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My Little PanCake Factory
The use of the Physical layer of the ArchiMate® and its integration with the
Business and Information System layers
Christine DESSUS
August 2020
2
Table of Materials
1. ArchiMate® - Reminders...........................................................................................................................................3
2. ArchiMate® and Enterprise Architecture - Documentary Sources ...........................................................................4
3. Modeling solution.....................................................................................................................................................5
4. Context of use of the ArchiMate Physical Layer Modeling®.....................................................................................5
5. Very quick and succinct presentation of the use case..............................................................................................6
6. What is “material”?...................................................................................................................................................7
7. Process, Processus or Procedure? ............................................................................................................................8
Process..........................................................................................................................................................................8
Processus ......................................................................................................................................................................8
Procedure......................................................................................................................................................................9
8. Value Chains or Value Streams ...............................................................................................................................10
9. Introducing the Physical Layer of ArchiMate®........................................................................................................12
10. « Material ».........................................................................................................................................................13
11. « Facility » ...........................................................................................................................................................14
12. « Technology Service & Equipments »................................................................................................................15
13. « Distribution Network » ....................................................................................................................................16
14. Physical layer model to automate the value stream “Receiving and storage of raw materials (Material)” ......17
15. Integrating industrial process with business activities and information system................................................18
Business and information system...............................................................................................................................18
Physical layer: Making and shipping pancakes to the customer ................................................................................19
Integrated view of physical layers (material transformation) and business (information transformation) ..............20
16. Where to find the original copy of this document?............................................................................................21
3
1. ArchiMate® - Reminders
https://www.opengroup.org/archimate-forum/archimate-overview
ArchiMate® is a standard of TOG, The Open Group company. ArchiMate® is an independent and open Enterprise
Architecture language, supported by various modeling solutions.
ArchiMate® allows to model holistic visions of any company: its strategy, the organization of its entities, the chain of
activities that make up its value streams and processes, its information system and the technologies implemented
whether in an IT or industrial framework.
We are convinced that it is impossible today to govern and transform a business effectively without having these big
pictures. The goal will certainly not be to map 100% of the company but 100% of the useful elements.
Business architecture is more about the company's objectives, strategy and operating structure than the
technologies implemented. Nevertheless, we need to ensure that the technologies and organizations implemented
are truly of great use in achieving business objectives and strategy.
ArchiMate® allows you to operationally implement a layered model of your company with a strategic vision (value
streams, objectives, motivational elements), business, information system and data, technology.
ArchiMate® also offers a physical layer to model automated manufacturing processes, in connection with processes
and the information system.
The objective of this document is to propose a simple implementation of the modeling of the physical layer,
currently little (see never) used and to show you its interest.
4
2. ArchiMate® and Enterprise Architecture - Documentary Sources
Several sites in French or English will allow you to progress with ArchiMate® and Enterprise Architecture.
Sites WEB :
- https://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/archimate3-doc/
- https://en.calameo.com/accounts/5800170
- https://fr.slideshare.net/chdessus
- https://www.urbanisation-si.com/
- https://ea.rna.nl/the-book-edition-iii/
- https://ww.hosiaisluoma.fi
- https://www.urba-ea.org/
Books to read:
Title Authors
Urbanisme des SI et gouvernance Club-Urba
Le projet d’urbanisation du SI Cas concret d’architecture d’entreprise Christophe Longépé
Togaf, ArchiMate, UML et BPMN Comment construire des modèles d’architecture
d’entreprise
Philippe Defray
Gilbert Raymond
Togaf en pratique Modèles d’architecture d’entreprise Philippe Defray
Gilbert Raymond
TOGAF 9.2 Certified Study Guide The Open Group (Rachel Harrison)
Togaf 9.2 Specification
http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch/index.html
The Open Group
ArchiMate 3.0.1 Specification
http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/archimate3-doc/
The Open Group
ArchiMate 3.0 Study guide The Open Group
EA3 an introduction to Enterprise Architecture Third Edition Scott A. Bernard
Enterprise Architecture at Work Fourth Edition Mark Lankhorst
5
3. Modeling solution
We use the free open source solution www.archimatetool.com in version 4.7 to write this document.
The definitions proposed on the next page are those of the "Hints" tab of each modeling object used, with the ARCHI
solution.
