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Competensis®
Christine Dessus
chdessus@competensis.com
+336 31 09 73 54
www.competensis.com
COMPETENSIS® est une marque déposée. Ce document n’est pas libre de droit et ne doit pas être utilisé sans le consentement écrit de son ou ses auteurs.
ArchiMateTechnology Layer
Christine DESSUS – November 2021
Sources
• https://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/archimate3-doc/
• www.archimatetool.com
• https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/
Thank you Benoit for our collaboration and the hard work we did between 2019 and 2021 to deploy ArchiMate.
COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
3
Reminder
Hardware
Servers,
computers, virtual
or physical
Network
components
New advanced
devices: chatbot,
IOT, robot, any
piece of
automation
Softwares
Components
software
Databases,
middleware
Data Files
Human
resources
Company leaders
Designers
Support teams
Users
Customers
Supplyers,
providers, partners
Roles &
responsabilities
Organisations
Entreprise(s)
Departments,
groups
Job description
Culture
Operating
procedures
Environment
Regulations
•RGPD in France
•Any other suitable for
your business
Any political,
social, economic
factror
Competitors
activities
Information
&
Data
Informations
received from the
outside
Informations
transformed
Informations sent
to the outside
Digital data
Documents: paper
or digital (any
representation)
Information system
Human aspects Environnement Informations &
Data
Technology aspects
5 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Open-group standards
Togaf®
ArchiMate®
6 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
EnterpriseArchitecture
• Any collection of organizations that has a common set of goals and/or a single ‘bottom
line’.
• Define your scope of modeling with LOCATIONS, BUSINESS FUNCTIONS, BUSINESS
PROCESSES and CAPABILITIES
7 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Define the scope
• Always define the scope of modeling:
✓ Breadth: the enterprise as a whole or a
specific set of organizations, business
processes, business functions, capabilities…
✓ Architecture domains/Layers:Technology,
Application, Data, Business
✓ Depth: level of details expected
8
https://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch/chap04.html
COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Define the scope
• A model is a simple (or simplified) representation of reality to answer a question, a
need
• A single model cannot answer all the questions, all the needs
• Before to start modeling with ArchiMate, always defined the expectations:
✓ What are the technological services used, internal, external?
✓ Are the technological services already modeled by someone else? How can I reuse it?
Duplicate the existing model (generally not a very good idea) or make a link to the
existing model?
✓ Connect-the-dots with the Application layer and Capability Maps
✓ How can I support Devops teams with technology provisioning, integration,
implementation
✓ What are the specific needs: authentication, integration, security, DRP, any others ?
9 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Architect
Role & Responsibility
Open discussion: Clarify Roles & Responsibilities
•Architect
OR
•Designer
Sometimes
•Both
Architect:
▪ Ensure a systemic vision (all technologies) and focus on a
global, holistic vision
▪ Focus on integration with other layers: applications, business
building blocks
▪ Focus also on integration of all technical building blocks
▪ Is a generalist in charge of providing the global vision
Designer:
▪ Focus on solutions provided
▪ Focus on requirements
▪ Could be a building block « specialist » to deploy subsystems
▪ Has a project mindset, focus on realizations
11 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Open discussion: Clarify Roles & Responsibilities
•Architect
OR
•Designer
Sometimes
•Both
Architect:
▪ Ensure a systemic vision (all technologies) and focus on a
global, holistic vision
▪ Focus on integration with other layers: applications, business
building blocks
▪ Focus also on integration of the technical building blocks
▪ Generally is not a specialist, is here to provide a more global
vision
Designer:
▪ Focus on solutions provided
▪ Focus on requirements
▪ Could be a building block « specialist » to deploy subsystems
▪ Has more a project mindset
Is able to provide ArchiMate high level
maps/viewes for all/some layers (Atlas)
Is able to provide ArchiMate solution
modeling for the technologies
promoted/proposed
12 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Open discussion: Clarify Roles & Responsibilities
•Architect
OR
•Designer
Sometimes
•Both
Architect:
▪ Ensure a systemic vision (all technologies) and focus on a
global, holistic vision
▪ Focus on integration with other layers: applications, business
building blocks
▪ Focus also on integration of the technical building blocks
▪ Generally is not a specialist, is here to provide a more global
vision
Designer:
▪ Focus on solutions provided
▪ Focus on requirements
▪ Could be a building block « specialist » to deploy subsystems
▪ Has more a project mindset
Ensure that global maps/viewes shared by
everyone are always up-to-date
During the project phases, ensure that solutions
are modeled according to architectural decisions.
