threads from various cellulose sources.
Study of dyeing fabries under various conditions.
Determination of the dosage of bleaching powder required for disipfections of different ..............of water (taken from
different sources).
Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of riperings.
Study of the setting of mixtures of cement with lime, sand of different qualities, rice husk, etc (with respect to time,
volume and stremyth).
Study of the presence of inseeticide/presicide (nitrogen contining) in vegetables and fruits.
Study of the dialysis of different sewage water sample and identification of different ions in rsulting solutions.
Study on quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
Preparation of soyabean milk and its comparision with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of
temperature, taste etc.
Study of the effect po
Study of digestion of starclity salivary anylase and effect of pH and temperature on it.
Compasitive study of the rate of formation on following materials wheat, flour, gram flour, patato juice, carrot juice and
or ..........juice.
Extraction of essential oils present in Su
Study                         of                         ............                    foods..................................

Note :Any other investigatory project can be performed I which involves about S periods of work with the approval of
the teacher.

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Biology project

  • 1. HUMAN DISEASES A disease is a condition of the body or apart of it in which functions are disturbed or arranged. Diseases may also be defined as morphological , physiological , psychological disturbance in the body or body parts caused by some external agencies which may be non-parasitic e.g. deficiency of nutrients or may be parasitic caused by causes, bacteria , fungi etc. The term disease means DIS-EASE or discomfort. In short it can be defined as „diseases is disorder of body‟. SOURCES OF DISEASES The reservoir of human diseases are: a)Air: It is reservoir of pathogens of many diseases like, measles, mumps, tuberculosis, diphtheria etc. b)Food and Water: These are reservoir of pathogens of many diseases like, cholera, polio, typhoid, roundworm, tapeworm etc. c)Soil: It is a reservoir of pathogen of tetanus diseases. d)Animals: These are those living organisms which spread the pathogens from an infected person of healthy person. These do not suffer from the diseases so are also called reservoir host. TYPES OF DISEASES Diseases are broadly classified into two categories: A.CONGENITAL DISEASES Diseases present since birth and are caused due to defective development of inheritance e.g. congenital heart diseases, hemophilia, colour blindness etc. B.Acquired diseases Diseases developed after birth. They are further classified as-
  • 2. a)Communicable diseases b)Non-Communicable diseases Differences between Communicable and Non- Communicable Diseases S.No. Communicable diseases S.No. Non-communicable diseases 1. The diseases which spread from one person to 1. The diseases which are not transmitted f another. person to another. 2. They are caused by pathogens, e.g. malaria, 2. They are caused by deficiency of nutrients, smallpox etc. abnormal proliferation of cells etc. e.g. kwa cancer etc. MODES OF TRANSMISSION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES The diseases are transmitted from the reservoirs of infection to the healthy persons the following ways: 1) Direct transmission: The pathogens are transmitted from an infected person or healthy person directly without an intermediate agent. It occurs in following ways- a)Contact with infected person e.g., small pox and chicken pox. b)Contact with soil e.g., tetanus. 2. Indirect transmission: The pathogens of some diseases are carried through some intermediate agents. It occurs in following ways: a) Air borne diseases. b) By unclean hands and fingers. VIRAL DISEASES INFLUENZA
  • 3. It is commonly known as “Flu” and is highly infectious. It is commonly caused by influenza virus (Myxo virus influenzae). Mode of transmission: through direct contact, sneezing, coughing etc. (air–borne diseases). Symptoms: It affects upper respiratory tract. It starts with fever, headache, sore throat, coughing and pain all over the body with restlessness. Control: Antibiotics should be given to prevent secondary complications like pneumonia and ear infections. No vaccine is available which can give protection against all types of influenza viruses. Prevention: The patient should avoid joining parties or gatherings of people. Handkerchief should be used while sneezing and coughing. JAUNDICE Jaundice is yellowness of sclera of eyes (White part of eyes) and skin. Yellowness is due to excessive deposition of bile pigments in these structures. Jaundice is caused by hepatitis virus. Liver is the most important organ in the body caused its inflammation due to jaundice affects digestion adversely. The types of hepatitis are hepatitis-A, B, C, D, E or G. Modes of transmission: Hepatitis Ais spread mostly by contaminated food and water. Hepatitis B is transmitted by contact with infected body secretions and blood. Symptoms: Fever and loss of appetite. Nausea and vomiting. Yellowness of skin. Dark yellow coloured urine and light-coloured stool after 3 to 10 days.