4. Context of use of the ArchiMate Physical Layer Modeling®
I've been using the physical layer of ArchiMate® for several years now.
With this article, I would like to propose a reading grid and above all a case of use.
This layer allows us to model the flow of matter as well as the transformation of matter in an industrial context.
This leads to several questions:
- What is “material” in the Archimate ® framework?
- Who or what transforms materials?
- What are the differences between process, business process and procedure?
- Which links with value chains?
I regularly work in industrial companies that manufacture chemicals, electricity, military equipment, design machines
that are subsets of other more complex machines, develop medical devices or ticketing machines, produce tires, and
even seeds.
Thus, all kinds of companies transform unitary elements (or material) into semi-finished and finished products.
Moreover, robots, chatbot, connected objects invade our daily lives at work and in everyday life. These small
intelligent objects, data sensors connected to the information system are modeled with the physical layer. To do so,
we use the "Equipment" object.
6
5. Very quick and succinct presentation of the use case
This layer is composed of very few elements usable in many situations, I thought of a fictitious company that will
serve us as a use case to present the ArchiMate® modeling of the physical layer.
So, we're going to work in an industrial pancake factory. The company is called "My Little Pancake Factory"
My Little Pancake Factory is a family-owned company that carefully selects its raw materials from local producers
with an organic label. It is young and operates according to a Lean approach. Where possible, it implements
automation of all repetitive tasks while guaranteeing products of high environmental and taste quality.
Its manufacturing, quality control and storage processes are automated, allowing to increase production quantity
according to expectancies while ensuring opportunities in local shops in the region as well as some major retailers.
That's enough for us to start this story.
Let's do it!
7
6. What is “material”?
In the Archimate®model, the material is everything that is processed by the company to produce a product or semi-
finished products that are either assembled or sold as it is.
In the Archimate® framework:
- The material could be mechanical or electronic parts assembled to form a vehicle engine.
- The material could be a unitary metallic component or a metal plate used to machining mechanical parts.
- The material could be a set of electronic, metallic, plastic, rare earths and gold components that once assembled
will become a mobile phone.
- The material could be all the ingredients of a recipe used in the preparation of ready-to-eat meals.
- In the context of energy and hydropower, we could imagine that water is a "material" as well as the electricity
generated and delivered to the electricity grid.
With ArchiMate®, the MATERIAL object will serve us to model any element entering into a composition,
preparation, assembly but also the semi-finished products, manufactured and the final products marketed.
You could almost extend the use of “material” to a service, but other modeling elements are already doing it very
well, such as "Product," Business Service” and "Business Process" that are listed in the business layer. Services mainly
transform information, data. Physical layer transforms concrete materials.
Thus, in a bank, financial products are modelled with a "Product". Valuation elements of the banking product are
either sub-products constituting the financial product marketed or some Business Object describing it.
8
7. Process, Processus or Procedure?
In English, everything is a process. Whether you are transforming material or information, describing how tasks are
carried out, everything is a process.
In French, we use 3 words with a very specific meaning and purpose.
Process
The process is usually technical. It helps to explain how matter or concrete elements (material) are transformed and
with which tools.
For a long time, processes were outside the scope of the information system's responsibilities. Processes were and
are still often under the responsibility of the industrial management, its engineering and design office or methods
office.
The process therefore describes the sequence of technical stages of manufacturing, the tools used and their
software solutions as well as processed materials, semi-finished goods manufactured and stored before being
transformed into finished goods.
For a long time, the process was disconnected from the information system. The machines were purely mechanical.
The data, quantities manufactured, characteristics were collected by the humans in charge of monitoring these
machines and then re-entered (or not) in an information system.
For a long time, the best system of interconnecting a machine with the information system was therefore the...
paper or hard cards indicating batch numbers, quantities manufactured, place of temporary storage...
In recent years, the machines have been connected to computer and are now computer-controlled, integrated
through physical or logical sensors into ERP-type management solutions. The machines are therefore monitored by
softwares that control and collect data.
Machines are often able to exchange data in both directions with the information system. In industrial plants, it is
the advent of the MES (Manufacturing Execution System).
Computer science drives machinery and industrial production. Humans set up the machines, the process and
monitor the smooth running of operations.
