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Basics of nutrition
by James Kateregga
From previous lecture, we learnt the key
nutrition interventions in among the Infant and
Young Children which include:
• Exclusive breastfeeding of an infant btn birth to
6 months and there after complentary feeding
with continued breastfeeding up to 2 yrs and
beyond
• Counseling on infant and Young child feeding
• Immunization
• Growth monitoring and promotion
• Deworming and Vitamin A supplementation (up
five years)
• Etc
Basics of nutrition
• What are the basic nutrients that we aim at
infant and young children to get whenever we
feed them?
• Identify food nutrients, their sources & roles of
food nutrients in the body
• What happens when an infant and a young
child does not get the required nutrients
Definition of Nutrition
Nutrition
 Supply of food required by the body to keep alive
 Focuses on how diseases, conditions & problems
can be prevented or lessened with a healthy diet
 It is a process of body's nourishment
 Is a science/ practice of consuming & utilizing
foods
Key Nutrition terms
 Food is any substance solid/semi solid/ liquid once
taken into the body, provides energy (‘GO’), promote
growth, development & repair of cells/ tissues
(‘GROW’) & protects the body against infections
(‘GLOW’).
 Food is a product for the body`s nourishment
 Nutrients: A chemical ingredient in a food. Nutrients
are classified as macro and micronutrients
 Macronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively
large quantities
Key Nutrition terms cont’d
 Micronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively
small quantities
 Diet : Your diet is, simply, what you eat. There are
two aspects to your diet: what foods you eat & how
much of them you eat
 A balanced diet is one with a right mix of foods from
different food groups that together contain all the
vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins & fats
 Nutritional status: it’s a state of a person’s health in
terms of nutrients in the body. It can be normal or
poor status
Macro and micronutrients in food
Macronutrients
• Carbohydrates including dietary fiber:
• Proteins
• Lipids (Fats and oils)
• Water
Micronutrients
• Minerals
• Vitamins
Exercise
Group 1
i. Name the common food sources of macro-nutrients
available in your community
ii. List the roles of the macro-nutrients in the body
Group 2
I. Name the common food sources of micronutrients
available in your community
II. List the roles of the micronutrients in the body
Carbohydrates -1
Can be energy providing (sugars & starch)
or non-energy providing (dietary fiber)
Food Sources of sugars & starches
 Cereals & cereal products (Maize, Millet, sorghum, rice)
 Root crops & their products (Potatoes cassava, yams)
 Starchy fruits (Bananas)
 Sugars & sugary foods
Roles
Are the immediate sources of energy by the body
Sugars & starches in form of glucose are among the energy
macronutrients providing energy “GO” This energy is measured
in kilocalories (kcal). One gram of glucose provides 4 kcal.
Carbohydrates -2
Dietary fiber is the part of the plant that your body can't digest.
Food Sources of fiber
• Whole grains
• Beans
• Nuts
• Fruits & vegetables
Roles
• Adds bulk to your diet
• Makes you feel full faster
• Helps you control your weight
• Helps digestion - prevents constipation
I will never take tea again….
What is the Nutritional content of the drink
in this picture?
I WILL NEVER TAKE
MUMMY’S TEA
AGAIN…
Lipids
– Fats are solid at room temperature
– Oils are in liquid
– All give energy
– Are absorbed more slowly than carbohydrates
Food Sources
 Fats commonly animal foods (examples?)
 Oils commonly plant foods (examples?)
Roles of lipids
• Energy macronutrients
• “GO” foods
• 1g = 9kcal
• More energy than carbohydrates give
• But, not immediate source of energy
• Provide warmth
Sources of proteins
Sources of protein
Proteins
Can be plant or animal protein
Sources
Plants sources (examples?)
Animals sources (examples?)