  • 4. Control: Adequate bed rest. Carbohydrate rich diet should be given to the patient. Consumption of protein and fat should be limited. Interferon injection should be administered on the advice of the doctor. Prevention: Eating hygienic food and drinking disinfected water. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis A vaccine should be taken to prevent the diseases. Use of disposable syringes and blood should be tested before transfusion. Properly clean hands after handling bed and utensils of the patient. RABIES Rabies a fatal viral disease that is transmitted to human beings by bite of rabid dog or cat. A number of wild animals also carry the virus, e.g. Jaundice wolves, foxes, bat, monkeys, rabbit etc. Disease is not expressed after infection up to 1-3 months. Symptoms: Rabies is 100% fatal disease. It is characterized by high fever and pain contraction of muscles of throat and chest. The patient feels restless, has choking feet and finds difficulty in taking even liquid food. He is afraid of water, so called hydrophobia. The virus destroys the brain and spinal cord. So, it causes paralysis and painful death. Prevention: Compulsory immunization of dogs and cats should be done. Pet dogs should be vaccinated with anti-rabies vaccine. Rabid animal should be killed, if it shows excessive salivation and tries seeking isolation. Control: There is no treatment until now. AIDS Aids stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is caused by HIV (Human immune- deficiency virus). It was firstly detected in June 1981 in USA. This virus weakness the human
  • 5. body‟s immunity or self defense mechanism. Hence the aids virus reduces the natural immunity of the human body; therefore, the body saving AIDS becomes prone to many other infections. Modes of transmission: It spreads though sexual contact with an infected person carrying AIDS virus. It spread though the transfusion of blood infected with AIDS virus. It spread though the use of infected needles for injections, blade or razors and other equipment of barbers. The children of AIDS infected mother get this disease from mother‟s blood. Symptoms: The important symptoms are- Severe brain damage which may lead to loss of memory, ability to speak and think. Swollen lymph nodes. Decreased count of blood platelets causing hemorrhage. Sweating at night and weight loss. AIDS patient also become more susceptible to infections of any body. A full blown AIDS patient dies within three years and mortality is 100%. Prevention: No absolutely satisfactory vaccine is yet available. So, we can prevent AIDS only preventive measures like- Use of disposable syringes. Using condoms and adopt clean sex habits. People should be educated about AIDS. Blood test must be done in pregnant woman, blood donor‟s organ donors. Dentists should use sterilized instrument. The common razor at the barber shop should be used. Control: Till today there is no specific therapy against HIV infection. Some medical have been discovered which can suppress AIDS virus.
  • 6. National AIDS control program was started in 1987. World AIDS day: December 1. BACTERIAL DISEASES CHOLERA CHOLERA: It is highly communicable diseases caused by vibrio-cholera it is common during fairs and after floods. Some times it may occur in epidemic form. Modes of transmission: It is transmitted through contaminated food and water flies it is spread rapidly when sanitation is poor. Symptoms: It is characterized by- Rice watery stool, which is generally painless. Rapid loss of large amount of water from the body, which causes dehydrates muscular cramps and weight loss. Repeated effortless vomiting without nausea. Due to excessive loss of water, eye becomes sunken, cheeks hollow subnet temperature etc. Prevention: Use of boiled water and proper cooking of food. The drinking water must disinfect with strong chlorine solution. Underground disposal of human faces. Cholera vaccine should be given during epidemics and fairs. Vaccine immunity for about 6 months. Control: Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)- in which fluid and electrolytes (NaCL- 3.5g , Sodium bicarbonate -2.5g, KCL-1.5g, Glucose- 20.0g, Sucrose-40g in one liter of water) are given to patient orally (through mouth).This solution helps in preventing dehydration. Saline drip may be given intravenously. Use ant cholera drugs.
  • 7. Doctor should be consulted immediately. DIARRHEA DIARRHOE:Diarrheas is a group of infection of the intestinal tract, including food poisoning. The main pathogens are bacteria such as Escherichia coil, Salmonella, Shigella, etc. A protozoan Giardia and certain viruses also can cause similar conditions. Modes of transmission: Contaminated food and water. Contamination through fingers, cloths bed sheets and utensils. Symptoms: Frequent passage of stools with blood and mucus. Abdominalcamps, vomiting leading to dehydration. Due to rapid loss of water (dehydration), eyes appear sunken, cheeks hollow; the inner sides of cheeks appear dry, sudden loss of weight, fever, deep breathing etc. Prevention: Proper personal hygiene and community hygiene. Proper coverage of eatables to prevent contamination. Underground disposal of human faces. Use of boiled water and proper cooking of food. The drinking water must be disinfected with strong chlorine solution. Control: Complete bed rest. Oral rehydration therapy or Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS). Saline drip may be given. Isabgol should be given with curd or water, to provide relief. Pulp of unripe banana along with amount of turmeric powder, salt and lime, also helps in controlling diarrhea.