Processus
The processus describes how information is conveyed and transformed within the organization.
The processus is purely organizational. It describes a chain of activities, who carries out the activities. The activities
(what) are carried out either by humans or by automats.
The processus describes the transformation of information by the organisation.
The processus never describes the “how”. It remains with a very high level of abstraction.
In the 1990s up to 2005, many companies started to model their whole processus, with very fine levels of details.
The reason for this was generally the injunctions of quality and methods boards thinking they could control all
human activities with processus schemes that most of the time proved to be not respected during ISO9001 audits or
worse regulatory audits. The devil is in the details.
Many companies have given up on continuing this modelling work because of the costs involved and the lack of
evidence of efficiency.
The best way to ensure that a process is respected is to automate it. Sorry, this is true every day: the human is
creative and therefore unreliable when it comes to repetitive gestures.
9
The author of this article does not advocate a fine modeling of 100% of your activities but encourages you to adopt a
“leopard” and “stove hoses” strategy with a targeted modeling scope that aims at the digitization of processus and
probably processes. A future article will describe this approach.
Procedure
The procedure is a chain of activities that transform information or matter (material). It describes how the operator
carries out its activities, the tools used.
A procedure is the action of proceeding or the method to perform certain things. It is a succession of imposed tasks to
meet unquestionable imperatives.
Not to be confused with the processus (which is indicative) : Processus ensures the results of exit based on input data.
https://lesdefinitions.fr/procedure
10
8. Value Chains or Value Streams
Driven by the Business Architecture approach, this concept is quite recent. The Lean methods have already used this
concept but with a different purpose.
The purpose of Business Architecture's activities is to provide « A blueprint of the enterprise that provides a common
understanding of the organization and is used to align strategic objectives and tactical demands», source: Business
Architecture Guild
Business architecture offers multidimensional and holistic business views (overall views): capabilities, end-to-end
value provision, concepts and information, organizational structure; as well as the relationships between these
business views with strategies, products, policies, initiatives, stakeholders.
« Business architecture represents holistic, multidimensional business views of: capabilities, end to end value delivery,
information, and organizational structure; and the relationships among these business views and strategies,
products, policies, initiatives, and stakeholders», source: Business Architecture Guild
The Value Chain or Value Stream is therefore also a chain of activities but with a strategic vision, as considered by a
steering committee to make decisions and not as operators will perform it. The value stream describes how an
organization generates value for an external stakeholder (client) or an internal stakeholder.
“My Little Pancake Factory” implements the following value chains:
- The search for new recipes and their industrialization
- Environmentally friendly purchasing and manufacturing
- Effective brand promotion as well as sales with several channels: local markets, supermarkets and local stores,
major retailers, online sales
- Close customer follow-up both to ensure its satisfaction and to collecting receivables from clients.
For the rest of the document, we will only be interested in activities that manipulate or transform matter
(surrounded by orange). We will model the "Purshasing and Manufacturing" value chain as well as distribution
activities.
[Modeling MyLittlePancake Factory's value chains on the next page]
11
12
9. Introducing the Physical Layer of ArchiMate®
This layer is composed of 4 elements
- Equipment ➔ both large industrial equipment, robots or data sensors commonly known as "connected
objects." Equipments are generally the tools used to transform material
- Facilities ➔ Buildings, storage facilities, handling, manufacturing
- Distribution network➔ Mode of transport, transport of materials or products,it could be some trucks,
trains, planes, delivery drones or automatic conveyors. In the case of conveyors, they can also be modeled as
equipments.
- Material ➔ any element that is part of a product's composition as well as the final product itself.
-
13
10. « Material »
In this model, the Material object is used:
- To model all the elements that enter in the composition of a pancake:
beer, eggs, milk, sunflower oil, water, wheat flour
- To model intermediate mixtures (semi-finished products)
in the preparation of the finished product: dough, cooked
pancakes, cooked pancakes with filling, packed pancakes,
packed pancakes with labels, filling
- As well as other items used to pack pancakes: white
labels, labels with the distributor name, plastic or
cardboard packaging…
All unitary elements and subsets used to manufacture an aircraft engine could be described as Material.
14
11. « Facility »
The Facility object allows you to model buildings, places of activity, storerooms, production workshops.