Roles of proteins
 Body building foods
 “GROW” foods
 Form main structural components of cells
 Help produce & maintain tissues & muscles
 Are not immediate sources of energy
 1g = 4 kcal to the body
Water
About 70% of the non-fat mass of the human body is
water
Consequently very important
Sources of water
 Direct consumption of water
 Drinks and foods
Roles
• For digestion
• Transportation & absorption of nutrients
• Cooling of the body
• Removal of waste materials (through sweating,
excretion, breathing etc)
• Approximately 2-3 liters (8 -10 cups) are needed
daily
Minerals
• In the nutrition context ,the term "minerals" simply
means "dietary positively or negatively charged ions“
• Key minerals of concern
- Potassium
- Chloride
- Sodium
- Calcium
- Phosphorous
- Magnesium
- Zinc
- Iron
- Manganese
- Copper
- Iodine
- Selenium
Minerals continued
Sources of minerals
• Intake of a variety of foods & a well balanced diets will in
most cases give necessary minerals
• Minerals are often artificially added to some foods to make up
for potential dietary shortages & subsequent health problems
• i.e. food fortification
• Examples of fortified foods?
Sources of minerals
• Plants & plant products
• Animals & animal products
Roles of minerals
• Essential for human biochemical processes by serving
structural & functional roles, as well as electrolytes
• They are protective foods that are not synthesized by the body
• “GLOW” foods
Iron
Sources of iron
• Red meat, liver, fish, poultry, shellfish Eggs,
legumes, vegetables, fruits
• Iron in food boiled in water is leached and lost
if the water is discarded.
Roles/functions of iron
• Oxygen transportation
• Needed by enzymes
• Absorption of vitamin C
• Energy production
Iodine
Sources of iodine
• Seafood,, seaweed, iodized salt
• NB. Iodine content depends on the soil,
animal feed, etc.
Roles/functions
• Development and proper functioning of the
brain and nervous system
• Important for normal growth and
development,
• Protein synthesis,
• Energy metabolism, and reproduction
Zinc
Sources of zinc
• Animal sources; Meat, liver, fish, poultry, eggs, milk,
yoghurt, seafood including shellfish and oysters
• Plant sources: Cabbage, carrots, spinach, beets, green
peas, legumes, whole grain cereals, peanuts, barley,
pumpkin
Roles/functions of Zinc
• Protects the immune system
• Needed for digestive Enzyme formation
• Wound healing
• Vitamin A metabolism
• Normal development of male organs
• Antioxidant
• Component of insulin
Calcium
Sources of Calcium
• Milk, yoghurt, cheese, green leafy vegetables
such as broccoli, legumes, peas, fish with
bones that are eaten
Roles/functions of calcium
• Strong bones and teeth
• Normal functioning of the heart
• Helps in blood clotting
• Helps maintain normal blood pressure
Fluoride
Sources of fluoride
• Fish and seaweed Bone meal, meat, and dairy
products
• Grains, vegetables, and nuts
Roles/functions of Fluoride
• Protection of bone and dental tissues.
• Protection against tooth decay
• Wound healing
Sodium
Sources of sodium
• Table salt, canned soups
Roles/functions of sodium
• Primary regulator of fluid in the body
• Maintenance of blood Pressure
Potassium
Sources of potassium
• Bananas, avocados, oranges, mangoes,
papayas
• Legumes, spinach, cabbage, carrots,
tomatoes, potatoes, yams
• Milk, meat, chicken, pork, fish
Roles/functions of potassium
• Nervous system functioning
• Muscle contraction
• Maintenance of blood pressure
Vitamins
• Are organic compounds which our bodies cannot
synthesize (produce) enough or any of it
• We have to obtain vitamins from our food
• Are classified by their biological & chemical
activity into water soluble (they can dissolve in
water)
i. 9 water-soluble (8 B group vitamins, vitamin C)
-Water soluble vitamins need to be consumed
more regularly because they are eliminated faster
& are not readily stored
ii. Fat soluble (they can dissolve in fat)
• For humans there are 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, K)
Vitamin A
Sources of Vitamin A
• Ripe mangoes, cantaloupe, apricots peaches,
Pumpkin, carrots, orange fleshed, sweet
potatoes, locally available Vitamin A rich
vegetables leaves, spinach, Nakati, Gobbe,
Malakwang, Boo, Dark green leafy vegetables
including wild ones and locally available
vitamin A rich leaves such as cassava leaves,
amaranth, pumpkin , sweet potatoes
Functions of Vitamin A
• Retinol; Required for normal vision, bone
development, cell differentiation and proper
growth
• β-carotene; maintains epithelial cells and
helps to fight infections
• α-carotene; is an anti-oxidant that protects