  • 8. Antibiotics can treat the diseases. Differences between Cholera and Diarrhea S.No. Cholera S.No. Diarrhea 1) It is caused by bacteria Vibrio cholera. 1) It is caused by either bacteria or protozoa or viruses. Some common pathogens are Guardia Escherichia coli. 2) Passage of rice watery stool. 2) Frequent passage of stool with blood and mucus. 3) Vaccine is available which can give 3) Vaccine is not available. immunity of 6 months. TYPHOID TYPHOID: Typhoid is caused by Salmonella typhoid bacteria, commonly found in interterm of man. It is most common communicable diseases. This is common is age group of 1-15 years. Every year about 2.5 million people suffer from typhoid. Modes of transmission: Contaminated food and water and house flies. Symptoms: It is characterized by- Headache and rise in body temperature. Lesions of intestinal mucosa. Diarrhea which becomes hemorrhagic. Rose coloured rash on the upper abdomen. Control: Antibiotics can treat the diseases. Prevention: Underground disposal of human faces. Disinfection of water and proper cooking of food. Typhoral oral vaccines also prevent typhoid. TAB- Vaccine provides immunity for 3 years. Typhoid is diagnosed by widal test.
  • 9. TUBERCULOSIS TUBERCULOSIS: TB was first discovered by Robert Koch (1882).It is caused bacteria My Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It most commonly affects the lungs it may also people live in dingy, congested part of large cities. The bacterium releases a toxin called tablet. Modes of transmission: It can be transmitted directly as well as indirectly. Symptoms: The symptoms of tuberculosis vary depending on the site of diseases in the body. Two specific sites of infection are- a)Lymph gland TB: The main symptom is swelling and tender ness of lymph glands often in the leg, whish may discharge secretions though the skin. b)Pulmonary(Lung) TB: The main symptoms are – Fever Coughing Chest pain and breathlessness Sputum containing blood Loss of weight and weakness. Control: Anti-tubercular therapy- Antibiotics can treat the diseases. Proper rest, diet, rehabilitation and surgery help in controlling diseases. Prevention: Isolation of TB patients. Health education e.g. avoiding indiscriminate spitting, use of handkerchief while coughing and sneezing. BCG vaccine provides immunity. Vigorous public health measures are the best method of prevention. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
  • 10. MALARIA MALARIA: Malaria is more common in tropical and subtropical countries, especially in Africa and Asia. It is estimated that about 300 million people are infected with malaria every year and more then 2 million people die annually due to this diseases. Causes: Malaria is caused by the toxins produced in the human body by the malarial parasite Plasmodium. Presence of malarial parasite can be checked by blood test. Modes of transmission: Plasmodium of transmitted by female Anopheles mosquito. When this mosquito bites man to suck blood, it introduces its saliva containing the malarial parasite into the blood stream of the man. Symptoms:Malaria attack is preceded by headache, nausea and muscular pain. Total period of malarial attack is of 6-10 hour and can be divided into 3 stages: Cold stage- Characterized by chilling and shivering. Hot stage- Characterized by high fever, faster rate of breathing and heart beat, etc. Sweating stage- It is characterized by lowering down of temperature to normal. After the malaria attack, the patient feels weak, exhausted and anemic. The malaria may secondarily cause engagement of lever and spleen. Prevention: Use of insect repellants to prevent mosquito bite. Wire- gauzing of doors, windows, etc. to check the entry of mosquitoes. Killing of adult mosquitoes by spraying insecticides like D.D.T and B.H.C. All the mosquito breeding places should be destroyed or covered. Kerosene oil should be sprayed on ponds and ditches to kill the larva. Sleeping under mosquito nets. Destroying breeding places of mosquitoes. Control: A number of anti-malarial drugs are available. The commonest anti-malarial drug is quinine. Efforts are being medicine for the development of an anti-malarial vaccine. SOME IMPORTANT DATES ABOUT DISEASES: World TB Day- 24 March.
  • 11. National TB control program was started in 1962. The incidence of tetanus in India is about 30-50 persons per one lakh. Bubonic Plague is commonest type of plague. Incidence of Diarrhea diseases is highest in Andhra and Orissa states. Hepatitis is more dangerous then AIDS. Macculoch (1827) proposed the name malaria. Laveran (1880) discovered malarial parasites in the blood of a malarial patient. Ronald Ross (1897) proved that malarial parasite is spread by female Anopheles mosquito. August 20 is called Malaria Day.