During operational maintenance phases, ensure
that maps/viewes are always up-to-date
13 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Technical
Architect First
Role:
Ensures the
vertical systemic
vision
• The architect is a "generalist" who has a global vision of the
technical stacks on which systems and subsystems are based,
• He/She understands the challenges and risks
• He/She must be aware of all the layers on which the system is
built:
✓Low infrastructure layers, networks, integration
middleware, application servers, etc.,
✓Right down to a detailed knowledge of the functionalities
and the way they have been developed.
• He/She must understand the requirements from the business
and applications layers (WHY):
✓Upper architecture layers : business processes (and business
functions), contribution to capabilities, application layers
• He/She has a global knowledge of all projects having an
impact on the system/subsystem configuration
15 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/
Architecture Principles
and Architecture
Decisions
Architecture Principles
• A principle is a rule that has to be followed
• A code of conduct for a specific system or behaviour
• Architects and Designers should accept these rules
or principles as the fundamental elements to build
systems and make decisions
• Technology Maps/Viewes should reflect the
acceptance of these rules
• Do you have a set of explicitly defined Principles ?
• Examples in your context ?
In many companies, principles are tacit.
Valid in a team but not in another one
Use of habits, oral knowledge
Lead to variation in decisions and
integration discrepencies
Use ArchiMate to model Principles
17 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Architecture Decisions
• A decision is a choice that you make about something
• A decision is the result of deciding:
✓After a design process that shows the various open solutions that meet the Architecture
Principles
• Decisions are always justified by a Principle
• Could be good to document decisions with a SWOT analysis (example)
• Use ArchiMate to model at least the final decision
✓Decision process can remain in PPT documents but… Do not forget to provide a URL link to
the decision process documents
18 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Architecture Decisions
• Subject Area: Driver
• (explaining the) Issue: Assessment
• Architecture Decision: Goal
• Assumption: Constraint
• Justification (Rationale): Principle
• Derived Requirements: Requirements
https://forum.archimatetool.com/index.php?topic=668.0
19 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Architecture Decisions
• Do you have an explicitly and shared Decision Process with a final validation
meeting?
✓Could be the objective of routine “Architects Review Meeting”
• Examples in your context ?
20 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Layers integration
Layers Integration
• Key to perform impact analysis
✓What-if an important business process or organization
change occurs? What impact on applications and technology
layer?
✓What-if a technology obsolescence change process occurs?
What impact on business activities?
• Key to define the system and subsystems parts
22 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Recommendation:
EachArchiMate view shows
the relationship with the
“upper” and/or “lower”
layer.
Layers Integration
• Each layer has the responsibility to link with at least one other layer
• Each ArchiMate view should show these relationships
23 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Layer Linked to
Business Application
Capability
Application Business
ITTechnology
Capability
ITTechnology Application
Capability
Strategy/Capability Business
Application
ITTechnology
Layers Integration | Examples of most common relationships
24 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
• Business layer WITH Application layer
Layers Integration | Examples of most common relationships
25 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
• Application layer WITH Technology layer
Layers Integration | Examples of most common relationships
26 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
• 3 layers integration
✓Please, keep it simple
✓Do not overload diagrams with all detailed
information
Complex integration of Architecture Layers
27 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
EXEMPLE
Complex integration of Architecture Layers
28 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Make or Buy:
- Brewing beer
- Purchase & logistics
Serving beer
Brewing beer equipment
Purchase application
Manufacturing & production system
EXEMPLE
Complex integration of Architecture Layers
28 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
EXEMPLE
RELATIONS (Reminder)
• Composition
• Aggregation
• Realization
• Assignment
• Serving
• Access
• Influence
• Triggering
• Flows
• And
• Or
• Specialization
• Association
Structural Dependency Dynamic Connectors Other
30
A connection between a source and target building blocks
COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Technology Building
Blocks
ArchiMate® 3.1
Aspects
Core layers
32 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Technology building blocks
•Used to:
✓Describe the IT technical infrastructure & software architecture
✓Describe the physical architecture
✓Understand how technology is deployed
33 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
2 layers of
technology
PhysicalTechnology
ITTechnology
34 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Technology building blocks
•Focus is on
35 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Recommendations for external services
•Describe connectors and usage of external services
•Describe how external services are integrated with the
internal architectures
•Do not make detailes technical descriptions of « external »
services delivered by external platforms and external.