To manufacture, store and distribute pancakes, we are using use the following facilities: the factory is located in
Villefranche S/Saône (north of Lyon, France), cooking workshops, quality control labs, packing and labeling
workshops, storerooms (temporary or definitive), clients premises, local distributors premises.
15
12. « Technology Service & Equipments »
The “Equipment” object is used to describe all equipments used in manufacturing process.
We can describe the different types of equipment used. The relationships between equipments are "Specialization”.
For each piece of equipment, we indicate its use. To do that, we use the "Technology Service" object from The
Technology Layer of ArchiMate®
The relationship between equipment and service is "Realization" or "Serving".
16
13. « Distribution Network »
The Distribution Network object describes the equipment or means used to perform a movement between two
stages of handling or distribution of products, raw materials, semi-finished goods or finished products.
This object can be used to describe several types of equipment:
- Any air or ground transport such as truck, train, plane, delivery drone.
- An automatic conveyor that moves materials or semi-finished goods between two workshops. Get the image of
the food train that moves from table to table in some Asian restaurants or the automatic conveyor that take
your luggage during flight registration.
- Any automat used in warehouses to store products such as AGV or Automatic Guided Vehicle.
- Forklift trucks (FENWICK brand for example)
The Distribution Network objects used:
17
14. Physical layer model to automate the value stream “Receiving
and storage of raw materials (Material)”
For this industrial process, we choose to show both human activities represented by a "Business Process" and
automated activities carried out by a robot (Equipment)
This industrial process is supported by the company's information system. The following map shows the interactions
between the industrial process, the equipment used to manipulate the material and the information system.
« Application Components »
« Application Functions »
Application solutions and their
functions implemented
18
15. Integrating industrial process with business activities and
information system
The physical layer fits perfectly with the business layers described by business processes or business functions.
The aim may be to automate and integrate activities currently carried out by human operators with other activities
already mechanized.
Business and information system
19
Physical layer: Making and shipping pancakes to the customer
20
Integrated view of physical layers (material transformation) and business (information transformation)
21
16. Where to find the original copy of this document?
https://www.calameo.com/read/0058001704cb8b2ea901b
https://fr.slideshare.net/chdessus/cartographie-archimate-31-chane-de-valeur-
et-couche-physique

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ARCHIMATE Physical layer "My Little PanCake Factory"

  • 1. 1 My Little PanCake Factory The use of the Physical layer of the ArchiMate® and its integration with the Business and Information System layers Christine DESSUS August 2020
  • 2. 2 Table of Materials 1. ArchiMate® - Reminders...........................................................................................................................................3 2. ArchiMate® and Enterprise Architecture - Documentary Sources ...........................................................................4 3. Modeling solution.....................................................................................................................................................5 4. Context of use of the ArchiMate Physical Layer Modeling®.....................................................................................5 5. Very quick and succinct presentation of the use case..............................................................................................6 6. What is “material”?...................................................................................................................................................7 7. Process, Processus or Procedure? ............................................................................................................................8 Process..........................................................................................................................................................................8 Processus ......................................................................................................................................................................8 Procedure......................................................................................................................................................................9 8. Value Chains or Value Streams ...............................................................................................................................10 9. Introducing the Physical Layer of ArchiMate®........................................................................................................12 10. « Material ».........................................................................................................................................................13 11. « Facility » ...........................................................................................................................................................14 12. « Technology Service & Equipments »................................................................................................................15 13. « Distribution Network » ....................................................................................................................................16 14. Physical layer model to automate the value stream “Receiving and storage of raw materials (Material)” ......17 15. Integrating industrial process with business activities and information system................................................18 Business and information system...............................................................................................................................18 Physical layer: Making and shipping pancakes to the customer ................................................................................19 Integrated view of physical layers (material transformation) and business (information transformation) ..............20 16. Where to find the original copy of this document?............................................................................................21
  • 3. 3 1. ArchiMate® - Reminders https://www.opengroup.org/archimate-forum/archimate-overview ArchiMate® is a standard of TOG, The Open Group company. ArchiMate® is an independent and open Enterprise Architecture language, supported by various modeling solutions. ArchiMate® allows to model holistic visions of any company: its strategy, the organization of its entities, the chain of activities that make up its value streams and processes, its information system and the technologies implemented whether in an IT or industrial framework. We are convinced that it is impossible today to govern and transform a business effectively without having these big pictures. The goal will certainly not be to map 100% of the company but 100% of the useful elements. Business architecture is more about the company's objectives, strategy and operating structure than the technologies implemented. Nevertheless, we need to ensure that the technologies and organizations implemented are truly of great use in achieving business objectives and strategy. ArchiMate® allows you to operationally implement a layered model of your company with a strategic vision (value streams, objectives, motivational elements), business, information system and data, technology. ArchiMate® also offers a physical layer to model automated manufacturing processes, in connection with processes and the information system. The objective of this document is to propose a simple implementation of the modeling of the physical layer, currently little (see never) used and to show you its interest.