  • 12. Malaria - Project Report | Essay Project Report | Essay - MalariaMalaria is one of the major diseases which is caused by Protozoan. Protozoan causes many diseases in human beings. Malaria has been for thousands of years a very serious disease of the tropical and temperate regions. Prevalence of malaria continues to be one of the major health problems of developing countries. It was almost eliminated a few years back with the efforts of WHO and our National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP), but unfortunately it has appeared again. Plasmodium is a genus of Protozoa belonging to subphylum Sporozoa, class Telosporidea, includes causative agent of malaria in man and lower animals. Members of the genus plasmodium are collectively known as Malaria parasite, because they cause a horrible diseases called malaria. History of Malaria History of Malaria - Malaria means - Mala - bad area - air, malaria term was given by "Macculoch" in 1872. Ronalol Ross established mosquito-malaria relationship on Aug. 29, 1897. Since this day is celebrated as Mosquito Day. Malaria - Position in World Malaria Position in World - Malaria more common in developing countries as compared to developed countries. It is generally present in Kenya, Uganda, South- Africa, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Srilanka where the temperature are high. Hypothesis 1. Parasite posses various forms and complete their life cycle through alternative host and Reservoir. 2. Parasite acquire Resistant to pesticides like D.D.T. Evidences There are four species of plasmodium which causes different kinds of human malaria. a) P.Vivax - It causes benign tertian malaria, which attacks every third day i.e. after 48 hours. The fever is mild and seldom fatal. b) P.Ovale - It also causes benign tertian malaria, which recurs every 48 years.
  • 13. c) P.Malaria - It causes quartia malaria which recurs every fourth day i.e. after 72 hours. d) P. Falciparum - It alone is capable of causing three types of malaria, quotidian malaria, which attacks almost daily, malignant tertian malaria but which occurs every 48 hours, but is very severe and often fatal ; and irregular malaria. e) It reserve in some animals in normal condition of animal like, Monkey. f) Resistant of Mosquito against D.D.T. Life Cycle of Plasmodium Vivax It is the causative organism of tertian or benign tertian malaria, which is characterized by 48 hours cycle between the first malarial fever and subsequent recurrence of chill and fever. Life cycle of "Plasmodium Vivax" is being digenetic,it is completed in two hosts. The asexual cycle is passed in man by a process termed schizogony. The sexual cycle is completed in the final hosts or vector, the female Anopheles mosquito, involving gametogony and sporogony. These process results in the formation of infective stage the sporozoites. Vaccine for Malaria Pre manual pat arroyo produced a vaccine against malaria in 1987 but it proved effective upto 60 to 70% cases. Incubation Period of Malaria The incubation period for malaria caused by Plasmodium Vivax is about 10-14 days. Malaria Symptoms Malaria Symptoms - The attack of malaria is preceded by Yawning tiredness, headache and muscular pain. During the fever, the patient feels chilly and shivers and high temperature. After a few hours the body freely and the temperature becomes normal. The cycle is repeated if no medicine is taken. This is also accompanied by enlargement of spleen and liver. Control of Malaria We control the malaria from :
  • 14. 1. Drain off or fill up all ditches, ponds etc. 2. Cover the drains. 3. Clear the sluggish. 4. The adult mosquitoes can also be avoided by removing unnecessary thing around the house.
  • 15. BIOLOGY SYLABUS BIOLOGY Theory Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks: 70 Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks 30 Total Marks : 100 THEORY STRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER 1. There will be one theory paper comprising of 30 questions. All questions will be compulsory. 2. Marks for each question are indicated against it. 3. Q Nos. 1-10 are very short answer type questions carrying 1 mark each. Answer to each question will be in one line or few words only. 4. Q.Nos. 11-18 are short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question will be in 20 to 30 words. 5. Q. No. 19-26 are short answer type questions carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question will be in 40 to 50 words. 6. Q. No. 27to 30 are long answer type questions carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each qustion will be in 80 to 100 words. 7. In Q. No. 27 to 30, there will be 100% internal choice. 8. Distribution of marks to cover different dimensions of question paper will be as under: Learning outcomes Marks Percentage of Marks Knowledge 20 29% Understanding 30 42% Application 20 29% 9. There will be no objective type questions such as 'yes/no', tick/cross', fill in the blanks multiple choice, true/false etc. 10. The question paper should be strictly from the prescribed syllabus based inabove mentioned guidelines.