•Never describe how external services are built and maintained
by the providers.
36 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/
Recommendations
•Make simple simple simple simple simple models
• Example:
✓It is useless to describe the very low technical layers of aVM
(virtualization) or Kafka messages.
• Lower technical levels will change according to strategy or
obsolescence management or new requirements
✓Very low level layers should be only in CMDB database
✓Provide URL links with the CMDB to get the lower technical details.
37 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/
Technology building
blocks
Most used building blocks
NODE
• Category: Active Structure element
• A computer resource on which Devices, Software Elements and Artifacts are
deployed
• Nodes are used to model application platforms
39 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
DEVICE
• Category: Active Structure element
• A physical IT resource upon which system software and artifacts may be stored or
deployed for execution
• Examples:
✓A virtual server or a “on-premice” server
✓File Server, Application Server, Router, Mainframe, Desktop or Laptop PC…
DEVICE is a
specialization of
NODE
40 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
• Category:Active Structure element
• A software program or software environment, that contributes to the execution of processes, which
may use stored data (artifacts).
• A specialization of a Node that is used to model the software environment in whichArtifacts run.
• Usually, System Software is combined with a Device representing the hardware environment to
form a general Node.
• Examples:Operating System, MiddleWare,Antivirus software, any purchased software, DBMS
software, ORACLE System Software, Message Queuing, J2EE Application Server
SYSTEM
SOFTWARE is a
specialization of
NODE
41 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
ARTIFACT
• Category: Passive Structure
• A piece of data that is used or produced by deployment and operation of an IT
software.
• A tangible element in the IT world.
• Used to model source files, executables, scripts, database tables, messages,
documents, specifications, and model files.
COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
42
ARTIFACT
• Pattern usage
COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
43
ARTIFACT
• Integration with other layers
COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
44
COMMUNICATION NETWORK
• Category:Active Structure element
• A set of structural elements or behaviour that
connects computer systems or electronic
components for the transmission, routing,
reception of data, voice or video.
• Network detailed infrastructure is rarely
represented, except in specific cases where you
need to show that technical building blocks are
hosted in a specific network area
✓Use the communication network to indicate this
specific network area: front end subnet, back
end, private DMZ ...
Prefered modeling rule
45 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
TECHNOLOGY SERVICE
• Category: Behavior
• A service is an explicitly exposed behavior.
• A very abstracted building block
• Disregard its internal functioning
• This is a functionality exposed to the
environment.
• Generally, internal services are provided by an
active structure element
✓3 possible relationsAssigned, Realize or Serve
• Examples: MQ, load-balancing, firewalling,
authentication, mailing, file transfer,
enterprise service bus, extract-transform-
load, scheduling…
46 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Serve relations
between
Technology
Services and an
Application
Component
47
Source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/
“Serve” relations
between
Technology
Services and
System Softwares
41
Source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/
48
ARTIFACT
• Category: Passive Structure
• An element of data used or produced by an Active Element (system software, device or node).
• An Artifact represents a tangible element.
• Used to model source files, executables, scripts, database tables, messages, documents,
specifications, kafka topics, jar file, widget, plug-in….Any file, any document
• Most used relationship are “Accessed by” or “Assigned to”
49 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
LOCATION
• Category: Composite
• A conceptual or physical place or position where building
blocks are located (e.g., structure elements) or
performed (e.g., behaviour elements).
• Very often used to describe hosting places
50 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
GROUPING
• Category: Composite
• The Grouping element aggregates or composes
building blocks that belong together based on some
common characteristic.