  • 4. 4 2. ArchiMate® and Enterprise Architecture - Documentary Sources Several sites in French or English will allow you to progress with ArchiMate® and Enterprise Architecture. Sites WEB : - https://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/archimate3-doc/ - https://en.calameo.com/accounts/5800170 - https://fr.slideshare.net/chdessus - https://www.urbanisation-si.com/ - https://ea.rna.nl/the-book-edition-iii/ - https://ww.hosiaisluoma.fi - https://www.urba-ea.org/ Books to read: Title Authors Urbanisme des SI et gouvernance Club-Urba Le projet d’urbanisation du SI Cas concret d’architecture d’entreprise Christophe Longépé Togaf, ArchiMate, UML et BPMN Comment construire des modèles d’architecture d’entreprise Philippe Defray Gilbert Raymond Togaf en pratique Modèles d’architecture d’entreprise Philippe Defray Gilbert Raymond TOGAF 9.2 Certified Study Guide The Open Group (Rachel Harrison) Togaf 9.2 Specification http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch/index.html The Open Group ArchiMate 3.0.1 Specification http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/archimate3-doc/ The Open Group ArchiMate 3.0 Study guide The Open Group EA3 an introduction to Enterprise Architecture Third Edition Scott A. Bernard Enterprise Architecture at Work Fourth Edition Mark Lankhorst
  • 5. 5 3. Modeling solution We use the free open source solution www.archimatetool.com in version 4.7 to write this document. The definitions proposed on the next page are those of the "Hints" tab of each modeling object used, with the ARCHI solution. 4. Context of use of the ArchiMate Physical Layer Modeling® I've been using the physical layer of ArchiMate® for several years now. With this article, I would like to propose a reading grid and above all a case of use. This layer allows us to model the flow of matter as well as the transformation of matter in an industrial context. This leads to several questions: - What is “material” in the Archimate ® framework? - Who or what transforms materials? - What are the differences between process, business process and procedure? - Which links with value chains? I regularly work in industrial companies that manufacture chemicals, electricity, military equipment, design machines that are subsets of other more complex machines, develop medical devices or ticketing machines, produce tires, and even seeds. Thus, all kinds of companies transform unitary elements (or material) into semi-finished and finished products. Moreover, robots, chatbot, connected objects invade our daily lives at work and in everyday life. These small intelligent objects, data sensors connected to the information system are modeled with the physical layer. To do so, we use the "Equipment" object.
  • 6. 6 5. Very quick and succinct presentation of the use case This layer is composed of very few elements usable in many situations, I thought of a fictitious company that will serve us as a use case to present the ArchiMate® modeling of the physical layer. So, we're going to work in an industrial pancake factory. The company is called "My Little Pancake Factory" My Little Pancake Factory is a family-owned company that carefully selects its raw materials from local producers with an organic label. It is young and operates according to a Lean approach. Where possible, it implements automation of all repetitive tasks while guaranteeing products of high environmental and taste quality. Its manufacturing, quality control and storage processes are automated, allowing to increase production quantity according to expectancies while ensuring opportunities in local shops in the region as well as some major retailers. That's enough for us to start this story. Let's do it!