  • 16. The unit wise distribution of marks will be as follows: Unit - I Sexual Reproduction 12 Marks Unit - II Genetics and Evolution 20 Marks Unit - III Biology and Human Welfare 12 Marks Unit -IV Biotechnology and Its Applications 12 Marks Unit - V Ecology and Environment 14 Marks Unit I : Sexual Reproduction Pollination and fertilization in flowering plants. Development of seeds and fruits. Human reproduction : reproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle, production of gametes, fertilization,implantation, embryo development, pregnancy and parturition. Reproductive health:birth control, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. Unit II : Genetics and Evolution Mendelian inheritance.
  • 17. Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interactionincomplete dominance, co- dominance, complementary genes, multiple alleles). Sex determination in human beings : XX, XY. Linkage and crossing over. Inheritance pattern of haemophilia and blood groups in human beings. DNA: replication, transcription, translation. Gene expression and regulation. Genome and Human Genome Project. DNA fingerprinting. Evolution : Theories and evidences. Unit III Biology and Human Welfare Animal husbandry. Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines.
  • 18. Pathogens and parasites. Plant breeding, tissue culture, food production. Microbes in houshold food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment and energy generation. Cancer and AIDS. Adolescence, drugs and alcohol abuse. Unit IV Biotechnology and Its Applications Recombinant DNA technology. Applications in Health, Agriculture and Industry. Genetically modified (GM) organizms; biosafety issues. Insulin and Bt cotton. Unit V Ecology and Environment Ecosystems components, types and energy flow.
  • 19. Species, population and community. Ecological adaptations. Centers of diversity and conservation of biodiversity, National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries. Environmental issues. PRACTICAL One Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks 30 STRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER Distribution of marks. 1. Two experiments four marks each 4 + 4 Marks 8 Marks 2. Two slide indentification with reasons 2 + 2 Marks 4 Marks 3. Spotting of two animals and two plants. Comment upon their adaptations 8 Marks 4. Investigatory project and Viva based on the project 5 Marks
  • 20. 5. Record and Viva based on the experiments 5 Marks Note : 1. The maximum number of students to be examined by the practical examiner should not be more than 20 students per group. 2. The project report duly signed by the teacher should be kept in record and sent to the board on demand. SYLLABUS List of Experiments : 1. Study of pollen grain on a slide. 2. Collect and study soil from different sites and study them for texture and moisture content. 3. Study the pH and Water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. 4. Collect water from different water bodies around you and study them for pH clarity and presence of any living organisms. 5. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites. 6. Study of plant population density by quadrat method. 7. Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method.
  • 21. 8. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect). 9. Study of pollen germination on a slide. 10. Study and identify stages of gamete development i.e. T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slide. 11. Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slide. 12. Study of T.S. of blastula through permanent slide. 13. Study mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. 14. Study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue,blood groups, widow's peak, colour blindness. 15. Exercise on controlled pollination-Emasculation, tagging and bagging. 16. To identify common diseases causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, ringworm. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause through permanent slides or specimens. 17. Study plants and animals found in xerophyte conditions. Comment upon their adaptation ecosystem. 18. Study plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their adaptation ecosystem. 19. Study analogous and homologous organs in various plants and animals.
  • 22. PHYSICS PHYSICS SYLLABUS (10+2) Theory Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks: 70 Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks 30 Total Marks : 100 THEORY STRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER 1. There will be one Theory Paper comprising of 30 questions. All questions will be compulsory. 2. Q Nos. 1-10 will be of 1 mark, Q.Nos. 11-18 will be of 2 marks each Q. No. 19-26 will be of 3-marks each, Q-Nos. 27 to 30 will be of 5 marks each. 3. In questions No. 27-30 there will be internal choice in all the four questions 4. Distribution of marks over different of the paper will be as follows: Learning Marks Percentage of Marks Outcomes i) Knowledge 20 29% ii) 30 42% Understanding iii) Application 20 29% 5. There will be no question of the type 'Write short note on' or objective type such as yes/no, tick, (x) cross', fill in the blanks, multiple choice, true/false etc. 6. Weightage to units in the question paper can vary by one mark. 7. Use of unprogrammable calculator is allowed. The log tables can also be used. 8. Numerical problems can be et many type of questions but the total weightage willbe in the range of 25% to 30%. CLASS XII (THEORY) One Paper Time : 3 Hours 70 marks Unit No. Title Weightage Unit I Electrostatics 08 Unit II Current Electricity 07 Unit III Magnetic effect of currem& Magnetism 08 Unit IV Electromagnetic induction and Alternating current 08
  • 23. Unit V Electromagnetic Waves 03 Unit VI Optics 14 Unit VII Deal Nature of Matter 04 Unit VIII Atoms and Nuclei 06 Unit IX Electronic Devices 07 Unit X Communication Systems 05 Total : ............................................................................................................70 Unit I: Electrostatics Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electrical field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipolein uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gausss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (Field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in paralle, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor Van de Graaffgenerataor. Unit II: Current Electricity Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metillic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Onm's law, electrical resistance. V-I characteristics (linear and non lineart), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of reastors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Poentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal reistance of a cell.