• An Aggregation or Composition relationship is used
to link the Grouping element to the grouped
building blocks.
• Example: Aggregate two Processes and a Business
Object that together realize a rervice, define a
subsystem composition.
51 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Insight CMDB Correspondence
Insight CMDB ArchiMate
Business Service ?Technology Service
?? Source code, executable No representation in EA tool
?Artifact
Application (Package) System Software
Application (bundle of business
functionalities)
Application Component
Database Artifact
Host Node or Device (according to granularity)
See examples provided
Operating software System Software (OS)
Network Interface ? Network
Device (network card, switch) No representation in EA tool
52 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Technology building
blocks
Building blocks used in specific
circumstances
Building Blocks used in specific circonstances
• Path / Active Structure
✓link between two or more Nodes, through which these nodes can exchange
data, energy or material
• Technology Interface / Active Structure
✓A point of access where technology services offered by a Node can be
accessed.
✓Sspecifies how the technology services of a Node can be accessed by other
Nodes. ATechnology Interface exposes aTechnology Service to the
environment
• Technology Function / Behaviour
✓A collection of technology behaviour that can be performed by a Node.
✓Describes the internal behaviour of a Node; for the user of a Node that
performs aTechnology Function, this function is invisible.
✓If its behaviour is exposed externally, this is done through one or more
Technology Services.
✓ATechnology Function abstracts from the way it is implemented.
54 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Building Blocks used in specific circonstances
• Technology process / Behavior
✓A sequence of technology behaviours that achieves a specific result.
✓Describes internal behaviour of a Node. If its behaviour is exposed
externally, this is done through one or moreTechnology Services. A
Technology Process abstracts from the way it is implemented.
• Technology Event / Behavior
✓A technology state change.
✓Technology Functions and other technology behaviour may be triggered or
interrupted by aTechnology Event.
✓Technology Functions may raise events that trigger other infrastructure
behaviour.
✓An event is instantaneous: it does not have duration.
✓Events may originate from the environment of the organization, but also
internal events may occur generated by, for example, other devices within
the organization.
55 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
Building Blocks used in specific circonstances
• Technology Collaboration/Active Structure
✓An aggregate of two or more technology internal active structure
elements that work together to perform collective technology
behavior
• Technology Interaction/ Behaviour
✓Forget it
✓Prefer the use of Technology Service or Technology Function
55 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
MERCI !

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ArchiMate technology layer - Simplify the models

  • 1. Competensis® Christine Dessus chdessus@competensis.com +336 31 09 73 54 www.competensis.com COMPETENSIS® est une marque déposée. Ce document n’est pas libre de droit et ne doit pas être utilisé sans le consentement écrit de son ou ses auteurs.
  • 3. Sources • https://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/archimate3-doc/ • www.archimatetool.com • https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/ Thank you Benoit for our collaboration and the hard work we did between 2019 and 2021 to deploy ArchiMate. COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer 3
  • 5. Hardware Servers, computers, virtual or physical Network components New advanced devices: chatbot, IOT, robot, any piece of automation Softwares Components software Databases, middleware Data Files Human resources Company leaders Designers Support teams Users Customers Supplyers, providers, partners Roles & responsabilities Organisations Entreprise(s) Departments, groups Job description Culture Operating procedures Environment Regulations •RGPD in France •Any other suitable for your business Any political, social, economic factror Competitors activities Information & Data Informations received from the outside Informations transformed Informations sent to the outside Digital data Documents: paper or digital (any representation) Information system Human aspects Environnement Informations & Data Technology aspects 5 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 7. EnterpriseArchitecture • Any collection of organizations that has a common set of goals and/or a single ‘bottom line’. • Define your scope of modeling with LOCATIONS, BUSINESS FUNCTIONS, BUSINESS PROCESSES and CAPABILITIES 7 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 8. Define the scope • Always define the scope of modeling: ✓ Breadth: the enterprise as a whole or a specific set of organizations, business processes, business functions, capabilities… ✓ Architecture domains/Layers:Technology, Application, Data, Business ✓ Depth: level of details expected 8 https://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch/chap04.html COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 9. Define the scope • A model is a simple (or simplified) representation of reality to answer a question, a need • A single model cannot answer all the questions, all the needs • Before to start modeling with ArchiMate, always defined the expectations: ✓ What are the technological services used, internal, external? ✓ Are the technological services already modeled by someone else? How can I reuse it? Duplicate the existing model (generally not a very good idea) or make a link to the existing model? ✓ Connect-the-dots with the Application layer and Capability Maps ✓ How can I support Devops teams with technology provisioning, integration, implementation ✓ What are the specific needs: authentication, integration, security, DRP, any others ? 