  • 7. 7 6. What is “material”? In the Archimate®model, the material is everything that is processed by the company to produce a product or semi- finished products that are either assembled or sold as it is. In the Archimate® framework: - The material could be mechanical or electronic parts assembled to form a vehicle engine. - The material could be a unitary metallic component or a metal plate used to machining mechanical parts. - The material could be a set of electronic, metallic, plastic, rare earths and gold components that once assembled will become a mobile phone. - The material could be all the ingredients of a recipe used in the preparation of ready-to-eat meals. - In the context of energy and hydropower, we could imagine that water is a "material" as well as the electricity generated and delivered to the electricity grid. With ArchiMate®, the MATERIAL object will serve us to model any element entering into a composition, preparation, assembly but also the semi-finished products, manufactured and the final products marketed. You could almost extend the use of “material” to a service, but other modeling elements are already doing it very well, such as "Product," Business Service” and "Business Process" that are listed in the business layer. Services mainly transform information, data. Physical layer transforms concrete materials. Thus, in a bank, financial products are modelled with a "Product". Valuation elements of the banking product are either sub-products constituting the financial product marketed or some Business Object describing it.
  • 8. 8 7. Process, Processus or Procedure? In English, everything is a process. Whether you are transforming material or information, describing how tasks are carried out, everything is a process. In French, we use 3 words with a very specific meaning and purpose. Process The process is usually technical. It helps to explain how matter or concrete elements (material) are transformed and with which tools. For a long time, processes were outside the scope of the information system's responsibilities. Processes were and are still often under the responsibility of the industrial management, its engineering and design office or methods office. The process therefore describes the sequence of technical stages of manufacturing, the tools used and their software solutions as well as processed materials, semi-finished goods manufactured and stored before being transformed into finished goods. For a long time, the process was disconnected from the information system. The machines were purely mechanical. The data, quantities manufactured, characteristics were collected by the humans in charge of monitoring these machines and then re-entered (or not) in an information system. For a long time, the best system of interconnecting a machine with the information system was therefore the... paper or hard cards indicating batch numbers, quantities manufactured, place of temporary storage... In recent years, the machines have been connected to computer and are now computer-controlled, integrated through physical or logical sensors into ERP-type management solutions. The machines are therefore monitored by softwares that control and collect data. Machines are often able to exchange data in both directions with the information system. In industrial plants, it is the advent of the MES (Manufacturing Execution System). Computer science drives machinery and industrial production. Humans set up the machines, the process and monitor the smooth running of operations. Processus The processus describes how information is conveyed and transformed within the organization. The processus is purely organizational. It describes a chain of activities, who carries out the activities. The activities (what) are carried out either by humans or by automats. The processus describes the transformation of information by the organisation. The processus never describes the “how”. It remains with a very high level of abstraction. In the 1990s up to 2005, many companies started to model their whole processus, with very fine levels of details. The reason for this was generally the injunctions of quality and methods boards thinking they could control all human activities with processus schemes that most of the time proved to be not respected during ISO9001 audits or worse regulatory audits. The devil is in the details. Many companies have given up on continuing this modelling work because of the costs involved and the lack of evidence of efficiency. The best way to ensure that a process is respected is to automate it. Sorry, this is true every day: the human is creative and therefore unreliable when it comes to repetitive gestures.
  • 9. 9 The author of this article does not advocate a fine modeling of 100% of your activities but encourages you to adopt a “leopard” and “stove hoses” strategy with a targeted modeling scope that aims at the digitization of processus and probably processes. A future article will describe this approach. Procedure The procedure is a chain of activities that transform information or matter (material). It describes how the operator carries out its activities, the tools used. A procedure is the action of proceeding or the method to perform certain things. It is a succession of imposed tasks to meet unquestionable imperatives. Not to be confused with the processus (which is indicative) : Processus ensures the results of exit based on input data. https://lesdefinitions.fr/procedure