  • 24. Unit III : Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Concept of magnetic field. Oersted's experiment; Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors, definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a currentloop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil gal galvanometaits current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic depole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets. Unit IV : Electromagnetic induction and Alternating Currents Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Need for displacement current. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedances; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer. Unit V : Electromagnetics waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses. Unit VI: Optics Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses,thin lens formula, lens-maker's formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Waves optics: wave front and Huygens' Principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflectionand refraction using Huygens' principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a
  • 25. single slit, width of central maximum. Desolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and pointed. Unit VII: Dual nature of Matter and Radiation Dual nature ratiation Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations'; Einstein's photoelectic equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglic relation. Davission-Germer experiment. Unit VIII; Atoms & Nuclei Alpha-particle seating experiment; Rutherford's model of atom;Bohr model, energy levels. hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion. Unit IX: Electronic Devices Semiconductors; semiconductor diode-I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode, Zener diode as a voltage regulator, Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor: transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch . Unit X : Communication Systems Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave. (PRACTICALS) ONE PRACTICAL PAPER Time : 3 Hours 30 marks Notes : All experiments are compulsory. The question paper will contain 8 experiments in all, 4 from each section. The examinee will have to mark three experiments from each section and the examiner will allot one experiment from each section. 2. Records of experiments are to be maintained.
  • 26. 3. Records of activities are to be maintained. PRACTICALS Note: Every student will perform 10 experiments 15 from each section and 6 activities (3 from each section) during the academic year. SECTION A Experiments : 1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specifie resistance of its material. 3. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. 4. To compare the emf of two given primary cells using potentiometer. 5. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer. 6. To determine reistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit. 7. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of meno into an ammeter and voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same. 8. To find the frequency of the a.c. mains with a sonometer. Activities 1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. 2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. 3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, as fuse and a power source. 4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit. 5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. 6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor theostar, key ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. SECTION B Experiments 1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and ........the local length. 2. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between I/a and I/v. 3. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lends. 4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 5. To determine angle of minimum deviationfor a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 6. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junctionin forward bias and reverse bias. 7. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse breakdown voltage.
  • 27. 8. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains. Activities 1. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on and L.D.R. 2. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. 3. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor. (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED. (iv) Check whether a given electronic component (e.g. diode, transistor or IC) is in working order. 4. To observe refraction and laterial deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. 5. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids. 6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit. 7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). 8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.
  • 28. MATHS MATHEMATICS SYLLABUS (10+2) GENERAL INSTRUCTION FOR +1 AND +2 STRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER i. All questions are compulsory. ii. Questions number 1 to 12 one of 3 marks each. Questions number 13 to 22 one of 4 marks each. Questions number 23 to 26 one of 6 marks each. iii. There will be no over all choice. There will be internal choices in any two questions of 3 marks each, any two questions of 4 marks and any two questions of 6 marks each (Total of six internal choices). iv. Use of calculator is not permitted. However each your may ask for logarithmic and statistical tables, if required. QUESTIONWISE DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS (XII CLASS) FOR 2008 3 4 6 Total Unit Unit Topic Sub-Topic Marks Marks Marks Marks Total - 6 Relations and Functions Inverse 2 - I Relations and Functions 10 Trigonometric Functions - 1 4 - - 7 1 1 II Algebra Matrices Determinants 13 - - 1 6 Continuity and differentiability 2 1 - 10 Applications of derivatives 1 1 - 7 III Calculus Integrals 2 2 - 14 44 Applications ofintegrals - - 1 6 Differential equations 1 1 - 7 7 IV Vectors and three Vector... 1 1 - 17 dimensional geometry Three dimensional geometry - 1 10 1 V Linear Programming Linear Programming - - 1 6 6 VI Probability Probability 2 2 - 10 10 Total no. of ques. 12 10 4 100 100 Total Marks. 36 40 24 100 100
  • 29. CLASS XII One Paper Time : 3 Hours 100 marks Unit I: Relations and Functions 1. Relations and Functions : Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and on to functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations. 2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions: Defination, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions. Unit II: Algebra 1. Matrices:
  • 30. Concept notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the/zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries). 2. Determinants : Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 (X) 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix. Unit-III: Calculus 1. Continuity and Differentiability: (Periods 18) Continutiy and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions, and their derivative.Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms, Second order derivatives. Rolle's and Lagrange Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations. 2. Applications of Derivatives:
  • 31. (Periods 10) Applications of derivatives: rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents&normals, approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations). 3. Integrals : (Periods 20) Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Intergration of a variaty of functions by subsitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple integrals of the type to be evaluated. Definite intergrals as a limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite intergrals and evaluation of definte integrals.