9 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 11. Open discussion: Clarify Roles & Responsibilities •Architect OR •Designer Sometimes •Both Architect: ▪ Ensure a systemic vision (all technologies) and focus on a global, holistic vision ▪ Focus on integration with other layers: applications, business building blocks ▪ Focus also on integration of all technical building blocks ▪ Is a generalist in charge of providing the global vision Designer: ▪ Focus on solutions provided ▪ Focus on requirements ▪ Could be a building block « specialist » to deploy subsystems ▪ Has a project mindset, focus on realizations 11 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 12. Open discussion: Clarify Roles & Responsibilities •Architect OR •Designer Sometimes •Both Architect: ▪ Ensure a systemic vision (all technologies) and focus on a global, holistic vision ▪ Focus on integration with other layers: applications, business building blocks ▪ Focus also on integration of the technical building blocks ▪ Generally is not a specialist, is here to provide a more global vision Designer: ▪ Focus on solutions provided ▪ Focus on requirements ▪ Could be a building block « specialist » to deploy subsystems ▪ Has more a project mindset Is able to provide ArchiMate high level maps/viewes for all/some layers (Atlas) Is able to provide ArchiMate solution modeling for the technologies promoted/proposed 12 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 13. Open discussion: Clarify Roles & Responsibilities •Architect OR •Designer Sometimes •Both Architect: ▪ Ensure a systemic vision (all technologies) and focus on a global, holistic vision ▪ Focus on integration with other layers: applications, business building blocks ▪ Focus also on integration of the technical building blocks ▪ Generally is not a specialist, is here to provide a more global vision Designer: ▪ Focus on solutions provided ▪ Focus on requirements ▪ Could be a building block « specialist » to deploy subsystems ▪ Has more a project mindset Ensure that global maps/viewes shared by everyone are always up-to-date During the project phases, ensure that solutions are modeled according to architectural decisions. During operational maintenance phases, ensure that maps/viewes are always up-to-date 13 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 14. Technical Architect First Role: Ensures the vertical systemic vision • The architect is a "generalist" who has a global vision of the technical stacks on which systems and subsystems are based, • He/She understands the challenges and risks • He/She must be aware of all the layers on which the system is built: ✓Low infrastructure layers, networks, integration middleware, application servers, etc., ✓Right down to a detailed knowledge of the functionalities and the way they have been developed. • He/She must understand the requirements from the business and applications layers (WHY): ✓Upper architecture layers : business processes (and business functions), contribution to capabilities, application layers • He/She has a global knowledge of all projects having an impact on the system/subsystem configuration 15 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer Source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/
  • 16. Architecture Principles • A principle is a rule that has to be followed • A code of conduct for a specific system or behaviour • Architects and Designers should accept these rules or principles as the fundamental elements to build systems and make decisions • Technology Maps/Viewes should reflect the acceptance of these rules • Do you have a set of explicitly defined Principles ? • Examples in your context ? In many companies, principles are tacit. Valid in a team but not in another one Use of habits, oral knowledge Lead to variation in decisions and integration discrepencies Use ArchiMate to model Principles 17 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 17. Architecture Decisions • A decision is a choice that you make about something • A decision is the result of deciding: ✓After a design process that shows the various open solutions that meet the Architecture Principles • Decisions are always justified by a Principle • Could be good to document decisions with a SWOT analysis (example) • Use ArchiMate to model at least the final decision ✓Decision process can remain in PPT documents but… Do not forget to provide a URL link to the decision process documents 18 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 18. Architecture Decisions • Subject Area: Driver • (explaining the) Issue: Assessment • Architecture Decision: Goal • Assumption: Constraint • Justification (Rationale): Principle • Derived Requirements: Requirements https://forum.archimatetool.com/index.php?topic=668.0 19 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 19. Architecture Decisions • Do you have an explicitly and shared Decision Process with a final validation meeting? ✓Could be the objective of routine “Architects Review Meeting” • Examples in your context ? 20 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 21. Layers Integration • Key to perform impact analysis ✓What-if an important business process or organization change occurs? What impact on applications and technology layer? ✓What-if a technology obsolescence change process occurs? What impact on business activities? • Key to define the system and subsystems parts 22 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer Recommendation: EachArchiMate view shows the relationship with the “upper” and/or “lower” layer.