  • 10. 10 8. Value Chains or Value Streams Driven by the Business Architecture approach, this concept is quite recent. The Lean methods have already used this concept but with a different purpose. The purpose of Business Architecture's activities is to provide « A blueprint of the enterprise that provides a common understanding of the organization and is used to align strategic objectives and tactical demands», source: Business Architecture Guild Business architecture offers multidimensional and holistic business views (overall views): capabilities, end-to-end value provision, concepts and information, organizational structure; as well as the relationships between these business views with strategies, products, policies, initiatives, stakeholders. « Business architecture represents holistic, multidimensional business views of: capabilities, end to end value delivery, information, and organizational structure; and the relationships among these business views and strategies, products, policies, initiatives, and stakeholders», source: Business Architecture Guild The Value Chain or Value Stream is therefore also a chain of activities but with a strategic vision, as considered by a steering committee to make decisions and not as operators will perform it. The value stream describes how an organization generates value for an external stakeholder (client) or an internal stakeholder. “My Little Pancake Factory” implements the following value chains: - The search for new recipes and their industrialization - Environmentally friendly purchasing and manufacturing - Effective brand promotion as well as sales with several channels: local markets, supermarkets and local stores, major retailers, online sales - Close customer follow-up both to ensure its satisfaction and to collecting receivables from clients. For the rest of the document, we will only be interested in activities that manipulate or transform matter (surrounded by orange). We will model the "Purshasing and Manufacturing" value chain as well as distribution activities. [Modeling MyLittlePancake Factory's value chains on the next page]
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12 9. Introducing the Physical Layer of ArchiMate® This layer is composed of 4 elements - Equipment ➔ both large industrial equipment, robots or data sensors commonly known as "connected objects." Equipments are generally the tools used to transform material - Facilities ➔ Buildings, storage facilities, handling, manufacturing - Distribution network➔ Mode of transport, transport of materials or products,it could be some trucks, trains, planes, delivery drones or automatic conveyors. In the case of conveyors, they can also be modeled as equipments. - Material ➔ any element that is part of a product's composition as well as the final product itself. -
  • 13. 13 10. « Material » In this model, the Material object is used: - To model all the elements that enter in the composition of a pancake: beer, eggs, milk, sunflower oil, water, wheat flour - To model intermediate mixtures (semi-finished products) in the preparation of the finished product: dough, cooked pancakes, cooked pancakes with filling, packed pancakes, packed pancakes with labels, filling - As well as other items used to pack pancakes: white labels, labels with the distributor name, plastic or cardboard packaging… All unitary elements and subsets used to manufacture an aircraft engine could be described as Material.
  • 14. 14 11. « Facility » The Facility object allows you to model buildings, places of activity, storerooms, production workshops. To manufacture, store and distribute pancakes, we are using use the following facilities: the factory is located in Villefranche S/Saône (north of Lyon, France), cooking workshops, quality control labs, packing and labeling workshops, storerooms (temporary or definitive), clients premises, local distributors premises.
  • 15. 15 12. « Technology Service & Equipments » The “Equipment” object is used to describe all equipments used in manufacturing process. We can describe the different types of equipment used. The relationships between equipments are "Specialization”. For each piece of equipment, we indicate its use. To do that, we use the "Technology Service" object from The Technology Layer of ArchiMate® The relationship between equipment and service is "Realization" or "Serving".
  • 16. 16 13. « Distribution Network » The Distribution Network object describes the equipment or means used to perform a movement between two stages of handling or distribution of products, raw materials, semi-finished goods or finished products. This object can be used to describe several types of equipment: - Any air or ground transport such as truck, train, plane, delivery drone. - An automatic conveyor that moves materials or semi-finished goods between two workshops. Get the image of the food train that moves from table to table in some Asian restaurants or the automatic conveyor that take your luggage during flight registration. - Any automat used in warehouses to store products such as AGV or Automatic Guided Vehicle. - Forklift trucks (FENWICK brand for example) The Distribution Network objects used:
  • 17. 17 14. Physical layer model to automate the value stream “Receiving and storage of raw materials (Material)” For this industrial process, we choose to show both human activities represented by a "Business Process" and automated activities carried out by a robot (Equipment) This industrial process is supported by the company's information system. The following map shows the interactions between the industrial process, the equipment used to manipulate the material and the information system. « Application Components » « Application Functions » Application solutions and their functions implemented
  • 18. 18 15. Integrating industrial process with business activities and information system The physical layer fits perfectly with the business layers described by business processes or business functions. The aim may be to automate and integrate activities currently carried out by human operators with other activities already mechanized. Business and information system
  • 19. 19 Physical layer: Making and shipping pancakes to the customer
  • 20. 20 Integrated view of physical layers (material transformation) and business (information transformation)
  • 21. 21 16. Where to find the original copy of this document? https://www.calameo.com/read/0058001704cb8b2ea901b https://fr.slideshare.net/chdessus/cartographie-archimate-31-chane-de-valeur- et-couche-physique