  • 32. 4. Applications of the Integrals: Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable). 5. Differential Equations : Defination, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type: dy = p(x) y = q(x), where p(x) and q(x) are functions of x. dx Unit -IV : Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry 1. Vectors: Vectors and scalars, maguitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors. Types of vectors (equal,unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors . 2. Three - dimensional Geometry : Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines (ii) two planes. (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane. Unit-V: Linear Programming
  • 33. 1. Linear Programming: Introduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization,different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optional feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constrain:) Unit VI Probability 1. Probability : Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Baye's theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of haphazard variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution. CHEMISTRY CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS (10+2) Theory Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks: 70 Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks 30 Total Marks : 100 THEORY STRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER 1. There will be one Theory Paper comprising of 30 questions. All questions will be compulsory. 2. Q Nos. 1-10 will be of 1 marks, Q.Nos. 11-18 will be of 2 marks each Q. No. 19-26 will be of 3-marks each, Q-Nos. 27 to 30 will be of 5 marks each. 3. In questions No. 27-30 there will be 100% choice. 4. Distribution of approximate percentage over different dimension in the question paper will be as follows: i) Knowledge 30% ii) Understanding 40% iii) Application 30%
  • 34. 5. Numerical problem will be set in any type of question, however the total weightage to numerical problem will be around 20%. 6. There will be no question of the type. "Write short note on", and objective type questions such as "Yes/No", tick ( P) cross (x) fill in blanks, multiple choice," true/false etc. 7. Use of log tables/unprogrammable calculator is allowed. 8. A candidate will be provided with one answer book of 32 pages only. No extra contineous sheet will be provided. Unit wise distribution of marks is as follows: CLASS XII (THEORY) One Paper Time : 3 Hours 70 marks Unit No. ......................................................Title ................................................................................Marks Unit I............................................................ Solid State............................................................................ 4 Unit II............................................................Solutions ...............................................................................5 Unit III ..........................................................Electrochemistry ....................................................................5 Unit IV ..........................................................Chemical kinetics ...................................................................5 Unit V ...........................................................Surface Chemistry ..................................................................4 Unit VI ..........................................................General principles and processes of Isolation of Elements ........3 Unit VII......................................................... p-Block Elements ..................................................................8 Unit VIII .......................................................d-and f-Block Elements ......................................................... 5 Unit IX.......................................................... Coordination Compounds .......................................................3 Unit X ...........................................................Haloalkanes and Haloarenes .................................................. 4 Unit XI .........................................................Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers ...................................................4 Unit XII ........................................................Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids ...............................6 Unit XIII .......................................................Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen ................................4 Unit XIV .......................................................Biomolecules .........................................................................4 Unit XV .........................................................Polymers
  • 35. ...............................................................................3 Unit XVI ........................................................Chemistry in Everyday life ......................................................3 ............................................................................Total : ..............................................................................70 Unit I: Solid State (Periods 12) Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, points defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Unit II: Solutions (Periods 12) Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass. Unit III: Electrochemistry (Periods 14) Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell electrolytie cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
  • 36. Unit IV: Chemical Kinetic (Periods 12) Rate of a reacation (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, intergrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment) Unit V: Surface Chemistry (Periods 8) Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis; homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brounianmovenment, electrophoresia, coagulation; emulsion types of emulsions. Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Periods 8) Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and Iron. Unit VII: p-Block Elements
  • 37. (Periods 14) Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen - preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). Group 16 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen; reparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone, Sulphur - allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur; preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide sulphuric acid: industral process of manofacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). Group 17 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only). Group 18 elements: (General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses. Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements (Periods 14)
  • 38. General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals metalli c character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic propertics, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and propertics of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO 4 . Lanthanoids -electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction. Actionoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states. Unit IX: Coordination Compounds (Periods 12) Coordination compounds - introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems). Unit X: Haloalkanesa and Haloarenes. (Periods 12)