cell membrane
Deficiency
• Blindness in children,
• Anaemia, Neural tube defect, and birth
defects
Vitamin D
Basics of nutrition updated.ppt
Basics of nutrition updated.ppt
Basics of nutrition updated.ppt
Basics of nutrition updated.ppt

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Basics of nutrition updated.ppt

  • 1. Basics of nutrition by James Kateregga
  • 2. From previous lecture, we learnt the key nutrition interventions in among the Infant and Young Children which include: • Exclusive breastfeeding of an infant btn birth to 6 months and there after complentary feeding with continued breastfeeding up to 2 yrs and beyond • Counseling on infant and Young child feeding • Immunization • Growth monitoring and promotion • Deworming and Vitamin A supplementation (up five years) • Etc
  • 3. Basics of nutrition • What are the basic nutrients that we aim at infant and young children to get whenever we feed them? • Identify food nutrients, their sources & roles of food nutrients in the body • What happens when an infant and a young child does not get the required nutrients
  • 4. Definition of Nutrition Nutrition  Supply of food required by the body to keep alive  Focuses on how diseases, conditions & problems can be prevented or lessened with a healthy diet  It is a process of body's nourishment  Is a science/ practice of consuming & utilizing foods
  • 5. Key Nutrition terms  Food is any substance solid/semi solid/ liquid once taken into the body, provides energy (‘GO’), promote growth, development & repair of cells/ tissues (‘GROW’) & protects the body against infections (‘GLOW’).  Food is a product for the body`s nourishment  Nutrients: A chemical ingredient in a food. Nutrients are classified as macro and micronutrients  Macronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively large quantities
  • 6. Key Nutrition terms cont’d  Micronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively small quantities  Diet : Your diet is, simply, what you eat. There are two aspects to your diet: what foods you eat & how much of them you eat  A balanced diet is one with a right mix of foods from different food groups that together contain all the vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins & fats  Nutritional status: it’s a state of a person’s health in terms of nutrients in the body. It can be normal or poor status
  • 7. Macro and micronutrients in food Macronutrients • Carbohydrates including dietary fiber: • Proteins • Lipids (Fats and oils) • Water Micronutrients • Minerals • Vitamins
  • 8. Exercise Group 1 i. Name the common food sources of macro-nutrients available in your community ii. List the roles of the macro-nutrients in the body Group 2 I. Name the common food sources of micronutrients available in your community II. List the roles of the micronutrients in the body
  • 9. Carbohydrates -1 Can be energy providing (sugars & starch) or non-energy providing (dietary fiber) Food Sources of sugars & starches  Cereals & cereal products (Maize, Millet, sorghum, rice)  Root crops & their products (Potatoes cassava, yams)  Starchy fruits (Bananas)  Sugars & sugary foods Roles Are the immediate sources of energy by the body Sugars & starches in form of glucose are among the energy macronutrients providing energy “GO” This energy is measured in kilocalories (kcal). One gram of glucose provides 4 kcal.
  • 10. Carbohydrates -2 Dietary fiber is the part of the plant that your body can't digest. Food Sources of fiber • Whole grains • Beans • Nuts • Fruits & vegetables Roles • Adds bulk to your diet • Makes you feel full faster • Helps you control your weight • Helps digestion - prevents constipation
  • 11. I will never take tea again…. What is the Nutritional content of the drink in this picture? I WILL NEVER TAKE MUMMY’S TEA AGAIN…
  • 12. Lipids – Fats are solid at room temperature – Oils are in liquid – All give energy – Are absorbed more slowly than carbohydrates Food Sources  Fats commonly animal foods (examples?)  Oils commonly plant foods (examples?) Roles of lipids • Energy macronutrients • “GO” foods • 1g = 9kcal • More energy than carbohydrates give • But, not immediate source of energy • Provide warmth
  • 15. Proteins Can be plant or animal protein Sources Plants sources (examples?) Animals sources (examples?) Roles of proteins  Body building foods  “GROW” foods  Form main structural components of cells  Help produce & maintain tissues & muscles  Are not immediate sources of energy  1g = 4 kcal to the body