  • 22. Layers Integration • Each layer has the responsibility to link with at least one other layer • Each ArchiMate view should show these relationships 23 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer Layer Linked to Business Application Capability Application Business ITTechnology Capability ITTechnology Application Capability Strategy/Capability Business Application ITTechnology
  • 23. Layers Integration | Examples of most common relationships 24 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer • Business layer WITH Application layer
  • 24. Layers Integration | Examples of most common relationships 25 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer • Application layer WITH Technology layer
  • 25. Layers Integration | Examples of most common relationships 26 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer • 3 layers integration ✓Please, keep it simple ✓Do not overload diagrams with all detailed information
  • 26. Complex integration of Architecture Layers 27 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer EXEMPLE
  • 27. Complex integration of Architecture Layers 28 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer Make or Buy: - Brewing beer - Purchase & logistics Serving beer Brewing beer equipment Purchase application Manufacturing & production system EXEMPLE
  • 28. Complex integration of Architecture Layers 28 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer EXEMPLE
  • 29. RELATIONS (Reminder) • Composition • Aggregation • Realization • Assignment • Serving • Access • Influence • Triggering • Flows • And • Or • Specialization • Association Structural Dependency Dynamic Connectors Other 30 A connection between a source and target building blocks COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 31. ArchiMate® 3.1 Aspects Core layers 32 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 32. Technology building blocks •Used to: ✓Describe the IT technical infrastructure & software architecture ✓Describe the physical architecture ✓Understand how technology is deployed 33 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 33. 2 layers of technology PhysicalTechnology ITTechnology 34 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 34. Technology building blocks •Focus is on 35 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 35. Recommendations for external services •Describe connectors and usage of external services •Describe how external services are integrated with the internal architectures •Do not make detailes technical descriptions of « external » services delivered by external platforms and external. •Never describe how external services are built and maintained by the providers. 36 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer Source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/
  • 36. Recommendations •Make simple simple simple simple simple models • Example: ✓It is useless to describe the very low technical layers of aVM (virtualization) or Kafka messages. • Lower technical levels will change according to strategy or obsolescence management or new requirements ✓Very low level layers should be only in CMDB database ✓Provide URL links with the CMDB to get the lower technical details. 37 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer Source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/
  • 38. NODE • Category: Active Structure element • A computer resource on which Devices, Software Elements and Artifacts are deployed • Nodes are used to model application platforms 39 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 39. DEVICE • Category: Active Structure element • A physical IT resource upon which system software and artifacts may be stored or deployed for execution • Examples: ✓A virtual server or a “on-premice” server ✓File Server, Application Server, Router, Mainframe, Desktop or Laptop PC… DEVICE is a specialization of NODE 40 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 40. SYSTEM SOFTWARE • Category:Active Structure element • A software program or software environment, that contributes to the execution of processes, which may use stored data (artifacts). • A specialization of a Node that is used to model the software environment in whichArtifacts run. • Usually, System Software is combined with a Device representing the hardware environment to form a general Node. • Examples:Operating System, MiddleWare,Antivirus software, any purchased software, DBMS software, ORACLE System Software, Message Queuing, J2EE Application Server SYSTEM SOFTWARE is a specialization of NODE 41 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 41. ARTIFACT • Category: Passive Structure • A piece of data that is used or produced by deployment and operation of an IT software. • A tangible element in the IT world. • Used to model source files, executables, scripts, database tables, messages, documents, specifications, and model files. COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer 42
  • 42. ARTIFACT • Pattern usage COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer 43
  • 43. ARTIFACT • Integration with other layers COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer 44