  • 39. Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, natuer of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstitutedcompunds only) Uses and environmental effects of - dichloro methane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT. Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (Periods 12) Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and teritary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, some important compounds - methanol and ethanol. Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
  • 40. Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids (Periods 12) Aldehydes and Ketones: Numenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nuclcophilicaddition,reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses. Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen (Periods 10) Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and teritary amines. Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
  • 41. Unit XIV: Biomolecules (Periods 8) Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and keloses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance. Proteins - Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, teritary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Vitamins - Classification and functions. Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA. Unit XV: Polymers (Periods 8) Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some importance polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
  • 42. Unit XVI: Chemistry in everyday life : (Period 8) 1. Chemicals in medicines - annalgesica, tranquilizers, antisecptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines. 2. Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents. 3. Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action. CLASS XII (PRACTICALS) STRUCTURE OF QUESTIONS PAPER One Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours 30 marks Experiments Volumetric Analysis....................... 10 Marks Mixture Analysis .............................8 Marks Content Based Experiment ..............4 Marks
  • 43. Project ...........................................4 Marks Class record & Viva....................... 4 Marks NOTE :- Brief write up carrying 2 marks (If in the Question paper) question on preparation of crystals (Time for write up 5 minutes). Stepevise distribution of marks of questions on salt analysis. (i) Physical nature .......................1/2 (ii) Dry heating test..................... 1/2 (iii) Flame test ............................1/2 (iv) Charcoal cavity test ..............1/2 (v) dil H 2 SO 4 .............................1
  • 44. (vi) conc. H 2 SO 4 test................ 1/2 (If anion is detected under dil H 2 SO 4 test full credit of 11/2 marks is to be given there and then) Confirmalory test (any two ) 11/2 marks each 3. (vii) Preparation of original solution .............1/2 (viii) Correct group detection .......................1 (ix) Systematic detection of ion .....................1
  • 45. (x) Any two confirmatory tests of cation........ 2 ( 1 marks each) Step wise distribution of marks of questions on volumetric analysis. Full credit of
  • 46. 2 % variation and deduct 1/2 mark for additional 0.1 ml variation. PRACTICALS Practicals Syllabus (Periods 6) A. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol. Lyophelic sol - starch, egg albumin and gum. Lyophobic sol - aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenioussulphide. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying in stabilizing the emulsions of different oils.
  • 47. B. Chemical Kinetics (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. (b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate, KlO 3 and sodium sulphite : (Na 2 SO 3 ) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). C. Thermochemistry (Periods 6) Any one of the following experiments
  • 48. i) Enthalphy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. ii) Enthalphy of neutralization of strong acid (HCl) and strong base (NaOH) iii) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. D. Electrochemistry (Periods 2) Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn 2+ llCU 2+ /Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO 4 orZnSO 4 ) at room temperature. E. Chromatography (Periods 2) i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of R
  • 49. f values. ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having wide difference in R f values to be provided). F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (Periods 4) i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash almum. ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate. G. Preparation of Organic Compounds (Periods 4) Preparation of any two of the following compounds i) Acetanilide ii) Di-benzalaccetone
  • 50. iii) p-Nitroacetanilide. iv) Aniline yellow or 2-Napthol aniline dye. v) Iodoform. H. Test for the functional groups present in organic compounds: (Periods 6) Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. I. Study of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure form and detection of their presence in given food stuffs. (Periods 4) J. Determination of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of : (Periods 8) (i) Oxalic acid. (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate. (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
  • 51. K. Qualitative analysis (Periods 14) Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt. (Note: Insoluble salts excluded) Few Suggested Projects Study of diffusion of a solid into a liquid. Determination of the minimum quantity of manganese dioxide required as a catalyst for the preparation of oxygen gas. Determination of rate of flow of solution and liquids horizontally. Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of soduim carbonate on thera. Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves and reasons for the variation in their tests. Determination of rate of evaporation of different liquids. Study of effect of metal coupling on die corrosion of iron. Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibres. Analysis of fruit and vegetable prices for the content (acids and mineral a present in them). Preparation of rayon threads from various cellulose sources. Study of dyeing fabries under various conditions. Determination of the dosage of bleaching powder required for disipfections of different ..............of water (taken from different sources). Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of riperings. Study of the setting of mixtures of cement with lime, sand of different qualities, rice husk, etc (with respect to time, volume and stremyth). Study of the presence of inseeticide/presicide (nitrogen contining) in vegetables and fruits. Study of the dialysis of different sewage water sample and identification of different ions in rsulting solutions. Study on quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. Preparation of soyabean milk and its comparision with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, taste etc. Study of the effect po Study of digestion of starclity salivary anylase and effect of pH and temperature on it. Compasitive study of the rate of formation on following materials wheat, flour, gram flour, patato juice, carrot juice and or ..........juice. Extraction of essential oils present in Su
  • 52. Study of ............ foods.................................. Note :Any other investigatory project can be performed I which involves about S periods of work with the approval of the teacher.