  • 16. Water About 70% of the non-fat mass of the human body is water Consequently very important Sources of water  Direct consumption of water  Drinks and foods Roles • For digestion • Transportation & absorption of nutrients • Cooling of the body • Removal of waste materials (through sweating, excretion, breathing etc) • Approximately 2-3 liters (8 -10 cups) are needed daily
  • 17. Minerals • In the nutrition context ,the term "minerals" simply means "dietary positively or negatively charged ions“ • Key minerals of concern - Potassium - Chloride - Sodium - Calcium - Phosphorous - Magnesium - Zinc - Iron - Manganese - Copper - Iodine - Selenium
  • 18. Minerals continued Sources of minerals • Intake of a variety of foods & a well balanced diets will in most cases give necessary minerals • Minerals are often artificially added to some foods to make up for potential dietary shortages & subsequent health problems • i.e. food fortification • Examples of fortified foods? Sources of minerals • Plants & plant products • Animals & animal products Roles of minerals • Essential for human biochemical processes by serving structural & functional roles, as well as electrolytes • They are protective foods that are not synthesized by the body • “GLOW” foods
  • 19. Iron Sources of iron • Red meat, liver, fish, poultry, shellfish Eggs, legumes, vegetables, fruits • Iron in food boiled in water is leached and lost if the water is discarded. Roles/functions of iron • Oxygen transportation • Needed by enzymes • Absorption of vitamin C • Energy production
  • 20. Iodine Sources of iodine • Seafood,, seaweed, iodized salt • NB. Iodine content depends on the soil, animal feed, etc. Roles/functions • Development and proper functioning of the brain and nervous system • Important for normal growth and development, • Protein synthesis, • Energy metabolism, and reproduction
  • 21. Zinc Sources of zinc • Animal sources; Meat, liver, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, yoghurt, seafood including shellfish and oysters • Plant sources: Cabbage, carrots, spinach, beets, green peas, legumes, whole grain cereals, peanuts, barley, pumpkin Roles/functions of Zinc • Protects the immune system • Needed for digestive Enzyme formation • Wound healing • Vitamin A metabolism • Normal development of male organs • Antioxidant • Component of insulin
  • 22. Calcium Sources of Calcium • Milk, yoghurt, cheese, green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, legumes, peas, fish with bones that are eaten Roles/functions of calcium • Strong bones and teeth • Normal functioning of the heart • Helps in blood clotting • Helps maintain normal blood pressure
  • 23. Fluoride Sources of fluoride • Fish and seaweed Bone meal, meat, and dairy products • Grains, vegetables, and nuts Roles/functions of Fluoride • Protection of bone and dental tissues. • Protection against tooth decay • Wound healing
  • 24. Sodium Sources of sodium • Table salt, canned soups Roles/functions of sodium • Primary regulator of fluid in the body • Maintenance of blood Pressure
  • 25. Potassium Sources of potassium • Bananas, avocados, oranges, mangoes, papayas • Legumes, spinach, cabbage, carrots, tomatoes, potatoes, yams • Milk, meat, chicken, pork, fish Roles/functions of potassium • Nervous system functioning • Muscle contraction • Maintenance of blood pressure
  • 26. Vitamins • Are organic compounds which our bodies cannot synthesize (produce) enough or any of it • We have to obtain vitamins from our food • Are classified by their biological & chemical activity into water soluble (they can dissolve in water) i. 9 water-soluble (8 B group vitamins, vitamin C) -Water soluble vitamins need to be consumed more regularly because they are eliminated faster & are not readily stored ii. Fat soluble (they can dissolve in fat) • For humans there are 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, K)
  • 27. Vitamin A Sources of Vitamin A • Ripe mangoes, cantaloupe, apricots peaches, Pumpkin, carrots, orange fleshed, sweet potatoes, locally available Vitamin A rich vegetables leaves, spinach, Nakati, Gobbe, Malakwang, Boo, Dark green leafy vegetables including wild ones and locally available vitamin A rich leaves such as cassava leaves, amaranth, pumpkin , sweet potatoes
  • 28. Functions of Vitamin A • Retinol; Required for normal vision, bone development, cell differentiation and proper growth • β-carotene; maintains epithelial cells and helps to fight infections • α-carotene; is an anti-oxidant that protects cell membrane Deficiency • Blindness in children, • Anaemia, Neural tube defect, and birth defects

Editor's Notes

  1. NGAGWE?- ALCOHOL