  • 44. COMMUNICATION NETWORK • Category:Active Structure element • A set of structural elements or behaviour that connects computer systems or electronic components for the transmission, routing, reception of data, voice or video. • Network detailed infrastructure is rarely represented, except in specific cases where you need to show that technical building blocks are hosted in a specific network area ✓Use the communication network to indicate this specific network area: front end subnet, back end, private DMZ ... Prefered modeling rule 45 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 45. TECHNOLOGY SERVICE • Category: Behavior • A service is an explicitly exposed behavior. • A very abstracted building block • Disregard its internal functioning • This is a functionality exposed to the environment. • Generally, internal services are provided by an active structure element ✓3 possible relationsAssigned, Realize or Serve • Examples: MQ, load-balancing, firewalling, authentication, mailing, file transfer, enterprise service bus, extract-transform- load, scheduling… 46 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 46. Serve relations between Technology Services and an Application Component 47 Source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/
  • 47. “Serve” relations between Technology Services and System Softwares 41 Source: https://www.linkedin.com/in/benoit-arsenne-5b2297133/ 48
  • 48. ARTIFACT • Category: Passive Structure • An element of data used or produced by an Active Element (system software, device or node). • An Artifact represents a tangible element. • Used to model source files, executables, scripts, database tables, messages, documents, specifications, kafka topics, jar file, widget, plug-in….Any file, any document • Most used relationship are “Accessed by” or “Assigned to” 49 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 49. LOCATION • Category: Composite • A conceptual or physical place or position where building blocks are located (e.g., structure elements) or performed (e.g., behaviour elements). • Very often used to describe hosting places 50 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 50. GROUPING • Category: Composite • The Grouping element aggregates or composes building blocks that belong together based on some common characteristic. • An Aggregation or Composition relationship is used to link the Grouping element to the grouped building blocks. • Example: Aggregate two Processes and a Business Object that together realize a rervice, define a subsystem composition. 51 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 51. Insight CMDB Correspondence Insight CMDB ArchiMate Business Service ?Technology Service ?? Source code, executable No representation in EA tool ?Artifact Application (Package) System Software Application (bundle of business functionalities) Application Component Database Artifact Host Node or Device (according to granularity) See examples provided Operating software System Software (OS) Network Interface ? Network Device (network card, switch) No representation in EA tool 52 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 52. Technology building blocks Building blocks used in specific circumstances
  • 53. Building Blocks used in specific circonstances • Path / Active Structure ✓link between two or more Nodes, through which these nodes can exchange data, energy or material • Technology Interface / Active Structure ✓A point of access where technology services offered by a Node can be accessed. ✓Sspecifies how the technology services of a Node can be accessed by other Nodes. ATechnology Interface exposes aTechnology Service to the environment • Technology Function / Behaviour ✓A collection of technology behaviour that can be performed by a Node. ✓Describes the internal behaviour of a Node; for the user of a Node that performs aTechnology Function, this function is invisible. ✓If its behaviour is exposed externally, this is done through one or more Technology Services. ✓ATechnology Function abstracts from the way it is implemented. 54 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 54. Building Blocks used in specific circonstances • Technology process / Behavior ✓A sequence of technology behaviours that achieves a specific result. ✓Describes internal behaviour of a Node. If its behaviour is exposed externally, this is done through one or moreTechnology Services. A Technology Process abstracts from the way it is implemented. • Technology Event / Behavior ✓A technology state change. ✓Technology Functions and other technology behaviour may be triggered or interrupted by aTechnology Event. ✓Technology Functions may raise events that trigger other infrastructure behaviour. ✓An event is instantaneous: it does not have duration. ✓Events may originate from the environment of the organization, but also internal events may occur generated by, for example, other devices within the organization. 55 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer
  • 55. Building Blocks used in specific circonstances • Technology Collaboration/Active Structure ✓An aggregate of two or more technology internal active structure elements that work together to perform collective technology behavior • Technology Interaction/ Behaviour ✓Forget it ✓Prefer the use of Technology Service or Technology Function 55 COMPETENSIS - ArchiMate Technical Layer